Lauxaniidae

The Lauxaniidae are a family of acalyptrate flies. They generally are small flies (length 7 mm or less) with large compound eyes that often are brightly coloured in life, sometimes with characteristic horizontal stripes, such as in Cestrotus species. Many species have variegated patterns on their wings, but in contrast they generally do not have variegated bodies, except for genera such as Cestrotus, whose camouflage mimics lichens or the texture of granitic rocks.

Some 1800 species of Lauxaniidae have been described and they comprise some 126 genera. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution, most of the species occurring in tropical regions of Asia and the Americas; relatively few species occur in Afrotropical regions, and Lauxaniid species diversity declines strongly towards the more temperate regions; for example fewer than 200 European species have been described. Most species inhabit forests, where the adults usually are found sitting on leaves of the understory. They are far less common in open country, such as grassland habitats.[2]

WillistonLauxaniidae315
Morphological details of Lauxaniidae
Lauxaniidae
Homoneura sp02
Homoneura sp.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Family: Lauxaniidae
Macquart, 1835
Subfamilies
Synonyms

Sapromyzidae

Lauxaniidae Cestrotus species 2012 03 05 3589s
Cestrotus species, showing camouflage suited to lichens on rocks

Description

For terms, see Morphology of Diptera
Lauxaniidae are small flies (2–7 mm in length). They are often rather plump, dull, or partly lustrous flies. The body colour varies from yellow to brown or black, or with a combination of these colours. The head is variable in shape, the face projecting or retreating, convex, flat or concave, usually without oral vibrissae (sometimes poorly developed, occasionally strong bristles near the vibrissal angle). The postvertical bristles converge (in rare cases parallel). The frons is wide, with two pairs of frontal bristles, the upper pair of which is always reclinate, the lower pair sometimes decussate. Interfrontal bristles are absent. The ocellar bristles are present or minute. The antennae are variable and the arista is plumose, pubescent to bare. The thorax has bristles, at least behind the suture. The scutellum is usually bare except for the marginal bristles. Propleural bristles are present or absent and one or two sternopleural bristles are seen. Tibiae all have a preapical bristle. The wings are marked or unmarked (in a number of species with spots along the veins). The wing venation is complete and the costa is continuous. The subcosta is entire and ends in the costa. The second basal and anal cells are short and the apical cell usually widely open. The abdomen is oval, rarely elongated.

Biology

The larvae are mostly saprophagous, feeding in leaf litter, soil, bird nests, etc. Larvae of some mine fallen leaves, others live in rotten wood, and some cause deformation of the flowers and pistils of violets.

Genera

Gallery

Lauxaniidae Unidentified Cestrotus species 2012 03 05 3467s
Cestrotus, eyes with horizontal stripes as in many Lauxaniidae

Video: female of the Minettia fasciata group

Fly June 2008-5
Prosopomyia pallida

[15]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Gaimari, Stephen D. &; Silva, Vera C. (2010). "Revision of the Neotropical subfamily Eurychoromyiinae (Diptera: Lauxaniidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. Auckland: Magnolia Press. 2342: 1–64. ISSN 1175-5334. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  2. ^ Merz, Bernhard (2004). "Revision of the Minettia fasciata species-group (Diptera, Lauxaniidae)" (PDF). Revue Suisse de Zoologie. Geneva: Muséum d'histoire naturelle. 111 (1): 183–211.
  3. ^ Stuckenberg, B. R. (1971). "A review of the Old World genera of Lauxaniidae (Diptera)". Annals of the Natal Museum. 20 (3): 499–610.
  4. ^ a b c Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente (2010). "76". In Brown, B.V.; Borkent, A.; Cumming, J.M.; Wood, D.M.; Woodley, N.E.; Zumbado, M. (eds.). Manual of Central American Diptera (Print). 2. Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press. pp. 1025–1030. ISBN 0-660-19958-0.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hendel, F. (1925). Neue Ubersicht uber die bisher bekannt gewordenen Gattungen der Lauxaniiden, nebst Beschreibung neuer Gattungen u. Arten. Arten. Encycl. Ent. (B II) Diptera. pp. 103–112.
  6. ^ Walker, Francis (1860). "Catalogue of the dipterous insects collected at Makessar in Celebes, by Mr. A. R. Wallace, with descriptions of new species". Journal of the proceedings of the Linnean Society. Zoology. London: The Linnean Society. 4: 90–96.
  7. ^ Шаталкин, Анатолий Иванович (2000). Определитель палеарктических мух семейства Lauxaniidae (Diptera) [Keys to the Palaearctic flies of the family Lauxaniidae (Diptera)] (Print) (in Russian). 5. Moscow: Zoologicheskie Issledovania. p. 102.
  8. ^ SHI LI (China), DING YANG (China) & STEPHEN D. GAIMARI (USA). Species of the genus Cestrotus Loew from China (Diptera: Lauxaniidae) Zootaxa 2009: 41-68 (11 Feb. 2009) ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition
  9. ^ a b Davies, Gregory B. P.; Miller, Raymond M. (2008). "Revision of the Afrotropical species of Parapachycerina (Diptera: Lauxaniidae)" (PDF). African Invertebrates. Pietermaritzburg: Council of the KwaZulu-Natal Museum. 49 (2): 131–158. doi:10.5733/afin.049.0208. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-27.
  10. ^ Özdikmen, H.; Merz, B. (2006). "Neoparoecus nom. nov., a replacement name for the preoccupied genus name Paroecus Becker, 1895 (Diptera, Lauxaniidae". Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft (Print). Société Entomologique Suisse. 79 (1–2): 63–64.
  11. ^ Stuckenberg, B.R. (1971). "A review of the Old World genera of Lauxaniidae (Diptera)". Annals of the Natal Museum (Print). Natal: the Natal Museum. 20 (3): 499–610.
  12. ^ Carles-Tolrá, M. (2006). "Sciasminettia Shewell, 1971: a new lauxaniid genus for Europe, with description of a new species and a key to known species (Diptera: Lauxaniidae)". Heteropterus Revista de Entomología. Gipuzkoa: Heteropterus. 6:: 9–14. ISSN 1579-0681. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-01-12.
  13. ^ Evenhuis, Neal L.; Okadome, T. (1989). "Family Lauxaniidae" (PDF). Catalog of the Diptera of the Australasian and Oceanian Regions. Hawai'i': The Bishop Museum Press: 576–589. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  14. ^ Walker, Francis (1856). "Catalogue of the dipterous insects collected in Singapore and Malacca by Mr. A.R. Wallace, with descriptions of new species". Journal of the proceedings of the Linnean Society. Zoology. London: The Linnean Society. 1: 4–39.
  15. ^ Walker, F. 1856. “Catalogue of the dipterous insects collected at Sarawak, Borneo, by Mr. A. R. Wallace, with descriptions of new species” J. Proc. Linn. Soc. London Zool. 1: 105-136.

Further reading

  • Evenhuis, N.L., and T. Okadome. 1989. Family Lauxaniidae, pp 576–589. In Evenhuis, N.L. (ed.), Catalog of the Diptera of the Australasian and Oceanian Regions. E.J. Brill, Leiden. 1155 pp.

Identification

  • Czerny. 1932. Lauxaniidae.In: Lindner, E. (Ed.). Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region , 5, 50, 1-76. Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision (in German).
  • Papp, L. 1978a Contribution to the revision of Palaearctic Lauxaniidae (Diptera). Annales historico naturales Musei nationalis Hungarici 70: 213-231.
  • Papp, L. 1984. Lauxaniidae (Diptera), new Palaearctic species and taxonomic notes. Acta Zoologica Hungarica 30: 157-179.
  • Papp, L. & Shatalkin, A.I., 1998 Family Lauxaniidae. In: Papp, L. & Darvas, B. (Eds.), Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera. Volume 3, Higher Brachycera. Science Herald Publishers, Budapest, pp. 383–400
  • Séguy, E. (1934) Diptères: Brachycères. II. Muscidae acalypterae, Scatophagidae. Paris: Éditions Faune de France 28. virtuelle numérique
  • Shatalkin, A.I. 2000. Keys to the Palaearctic flies of the family Lauxaniidae (Diptera). Zoologicheskie Issledovania 5: 1-102.
  • Shtakel'berg, A.A. Family Lauxaniidae in Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, 1988 Keys to the insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 (Diptera) Part 2 English edition.Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision .

Species lists

External links

Data related to Lauxaniidae at Wikispecies

Acalyptratae

The Acalyptratae or Acalyptrata are a subsection of the Schizophora, which are a section of the order Diptera, the "true flies". In various contexts the Acalyptratae also are referred to informally as the acalyptrate muscoids, or acalyptrates, as opposed to the Calyptratae. All forms of the name refer to the lack of calypters in the members of this subsection of flies. An alternative name, Acalypterae is current, though in minority usage. It was first used by Justin Pierre Marie Macquart in 1835 for a section of his tribe Muscides; he used it to refer to all acalyptrates plus scathophagids and phorids, but excluding Conopidae.

The confusing forms of the names stem from their first usage; Acalyptratae and Acalyptrata actually are adjectival forms in New Latin. They were coined in the mid 19th century in contexts such as "Muscae Calyptratae and Acalyptratae" and "Diptera Acalyptrata", and the forms stuck.The Acalyptratae are a large assemblage, exhibiting very diverse habits, with one notable and perhaps surprising exception: no known acalyptrates are obligate blood-feeders (hematophagous), though blood feeding at various stages of the life history is common throughout other Dipteran sections.

Agriphoneura

Agriphoneura is a genus of small flies of the family Lauxaniidae. It contains only one species, Agriphoneura fumipennis.

Calliopum

Calliopum is a genus of small flies of the family Lauxaniidae.

Celyphidae

The Celyphidae, commonly known as beetle flies or beetle-backed flies, are a family of flies (order Diptera). About 115 species in about 9 genera are known chiefly from the Oriental and Afrotropic biogeographic regions with one lineage in the New World.

Cestrotus

Cestrotus is a genus of brachyceran flies in the family Lauxaniidae.

Eurychoromyia

Eurychoromyia mallea, the broad-headed fly, is a species of flies in the subfamily Eurychoromyiinae.In 1903, C. A. W. Schnuse, collecting at Sarampiuni in the foothills of the Bolivian Andes, took 4 specimens, all female, of a fly with a strange broad, flat head. These were described as a new species Eurychoromyia mallea

(ευρυς — broad; χορος — field; μυια — fly; malleus — hammer) by the Austrian entomologist Friedrich Georg Hendel. No specimens have been seen or collected since. Two of the specimens now reside in the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna. The other two specimens are in the Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden. Hendel rated the species as "an isolated group of acalyptrate muscids". His judgement has been sustained, and they are now recognised as belonging to a distinct family Eurychoromyiidae. No other specimens have ever been identified as belonging to this family. Classification has proved difficult, the absence of any male specimens adding to the difficulties. Following Hennig (1958) they are here tentatively included in the superfamily Lauxanioidea. In 2010 Gaimari & Silva placed then as a subfamily within Lauxaniidae and added further genera, 5 of them new to science.E. mallea is a shiny, peach-brown insect, 5 mm (0.2 in) in length, with a head 2.5 mm (0.1 in) wide. The immature stages and male specimens have not been seen.

Homoneura

Homoneura is a genus of small flies of the family Lauxaniidae.

Lauxanioidea

The Lauxanioidea are a superfamily of flies that includes the two large families, the Lauxaniidae and Chamaemyiidae, and the small family Celyphidae. Generally, they are small to medium, densely populated, coloured flies. The Chamaemyiidae and Cremifaniidae live as parasites on insects. The family Celyphidae look like beetles.

Some authors also recognize the family Cremifaniidae, but most place this in the Chamaemyiidae.

Leander Czerny

Leander (Franz) Czerny (4 October 1859, in Modřice, Moravia – 22 November 1944, in Pettenbach (de), Upper Austria) was an Austrian entomologist mainly interested in Diptera.

Czerny, who wrote extensively on Diptera between 1900 and 1939, describing many genera and species, was a major contributor to Erwin Lindner's Die Fliegen der paläarktischen Region ("The Flies of the Palaearctic Region"), the most significant work on the group in the 20th century.

Czerny wrote the sections on the following families:-

Heleomyzidae, Trichoscelidae, Chyromyidae (1927)

Anthomyzidae, Opomyzidae, Tethinidae, Clusiidae (1928)

Micropezidae (Tylidae), Neridrinae, Platypezidae (as Clythiidae), Dryomyzidae, Neottiophilidae (1930)

Lauxaniidae (Sapromyzidae) (1932)

Musidoridae (Lonchopteridae), Lonchaeidae (1934)

Chamaemyiidae (Ochthiphilidae) (1936)He was also abbot of the Benedictine Kremsmünster Abbey from 1905 to 1929 and collected there as well as in Pettenbach on the Upper Danube. As well as Diptera he collected Lepidoptera. His collections of both are now in the Natural History Museum in Vienna.

Meiosimyza

Meiosimyza is a genus of small flies of the family Lauxaniidae.

Minettia

Minettia is a genus of small flies of the family Lauxaniidae. They have almost worldwide distribution, is one of the most species rich genera of the family with more than 120 described species. The Palaearctic is the most diverse with some 56 described species. The genus is divided into 3 subgenera.

Minettia fasciata

Minettia fasciata is a species of fly in the family Lauxaniidae.

Minettia lupulina

Minettia lupulina is a species of fly in the family Lauxaniidae.

Poecilominettia

Poecilominettia is a genus of flies in the family Lauxaniidae. There are at least 60 described species in Poecilominettia.

Sapromyza

Sapromyza is a genus of small flies of the family Lauxaniidae. There are at least 330 described species in Sapromyza.

Sapromyza quadricincta

Sapromyza (Sapromyzosoma) quadricincta, is a species of small flies of the family Lauxaniidae present in Europe.

Sapromyza quadripunctata

Sapromyza quadripunctata is a species of fly in the family Lauxaniidae. It is found in the Palearctic .

Sapromyzosoma

Sapromyzosoma is a subgenus of small flies of the family Lauxaniidae.

Trisapromyza

Trisapromyza is a genus of flies in the family Lauxaniidae. There are at least two described species in Trisapromyza.

Extant Diptera families

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.