The Latin Psalters are the translations of the Book of Psalms into the Latin language. They are the premier liturgical resource used in the Liturgy of the Hours of the Latin Rites of the Roman Catholic Church. These translations are typically placed in a separate volume or a section of the breviary called the psalter, in which the psalms are arranged to be prayed at the canonical hours of the day. In the Middle Ages, psalters were often lavish illuminated manuscripts, and in the Romanesque and early Gothic period were the type of book most often chosen to be richly illuminated.
The Latin Church has a diverse selection of more-or-less different full translations of the psalms. Three of these translations, the Romana, Gallicana, and juxta Hebraicum, have been traditionally ascribed to Jerome, the author of the Latin Vulgate. Two other translations, the Pian and Nova Vullgata versions, were made in the 20th century.
Many of these translations are actually quite similar to each other, especially in style: the Roman, Ambrosian, and Mozarabic psalters have relatively few differences between them, such that the same settings can generally be applied to sing all three. The concord among these similar psalters is attributable to their being revisions of a common translation from the Greek Septuagint made in the early 4th century which survives only in patristic quotations; and which had supplanted an earlier, excessively literal, 'Cyprianic' Latin version of late 2nd century date. These surviving revisions all tend to have corrected their source to agree better with the Greek of the 'standard' Septuagint; and differ most at these points. Related too is Jerome's Gallican psalter, which corrects the underlying text to that of the Hexaplar Septuagint. The Nova Vulgata psalter, though stylistically similar to these, diverges rather more from these traditional psalters insofar as it more closely follows the Hebrew Masoretic text. Two of these psalters stand apart as independent translations from the Hebrew: Jerome's juxta Hebraicum and the Pian version.
Also called the Psalterium Vetus, the psalter of the Old Latin Bible. Quotations from the Psalms in Latin authors show that a number of related but distinct Old Latin recensions were circulating in the mid-4th century. These had by then substantially replaced the older Latin 'Cyprianic Psalter', a recension found in the works of Cyprian of Carthage that only survived in the 4th-century writings of the Donatists; and are all thought to be revisions of a lost common early 3rd-century version. The Cyprianic recension, heavily revised, persisted through to the 6th century and can be found in the quotations of Augustine of Hippo, the Verona Psalter, the Sinai Psalter and 6th-century writers such as Fulgentius of Ruspe and Facundus of Hermiane. A text closely related to that found in the Sinai Psalter formed the basis for three other recensions, the Roman Psalter, the Mozarabe Psalter and the Milan Psalter. These three recensions have continued in liturgical use through the medieval period to the present day in the Ambrosian, the Roman and the Mozarabic rites. Another 4th-century recension current in Gaul (known as the "psautier gaulois" so as not to be confused with the 'Gallican Psalter") is found in the Psalter of Saint-Germain-des-Prés (BNF Lat. 11947).
A 12th-century Latin bible from Monte Cassino (Ms. Cas. 557) preserves, alongside the Roman, Gallican and Iuxta Hebraeos psalters, a fourth complete version of the psalms extensively corrected with reference to the columns of the Hexapla Greek, possibly using a columnar transcription of the Hexapla psalter similar to that surviving in Milan. The underlying Latin text for this manuscript is believed to correspond with an early 3rd-century 'Cyprianic Psalter'.
The Roman Psalter, called also the Versio Romana or Psalterium Romanum, was traditionally identified with Jerome's first revision of the psalms completed in 384; which was thought to have been made from the Versio Vetus Latina, with cursory corrections to bring it more in line with the psalms in the common Greek text of the Septuagint. More recent scholarship rejects this theory. The Roman Psalter is indeed one of five known revised versions of the mid-4th century Old Latin Psalter; but, compared with the four others the revisions in the Roman Psalter are in clumsy Latin and signally fail to follow Jerome's known translational principles, especially in failing to correct harmonised readings. Nevertheless, it is clear from Jerome's correspondence (especially in the long and detailed Epistle 106) that he was familiar with this psalter text, albeit without ever admitting any responsibility for it; and consequently it is assumed that the surviving Versio Romana represents the minimally revised Roman text as Jerome had found it. The Roman version is retained in the Roman Missal and is found in the writings of Pope Gregory the Great, but for the Divine Office, it was, from the 9th century onwards, replaced throughout most of the west by Jerome's so-called "Gallican" version. It lived on in England where it continued to be used until the Norman Conquest and in Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome and fragments of it were used in the Offices at St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice from at least 1609 until 1807. It survives to this day in the Divine Office as the solemn chanted text of the Invitatory psalm, Psalm 94, where it is the sole survivor in a liturgy where the Gallican, Pian, or Nova Vulgata translation is otherwise used.
The Versio Gallicana or Psalterium Gallicanum (so called because it became the version most used in Gaul) has traditionally been considered Jerome's second revision, which he made from the Greek of the Hexapla c. 386-391. This became the psalter of the Vulgate bible, and the basis for Gregorian chant. It became the standard psalter used in the canonical hours throughout the West from the time of Charlemagne until it was replaced in the 2nd edition of the Liturgy of the Hours by the Versio Nova Vulgata in 1986. It is still used today in some monasteries and churches and by traditionalist Catholics.
This most influential psalter has a distinctive style which is attributable to its origins as a translation of the Septuagint. Following the Septuagint, it eschews anthropomorphisms. For instance, the term rock is applied to God numerous times in the Hebrew Psalter, but the Latin term petra does not occur as an epithet for God in the gallicana. Instead more abstract words like refugium, "refuge"; locus munitus, "place of strength"; or adiutor, "helper" are used.
This psalter retains many Hebraisms by way of the Greek, the most noticeable being the redundant demonstrative. The relative pronoun is indeclinable in Hebrew, and so is accompanied by a redundant demonstrative. This use is reproduced in the Latin, although Latin has no need for it. For instance, Ps 18:4(19:3), quorum non audiantur voces eorum, which means, "whose voices, their voices, be not heard". Also Ps 32(33):12, Beata gens cujus est Dominus Deus ejus, "blessed is the nation whose God, its God, is the Lord". Ps 121(122):3, civitas, cujus participatio ejus in idipsum, "a city whose share, its share, is compact".
Another Hebraism is the use of the conditional "if" to mean the negative "not". Examples include Ps 88:36(89:34), si David mentiar, "if I lie to David", which means, "I will not lie to David". Ps 94(95):11, Si introibunt in requiem meam, "if they shall enter into my rest", which means, "they shall not enter into my rest. Ps 131(132):3, Si introiero in tabernaculum domus meae, "If I shall enter into the tabernacle of my house", which means, "I shall not enter into the tabernacle of my house". Ps 130(131) has a double negative, Si non humiliter sentiebam sed exaltavi animam meam, "If I was not humbly minded but exalted my soul", which is equivalent to "I was humbly minded and did not exalt my soul".
Hebrew has only two grammatical genders, masculine and feminine, while Latin also has a third, the neuter. Hebrew's lack of a neuter gender sometimes shows up in very idiosyncratic phrasing in the Gallican Psalter, for instance Ps. 26(27):4, unam petii a Domino, hanc requiram, "One thing I have asked of the Lord, this will I seek after", where "thing" is rendered feminine in the verse. A native speaker of Latin would have used a neuter instead: Unum petii a Domino, hoc requiram.
Classical Latin occasionally employs a dangling nominative for rhetorical flourish, but this construction is especially common in the Gallicana. Ps. 17(18):31 has, Deus meus, impolluta via ejus, "my God, his way is undefiled" to mean, "the way of my God is undefiled". Likewise Ps. 125(126):1 has, In convertendo Dominus captivitatem Sion, facti sumus sicut consolati for "The Lord, in bringing back the captivity of Zion, we became like men comforted", instead of, Cum converteret Dominus captivitatem Sion, facti sumus sicut consolati, meaning, "When the Lord brought back the captivity of Zion, we became like men comforted".
This version was the last made by Jerome. It is often informally called the "Hebrew Psalter" despite being written in Latin. Rather than just revise the Gallicana, he translated these psalms anew from the Hebrew, using pre-Masoretic manuscripts ca. 392. This psalter is found in a few of the oldest surviving manuscripts of the Vulgate. It was found in Spanish manuscripts of the Vulgate long after the Gallicanum supplanted it elsewhere. It is not clear that it was ever used in the liturgy.
Despite evident textual enhancements, this version still retains many hebraisms, as in the case with conditional 'if', Jerome renders Ps 94(95):11, ut non introirent requiem meam correctly, but in Ps 131(132):3-5, Si intravero... si adsedero... si dedero... donec inveniam locum, that is in the same way as in his earlier translation.
Under Pius XII in 1945, a new translation of the psalms, the Versio Piana, Psalterium Vaticanum or simply Novum Psalterium, was published by the Pontifical Biblical Institute. One of its merits was that it was made from a reconstructed Hebrew text based largely on the Masoretic. Its Latin adopted a classical rather than a biblical style. This version is sometimes called the Bea psalter after its author, Augustin Bea. Its use in the liturgy was widely encouraged but not required. It was adopted by some religious orders (e.g. Carmelites and Franciscans) for use in their liturgy. However, the translation proved less popular amongst communities who sang the office with Gregorian Plainchant, as the antiphons for the office used the old translation and it was not possible to incorporate the new translation into the antiphons without significantly changing the ancient plainchant.
In 1969, a new psalter was published which translated the Masoretic text while keeping much of the poetry and style of the Gallican psalter. It has proved to be a popular alternative to Jerome's Gallicana. While it is based on the Gallican, it shows the influence of other versions, e.g., in Psalm 95 it follows the Piana in translating מְרִיבָה and מסה as the proper names Meriba and Massa rather than as common nouns meaning exasperation and temptation; likewise מצער is transliterated as the proper name Misar rather than as a common adjective meaning "small" in Psalm 42. The 1969 psalter deviates from the previous versions in that it follows the Masoretic numbering of the psalms, rather than the Septuagint enumeration. It is the psalter used in the edition of the Roman Office published in 1986.
Below is a comparison of Jerome's two versions of the psalm Venite exsultemus with the Roman, Mozarabic and Ambrosian versions as well as the two 20th century versions, which illustrates some of the distinctions noted above:
|Versio Ambrosiana||Versio Mozarabica||Versio Romana||Versio Gallicana||Versio juxta Hebraicum||Versio Piana||Versio Nova Vulgata|
|Psalmus 94||Psalmus 94||Psalmus 94||Psalmus 94||Psalmus 94||Psalmus 94||Psalmus 94 (95)|
|Venite, exultemus Domino: jubilemus Deo salutari nostro. Præveniamus faciem ejus in confessione: et in psalmis jubilemus illi. Quoniam Deus magnus Dominus: et Rex magnus super omnes deos.||Venite, exultemus in domino, iubilemus deo saluatori nostro. Preoccupemus faciem eius in confessione, et in psalmis iubilemus ei. Quoniam deus magnus dominus, rex magnus super omnem terram.||Venite, exsultemus Domino; iubilemus Deo salutari nostro. Præoccupemus faciem eius in confessione, et in psalmis iubilemus ei. Quoniam Deus magnus Dominus, et rex magnus super omnes deos.||Venite, exsultemus Domino; jubilemus Deo salutari nostro; præoccupemus faciem ejus in confessione, et in psalmis jubilemus ei: quoniam Deus magnus Dominus, et rex magnus super omnes deos.||venite laudemus Dominum iubilemus petrae Iesu nostro praeoccupemus vultum eius in actione gratiarum in canticis iubilemus ei quoniam fortis et magnus Dominus et rex magnus super omnes deos||Venite, exsultemus Domino, Acclamemus Petrae salutis nostrae: Accedamus in conspectum eius cum laudibus, Cum canticis exsultemus ei. Nam Deus magnus est Dominus, Et Rex magnus super omnes deos.||Venite, exsultemus Domino; iubilemus Deo salutari nostro. Praeoccupemus faciem eius in confessione et in psalmis iubilemus ei. Quoniam Deus magnus Dominus, et rex magnus super omnes deos.|
|Quoniam in manu ejus sunt omnes fines terræ: et altitudines montium ipsius sunt. Quoniam ipsius est mare, et ipse fecit illud, et aridam fundaverunt manus ejus.||Quoniam non repellet dominus plebem suam, quia in manu eius sunt omnes fines terre, et altitudines montium ipse conspicit. Quoniam ipsius est mare et ipse fecit illud, et arida manus eius fundaberunt.||Quoniam non repellet Dominus plebem suam, quia in manu eius sunt omnes fines terræ, et altitudines montium ipse conspicit; quoniam ipsius est mare, et ipse fecit illud: et aridam fundaverunt manus eius.||Quia in manu ejus sunt omnes fines terræ, et altitudines montium ipsius sunt; quoniam ipsius est mare, et ipse fecit illud, et siccam manus ejus formaverunt.||in cuius manu fundamenta terrae et excelsa montium ipsius sunt cuius est mare ipse enim fecit illud et siccam manus eius plasmaverunt||In manu eius sunt profunda terrae, Et altitudines montium ipsius sunt. Ipsius est mare: nam ipse fecit illud, Et terra sicca, quam formaverunt manus eius:||Quia in manu eius sunt profunda terrae, et altitudines montium ipsius sunt. Quoniam ipsius est mare, et ipse fecit illud, et siccam manus eius formaverunt.|
|Venite, adoremus et procidamus ante eum: et ploremus coram Domino qui fecit nos. Quia ipse est Dominus Deus noster: nos autem populus ejus et oves manus ejus.||Venite adoremus et procidamus ante deum, et ploremus coram domino qui fecit nos. Quoniam ipse est dominus deus noster, nos autem populus eius e oues gregis eius.||Venite, adoremus, et procidamus ante Deum, ploremus coram Domino qui fecit nos, quia ipse est Dominus Deus noster, nos autem populus eius et oves pascuæ eius.||Venite, adoremus, et procidamus, et ploremus ante Dominum qui fecit nos: quia ipse est Dominus Deus noster, et nos populus pascuæ ejus, et oves manus ejus.||venite adoremus et curvemur flectamus genua ante faciem Domini factoris nostri quia ipse est Deus noster et nos populus pascuae eius et grex manus eius||Venite, adoremus et procidamus, Et genua flectamus Domino qui fecit nos. Nam ipse est Deus noster, Nos autem populus pascuae eius et oves manus eius.||Venite, adoremus et procidamus et genua flectamus ante Dominum, qui fecit nos, quia ipse est Deus noster, et nos populus pascuae eius et oves manus eius.|
|Hodie si vocem ejus audieritis, nolite obdurare corda vestra: sicut in exacerbatatione. Secundum diem tentationis in deserto, ubi tentaverunt me patres vestri: probaverunt et viderunt opera mea.||Odie si uocem eius audieritis nolite obdurare corda vestra, sicut in exacerbatione, secundum diem temtationis in deserto. Vbi temtaberunt me patres uestri prouaberunt et uiderunt opera mea.||Hodie si vocem eius audieritis "nolite obdurare corda vestra, sicut in exacerbatione secundum diem tentationis in deserto, ubi tentaverunt me patres vestri: probaverunt et viderunt opera mea.||Hodie si vocem ejus audieritis, nolite obdurare corda vestra sicut in irritatione, secundum diem tentationis in deserto, ubi tentaverunt me patres vestri: probaverunt me, et viderunt opera mea.||hodie si vocem eius audieritis nolite indurare corda vestra sicut in contradictione sicut in die temptationis in deserto ubi temptaverunt me patres vestri probaverunt me et viderunt opus meum||Utinam hodie vocem eius audiatis: “Nolite obdurare corda vestra ut in Meriba, Ut die Massa in deserto, ubi tentaverunt me patres vestri, Probaverunt me, etsi viderunt opera mea.||Utinam hodie vocem eius audiatis: “Nolite obdurare corda vestra, sicut in Meriba, secundum diem Massa in deserto, ubi tentaverunt me patres vestri: probaverunt me, etsi viderunt opera mea.|
|Quadraginta annis infensus fui generationi huic: et dixi: Semper hi errant corde. Ipsi autem non cognoverunt vias meas: quibus juravi in ira mea, si introibunt in requiem meam.||Quadraginta annis proximus fui generationi huic, et dixi semper errant corde. Propter quod hodio habui hanc generationem, et ipsi non cognoberunt uias meas. Quibus iurabi in ira mea, si introibunt in requiem meam.||Quadraginta annis proximus fui generationi huic, et dixi: Semper hi errant corde. Ipsi vero non cognoverunt vias meas, quibus iuravi in ira mea: Si introibunt in requiem meam".||Quadraginta annis offensus fui generationi illi, et dixi: Semper hi errant corde. Et isti non cognoverunt vias meas: ut juravi in ira mea: Si introibunt in requiem meam.||quadraginta annis displicuit mihi generatio illa et dixi populus errans corde est et non cognoscens vias meas et iuravi in furore meo ut non introirent in requiem meam||Quadraginta annos taeduit me generationis illius, Et dixi: Populus errans corde sunt, Et non noverunt vias meas. Ideo iuravi in ira mea: Non introibunt in requiem meam”.||Quadraginta annis taeduit me generationis illius et dixi: Populus errantium corde sunt isti. Et ipsi non cognoverunt vias meas; ideo iuravi in ira mea: Non introibunt in requiem meam”.|
The enumeration of the psalms differs in the Nova Vulgata from that used in the earlier versions. The earlier versions take their enumeration from the Greek Septuagint. The Versio Nova Vulgata takes its enumeration from the Hebrew Masoretic Text.
Apart from the schemata described below, it was customary in medieval psalters to divide the text of the psalms in numerical sequence into sections or divisions, the start of which were typically marked by a much larger and more decorated initial letter than for the other psalms. The "B" of Psalm 1, Beatus Vir, usually was the most enlarged and decorated, and often those two words occupied a full page, the rounded shape of the letter being very suitable for decoration. These are often referred to as "Beatus initials". In Early Medieval psalters a three-fold division with decorated letters at Psalms 1, 51, 101 was typical, but by the Gothic period French psalters were often divided into eight sections, and English ones into ten, at Psalms 1, 26, 38, 51, 52, 68, 80, 97, 101 and 109.
A scheme (Latin schema, plural schemata) is an arrangement of all or most of the psalms for distribution to the various canonical hours. In addition to the psalms proper, these schemata typically include psalm-like canticles from other books of the Bible. Historically, these schemata have distributed the entire 150 psalms with added canticles over a period of one week, although the 1971 Liturgy of the Hours omits a few psalms and some verses and distributes the remainder over a 4-week cycle. Some of the more important schemes are detailed below.
In addition to the psalms, the schema lists canticles, that is, biblical texts from outside of the book of Psalms that are chanted as if they were psalms.
In addition to the psalter, the schema uses an ordinary which includes the texts that are to be chanted every day. These include the Invitatory, normally psalm 94(95), and the canticles Benedictus Dominus, Magnificat, and Nunc dimittis.
The following canticles are used in this schema:
The schema is:
|Matins, Nocturn I||20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25||32; 33; 34; 36i; 36ii; 37||45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 51||59; 60; 61; 65; 67i; 67ii||73; 74; 76; 77i; 77ii; 78||85; 86; 88i; 88ii; 92; 93||101; 102; 103i; 104i; 104ii|
|Matins, Nocturn II||26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31||38; 39; 40; 41; 43; 44||52; 53; 54; 55; 57; 58||68i; 68ii; 69; 70; 71; 72||79; 80; 81; 82; 83; 84||95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 100||105i; 105ii; 106i; 106ii; 107, 108|
|Lauds||66; 50; 117; 62; Benedicite omnia; 148; 149; 150||66; 50; 5; 35; Confitebor tibi; 148; 149; 150||66; 50; 42; 56; Ego dixi; 148; 149; 150||66; 50; 63; 64; Exsultavit cor meum; 148; 149; 150||66; 50; 87; 89; Cantemus Domino; 148; 149; 150||66; 50; 75; 91; Domine, audivi; 148; 149; 150||66; 50; 142; 62; Audite, caeli; 148; 149; 150|
|Prime||118i; 118ii; 118iii; 118iv||1; 2; 6;||7; 8; 9i;||9ii; 10; 11||12; 13; 14||15; 16; 17i||17ii; 18; 19|
|Terce||118v; 118vi; 118vii||118xiv; 118xv; 118xvi||119; 120; 121||119; 120; 121||119; 120; 121||119; 120; 121||119; 120; 121|
|Sext||118viii; 118ix; 118x||118 xvii; 118xviii; 118 xix||122; 123; 124||122; 123; 124||122; 123; 124||122; 123; 124||122; 123; 124|
|None||118xi; 118xii; 118xiii||118xx; 118xxi; 118xxii||125; 126; 127||125; 126; 127||125; 126; 127||125; 126; 127||125; 126; 127|
|Vespers||109; 110; 111; 112||113; 114; 115/116; 128||129; 130; 131; 132||134; 135; 136; 137||138i; 138ii; 139; 140||141; 143i; 143ii; 144i||144ii; 145; 146; 147;|
|Compline||4; 90; 133;||4; 90; 133;||4; 90; 133;||4; 90; 133;||4; 90; 133;||4; 90; 133;||4; 90; 133;|
Psalm 3 and 94 were recited at the beginning of Matins every day.
As commissioned by the Council of Trent, St. Pius V published a reform of the Roman Breviary in 1568 for use by the churches of the Roman rite. The scheme used in this breviary differs in some details from the Scheme of St. Benedict, but follows its overall pattern. Some obvious differences are that Sunday had three nocturns, while the other days had but one; Lauds and the daytime hours had less variation in the Psalmody; and Compline added Psalm 30. In addition, while St. Benedict made heavy use of "divided" Psalms, the Roman rite divided only Psalm 118.
|Matins, Nocturn I||1; 2; 3; 6; 7; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14||26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37||38; 39; 40; 41; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 51||52; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 60; 61; 63; 65; 67||68; 69; 70; 71; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79||80; 81; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 93; 95; 96||97; 98; 99; 100; 101; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 108|
|Matins, Nocturn 2||15; 16; 17|
|Matins, Nocturn 3||18; 19; 20|
|Lauds||92; 99; 62; 66; Benedicite omnia; 148; 149; 150||50; 5; 62; 66; Confitebor tibi; 148; 149; 150||50; 42; 62; 66; Ego dixi; 148; 149; 150||50; 64; 62; 66; Exultavit cor meum; 148; 149; 150||50; 89; 62; 66; Cantemus Domino; 148; 149; 150||50; 142; 62; 66; Domine, audivi; 148; 149; 150||50; 91; 62; 66; Audite, caeli; 148; 149; 150|
|Prime||53; 117; 118i; 118ii; 118iii; 118iv||53; 23; 118i; 118ii||53; 24; 118i; 118ii||53; 25; 118i; 118ii||53; 22; 118i; 118ii||53; 21; 118i; 118ii||53; 118i; 118ii|
|Terce||118v; 118vi; 118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118x||118v; 118vi; 118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118x||118v; 118vi; 118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118x||118v; 118vi; 118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118x||118v; 118vi; 118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118x||118v; 118vi; 118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118x||118v; 118vi; 118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118x|
|Sext||118xi; 118xii; 118xiii; 118iv; 118v; 118vi||118xi; 118xii; 118xiii; 118iv; 118v; 118vi||118xi; 118xii; 118xiii; 118iv; 118v; 118vi||118xi; 118xii; 118xiii; 118iv; 118v; 118vi||118xi; 118xii; 118xiii; 118iv; 118v; 118vi||118xi; 118xii; 118xiii; 118iv; 118v; 118vi||118xi; 118xii; 118xiii; 118iv; 118v; 118vi|
|None||118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118xx; 118xxi; 118xxii||118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118xx; 118xxi; 118xxii||118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118xx; 118xxi; 118xxii||118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118xx; 118xxi; 118xxii||118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118xx; 118xxi; 118xxii||118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118xx; 118xxi; 118xxii||118vii; 118viii; 118ix; 118xx; 118xxi; 118xxii|
|Vespers||109; 110; 111; 112; 113||114; 115; 116; 119; 120||121; 122; 123; 124; 125||126; 127; 128; 129; 130||131; 132; 134; 135; 136||137; 138; 139; 140; 141||143; 144; 45; 146; 147|
|Compline||4; 30; 90; 133||4; 30; 90; 133||4; 30; 90; 133||4; 30; 90; 133||4; 30; 90; 133||4; 30; 90; 133||4; 30; 90; 133|
Psalm 94 was recited at the beginning of each day.
In 1911, Pope Pius X reformed the Roman Breviary, re-arranging the psalms so that there was less repetition and so that each day of the week had approximately the same amount of psalm-chanting.
The following canticles are used in this schema:
The schema is:
|Matins, Nocturn I||1; 2; 3;||13; 14; 16;||34i; 34ii; 34iii||44i; 44ii; 45||61; 65i; 65ii||77i; 77ii; 77iii||104i; 104ii; 104iii|
|Matins, Nocturn II||8; 9i; 9ii||17i; 17ii; 17iii||36i; 36ii; 36iii||47; 48i; 48ii;||67i; 67ii; 67iii||77iv; 77v; 77vi||105i; 105ii; 105iii|
|Matins, Nocturn III||9iii; 9iv; 10||19; 20; 29||37i; 37ii; 38||49i; 49ii; 50||68i; 68ii; 68iii||78; 80; 82||106i; 106ii; 106iii|
|Lauds I||92; 99; 62; Benedicite omnia; 148;||46; 5; 28; Benedictus es; 116||95; 42; 66; Magnus es; 134||96; 64; 100; Incipite Domino; 145||97; 89; 35; Audite verbum Domini; 146||98; 142; 84; Vere tu es; 147||149; 91; 63; Miserere nostri; 150|
|Lauds II||50; 117; 62; Benedictus es; "148;||50; 5; 28; Gratias ago tibi; 116;||50; 42; 66; Ego dixi; 134;||50; 64; 100; Exultat cor meum; 145;||50; 89; 35; Cantabo Domino; 146;||50; 142; 84; Domine, audivi; 147;||50; 91; 63; Ascultate, caeli; 150;|
|Prime||117; 118i; 118ii;||23; 18i; 18ii;||24i; 24ii; 24iii;||25; 51; 52||22; 71i; 71ii||21i; 21ii; 21iii||93i; 93ii; 107|
|Terce||118iii; 118iv; 118v||26i; 26ii; 27||39i; 39ii; 39iii||53; 54i; 54ii||72i; 72ii; 72iii||79i; 79ii; 81||101i; 101ii; 101iii|
|Sext||118vi; 118vii; 118viii||30i; 30ii; 30iii;||40; 41i; 41ii||55; 56; 57||73i; 73ii; 73iii||83i; 83ii; 86||103i; 103ii; 103iii|
|None||118ix; 118x; 118xi||31; 32i; 32ii||43i; 43ii; 43iii||58i; 58ii; 59||74; 75i; 75ii||88i; 88ii; 88iii||108i; 108ii; 108iii|
|Vespers||109; 110; 111; 112; 113;||114; 115; 119; 120; 121;||122; 123; 124; 125; 126;||127; 128; 129; 130; 131;||132; 135i; 135ii; 136; 137||138i; 138ii; 139; 140; 141||143i; 143ii; 144i; 144ii; 144iii|
|Compline||4; 90; 133;||6; 7i; 7ii||11; 12; 15;||33i; 33ii; 60||69; 70i; 70ii||76i; 76ii; 85||87; 102i; 102ii|
Psalm 94 (the Invitiatory) was recited every day at the beginning of Matins. With Lauds, there are two schemes. Lauds I were celebrated on all Sundays and ferias, except from Septuagesima until Palm Sunday inclusive, and on feasts celebrated at any time of the year. Lauds II, having a more penitential character, were used on the Sundays and ferias of Advent until the vigil of Christmas and from Septuagesima until Monday of Holy Week inclusive. They were also used on vigils of the second and third class outside of Paschaltide. When Lauds II were said, the omitted psalm was said as a fourth psalm at Prime, in order to include all 150 psalms each week during penitential seasons; on Sundays with Lauds II, the scheme became 92, 99, 118i, and 118ii. On feasts which used the Sunday psalms, 53, 118i, and 118ii were said at Prime. On Sundays after Epiphany and Pentecost, the Athanasian Creed was said fourth at Prime; it was omitted if a commemoration of a Double feast or of an octave occurred.
In 1971 with the release of a new edition of the Divine Office under Pope Paul VI, the Liturgia Horarum, a new schema was introduced which distributed 147 of the 150 psalms across a four-week cycle. In addition to the three omitted psalms, some 59 verses of other psalms are removed along with parts of two verses. These omissions are intended to make the psalms easier to understand so that the Divine Office can better be prayed by the laity. The reduced psalmody resulting from dividing the psalter over 4 weeks instead of 1 is also intended to ease lay participation.
Although the psalter of the 2000 edition of the Liturgy of the Hours uses the translation of the Nova Vulgata, the numeration used is that of the older editions of the Vulgate, with the new numeration in parenthesis where it differs. For instance, the psalm beginning Dominus pascit me is numbered 22(23), and Venite exsultemus is numbered 94(95).
Because some of the psalms are so much longer than others, the longer psalms are divided into divisios, that is parts to be chanted separately. This follows the Benedictine practice and was introduced into the Roman Office widely by Pope Pius X. In the Pius V schema only Ps. 118 was divided into parts, and it was said throughout Prime, Terce, Sext, and None every day. These parts are labelled with Roman numerals. In particular, psalm 118(119) was divided into 22 parts, one for each letter of the Hebrew alphabet, which are labelled 118(119)i – 118(119)xxii. Most of the longer psalms were divided into 3 parts, labelled i – iii.
The psalmody of each of the hours of the day except compline contains three psalms or parts of psalms. Lauds contains a canticle of the Old Testament in place of the second psalm, and Vespers contains a canticle of the New Testament in place of the third psalm.
There are 34 canticles in the psalter and 3 in the ordinary. The three canticles in the ordinary are from the gospels. The 26 psalter canticles for Lauds are from the Old Testament. The 8 psalter canticles for Vespers are from the New Testament excluding the gospels. The texts of the canticles and the references given below are from the Nova Vulgata.
The first week of the psalter is used for the first week of Advent, the week beginning with the first Sunday falling on or after December 25, the weeks beginning on the first and fifth Sundays of Lent, the fifth week of Easter, and the 1st, 5th, 9th, 13th, 17th, 21st, 25th, 29th, and 33rd weeks of Ordinary Time.
|Day||Office of Reading||Lauds||Hora media||Vespers||Compline|
|Sunday Vigil||140(141); 141(142); Christus Jesus||4; 133(134)|
|Sunday||1; 2; 3;||62(63); Benedicite omnia; 149||117(118)i; 117(118)ii; 117(118)iii;||109(110); 113A(114); Alleluia||90(91)|
|Monday||6; 9A(9)i; 9A(9)ii;||5; Benedictus es Domine Deus Israel; 28(29)||18B(19B); 7i; 7ii||10(11); 14(15); Benedictus Deus et Pater||85(86)|
|Tuesday||9B(10)i; 9B(10)ii; 11(12)||23(24); Benedictus Deus vivens; 32(33)||118(119)i; 12(13); 13(14)||19(20); 20(21); Dignus es||142(143)|
|Wednesday||17(18)i; 17(18)ii; 17(18)iii||35(36); Incipite; 46(47)||118(119)ii; 16(17)i; 16(17)ii||26(27)i; 26(27)ii; Gratias agamus Deo||30(31),2-6; 129(130)|
|Thursday||17(18)iv; 17(18)v; 17(18)vi||56(57); Audite verbum; 47(48)||118(119)iii; 24(25)i; 24(25)ii||29(30); 31(32); Gratias agimus tibi||15(16)|
|Friday||34(35)i; 34(35)ii; 34(35)iii||50(51); Vere tu es; 99(100)||118(119)iv; 25(26); 27(28)||40(41); 45(46); Magna et mirabilia||87(88)|
|Saturday||130(131); 131(132)i-ii; but during Adv/Xmas, Lent/Eastertide: 104(105)i-iii||118(119)xix; Cantemus Domino; 116(117)||118(119)v; 33(34)i; 33(34)ii|
The second week of the psalter is used for the second week of Advent, the week beginning with the first Sunday falling on or after January 1, the weeks beginning on the second and sixth Sundays of Lent, the second and sixth weeks of Easter, and the 2nd, 6th, 10th, 14th, 18th, 22nd, 26th, 30th, and 34th weeks of Ordinary Time.
|Day||Office of Reading||Lauds||Hora media||Vespers||Compline|
|Sunday Vigil||118(119)xiv; 15(16); Christus Jesus;||4; 133(134)|
|Sunday||103(104)i; 103(104)ii; 103(104)iii||117(118); Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum II; 150||22(23); 75(76)i; 75(76)ii||109(110); 113B(115); Alleluia;||90(91)|
|Monday||30(31)i; 30(31)ii; 30(31)iii||41(42); Miserere nostri; 18(19)A||118(119)vi; 39(40)i; 39(40)ii||44(45)i; 44(45)ii; Benedictus Deus et Pater;||85(86)|
|Tuesday||36(37)i; 36(37)ii; 36(37)iii||42(43); Ego dixi; 64(65)||118(119)vii; 52(53); 53(54)||48(49)i; 48(49)ii; Dignus es;||142(143)|
|Wednesday||38(39)i; 38(39)ii; 51(52);||76(77); Exsultavit cor meo in Dominum; 96(97)||118(119)viii; 54(55)i; 54(55)ii||61(62); 66(67); Gratias agamus Deo;||30(31),2-6; 129(130)|
|Thursday||43(44)i; 43(44)ii; 43(44)iii||79(80); Confitebor tibi Domine; 80(81)||118(119)ix; 55(56); 56(57)||71(72)i; 71(72)ii; Gratias agimus tibi;||15(16)|
|Friday||37(38)i; 37(38)ii; 37(38)iii||50(51); Domine audivi auditionem tuam; 147(147B)||118(119)x; 58(59); 59(60)||114(116A); 120(121); Magna et mirabilia;||87(88)|
|Saturday||135(136)i-iii; but during Adv/Xmas, Lent/Eastertide: 105(106)i-iii||91(92); Audite caeli; 8||118(119)xi; 60(61); 63(64)|
The third week of the psalter is used for the third week of Advent, the week beginning on the third Sunday of Lent, the third and seventh weeks of Easter, and the 3rd, 7th, 11th, 15th, 19th, 23rd, 27th, and 31st weeks of Ordinary Time.
|Day||Office of Reading||Lauds||Hora media||Vespers||Compline|
|Sunday Vigil||112(113); 115(116B); Christus Jesus;||4; 133(134)|
|Sunday||144(145)i; 144(145)ii; 144(145)iii||92(93); Benedicite omnia; 148||117(118)i; 117(118)ii; 117(118)iii||109(110); 110(111); Alleluia;||90(91)|
|Monday||49(50)i; 49(50)ii; 49(50)iii||83(84); Erit in novissimis diebus; 95(96)||118(119)xii; 70(71)i; 70(71)ii||122(123); 123(124); Benedictus Deus et Pater;||85(86)|
|Tuesday||67(68)i; 67(68)ii; 67(68)iii||84(85); Urbs fortis; 66(67)||118(119)xiii; 73(74)i; 73(74)ii||124(125); 130(131); Dignus es;||142(143)|
|Wednesday||88(89)i; 88(89)ii; 88(89)iii||85(86); Audite qui longe estis; 97(98)||118(119)xiv; 69(70); 74(75)||125(126); 126(127); Gratias agamus Deo;||30(31),2-6; 129(130)|
|Thursday||88(89)iv; 88(89)v; 89(90)||86(87); Ecce Dominus Deus in virtute venit; 98(99)||118(119)xv; 78(79); 79(80)||131(132)i; 131(132)ii; Gratias agimus tibi;||15(16)|
|Friday||68(69)i; 68(69)ii; 68(69)iii||50(51); Deducant oculi mei lacrimam; 99(100)||21(22)i; 21(22)ii; 21(22)iii||134(135)i; 134(135)ii; Magna et mirabilia;||87(88)|
|Saturday||106(107)i; 106(107)ii; 106(107)iii||118(119)xix; Deus patrum meorum; 116(117)||118(119)xvi; 33(34)i; 33(34)ii|
The fourth week of the psalter is used for the fourth week of Advent, the days of Lent from Ash Wednesday until the following Saturday, the week beginning on the fourth Sunday of Lent, the fourth week of Easter, and the 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th, 20th, 24th, 28th, and 32nd weeks of Ordinary Time. If Christmas Day does not fall on a Saturday or Sunday, the fourth week of the psalter is used during Christmastide until the first Sunday of Christmas.
|Day||Office of Reading||Lauds||Hora media||Vespers||Compline|
|Sunday Vigil||121(122); 129(130); Christus Jesus;||4; 133(134)|
|Sunday||23(24); 65(66)i; 65(66)ii||117(118); Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum II; 150||22(23); 75(76)i; 75(76)ii||109(110); 111(112); Alleluia;||90(91)|
|Monday||72(73)i; 72(73)ii; 72(73)iii||89(90); Cantate Domino; 134(135),1-12||118(119)vii; 81(82); 119(120)||135(136)i; 135(136)ii; Benedictus Deus et Pater;||85(86)|
|Tuesday||101(102)i; 101(102)ii; 101(102)iii||100(101); Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum I; 143(144),1-10||118(119)xviii; 87(88)i; 87(88)ii||136(137); 137(138); Dignus es;||142(143)|
|Wednesday||102(103)i; 102(103)ii; 102(103)iii||107(108); Gaudens gaudebo in Domino; 145(146)||118(119)xix; 93(94)i; 93(94)ii||138(139)i; 138(139)ii; Gratias agamus Deo;||30(31),2-6; 129(130)|
|Thursday||43(44)i; 43(44)ii; 43(44)iii||142(143); Laetamini; 146(147A)||118(119)xx; 127(128); 128(129)||143(144)i; 143(144)ii; Gratias agimus tibi;||15(16)|
|Friday||54(55)i-iii; but during Adv/Xmas, Lent/Eastertide: 77(78)i-iii||50(51); Benedicite Dominum; 147(147B)||118(119)xxi; 132(133); 139(140)||144(145)i; 144(145)ii; Magna et mirabilia;||87(88)|
|Saturday||49(50)i-iii; but during Adv/Xmas, Lent/Eastertide: 77(78)iv-vi||91(92); Tollam quippe vos de gentibus; 8||118(119)xxii; 44(45)i; 44(45)ii|
The psalms missing from this schema are 57(58), 82(83), and 108(109). The missing verses are:
Although the Invitatory, i.e. psalm 94(95), is missing from the psalter, it is present in the ordinary and is thus chanted every day. Psalms 77(78), 104(105), and 105(106) are sung only during Advent, Christmas, Lent and Easter.
The Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons of the Same Holy Apostles is a 4th century Syrian Christian text. It is an Ancient Church Order, a collection of ancient ecclesiastical decrees concerning the government and discipline of the Early Christian Church, allegedly written by the Apostles first found as the last chapter of the eighth book of the Apostolic Constitutions. Like the other Ancient Church Orders, the Apostolic Canons use a pseudepigraphic form.
These eighty-five canons were approved by the Eastern Council in Trullo in 692 but rejected by Pope Sergius I. In the Western Church only fifty of these canons circulated, translated in Latin by Dionysius Exiguus in about 500 AD, and included in the Western collections and afterwards in the "Corpus Juris Canonici". Canon n. 85 contains a list of canonical books, thus it is important for the history of the Biblical canon.Dialogue Mass
A Dialogue Mass (in Latin, Missa dialogata; also Missa recitata) is a Low Mass in which the people recite some parts of the Latin Tridentine Mass.Embolism (liturgy)
The embolism in Christian liturgy (from Greek ἐμβολισμός, an interpolation) is a short prayer said or sung after the Lord's Prayer. It functions "like a marginal gloss" upon the final petition of the Lord's Prayer (". . . deliver us from evil"), amplifying and elaborating on "the many implications" of that prayer. In the Roman Rite of Mass, the embolism is followed by the doxology or, in the Tridentine Mass (which does not have that doxology), by the Fraction.According to the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia, "[t]he embolism may date back to the first centuries, since, under various forms, it is found in all the Occidental and in a great many Oriental, particularly Syrian, Liturgies."Euouae
Euouae or Evovae is an abbreviation used in Latin psalters and other liturgical books to show the distribution of syllables in the differentia or variable melodic endings of the standard Psalm tones of Gregorian chant. It derives from the vowels in the words "saeculorum Amen" of the lesser doxology or Gloria Patri, which ends with the phrase In saecula saeculorum, Amen. In some cases the letters EUOUAE can be further shortened to E----E. A few books of English chant (notably Burgess & Palmer's The Plainchant Gradual, Wantage 1962) make use of 'oioueae' for the equivalent phrase "World without end. Amen."
According to the Guinness Book of World Records, at six letters long, "Euouae" is the longest word in the English language made up of nothing but vowels (the v spelling notwithstanding), and also the English word with the most consecutive vowels. As a mnemonic coming from Latin, it is unclear that it should count as an English word; however, it is found in the unabridged Collins English Dictionary.In convertendo Dominus
In convertendo Dominus (When the Lord turned [the captivity of Zion]), sometimes referred to as In convertendo, is the Latin version of Psalm 126 (thus numbered in the King James Bible, number 125 in the Latin psalters). It has been set in full for a cappella choir by, amongst others, George de La Hèle (1547-1586) and Jean-Noël Marchand (1666-1710), by Dmitri Bortnyansky (1777) and Jean-Philippe Rameau (In convertendo Dominus, c. 1710), by 16th century Scottish priest Patrick Douglas, as a motet for choir and orchestra and by Jules Van Nuffel for mixed choir and organ as his Op. 32 (1926); it has also been set in part (alternate verses only) for a cappella choir by Giovanni Bernardino Nanino. (For settings of the text in other languages, see here).In convertendo Dominus (Nuffel)
In convertendo Dominus (When the Lord turned [the captivity of Zion]), Op. 32, is the musical setting of In convertendo Dominus (Psalm 126 in Latin), written by Jules Van Nuffel in 1926 for a mixed choir and organ.In convertendo Dominus (Rameau)
In convertendo Dominus (When the Lord turned [the captivity of Zion]), sometimes referred to as In convertendo, is a setting by Jean-Philippe Rameau of In convertendo Dominus, the Latin version of Psalm 126, (thus numbered in the King James Bible, number 125 in the Latin psalters). It is listed as RCT 14 in the Rameau Catalogue Thématique of Sylvie Bouissou and Denis Herlin.Iste confessor
Iste confessor is a Latin hymn used in the Divine Office at Lauds and Vespers on feasts of confessors. It exists in two forms. Iste confessor Domini sacratus is the original 8th Century hymn and Iste confessor Domini colentes is a 1632 edition, published by Pope Urban VIII with improved Latin style. The hymn is written in Sapphic and Adonic meter.Ite, missa est
Ite, missa est are the concluding Latin words addressed to the people in the Mass of the Roman Rite, as well as the Lutheran Divine Service. Until the reforms of 1962, at Masses without the Gloria, Benedicamus Domino was said instead. The response of the people (or, in the Tridentine Mass, of the servers at Low Mass, the choir at Solemn Mass) is Deo gratias ("thanks be to God").Laetatus sum (Nuffel)
Laetatus sum (I am glad), Op. 45, is a musical setting of Psalm 122 (Psalm 121 in the Vulgate) in Latin by Jules Van Nuffel, composed in 1935 for mixed choir and organ.Last Gospel
The Last Gospel is the name given to the Prologue of St. John's Gospel (John 1:1–14) when read as part of the concluding rites in the Tridentine Mass. The Prologue speaks on Jesus Christ as the Logos and on the Incarnation. The Last Gospel was suppressed in the New Rite of Mass under Pope Paul VI.Leonine Prayers
The Leonine Prayers are a set of prayers that from 1884 to early 1965 were prescribed for recitation by the priest and the people after Low Mass, but not as part of Mass itself. Hence they were commonly called Prayers after Mass. The name "Leonine" derived from the fact that they were initially introduced by Pope Leo XIII. They were slightly modified under Pope Pius X.
The intention for which the prayers were offered changed over time. Originally they were offered for the defence of the temporal sovereignty of the Holy See. After this problem was settled with the Lateran Treaty of 1929, Pope Pius XI ordered them to be said for the restoration to the people of Russia of tranquillity and freedom to profess the Catholic faith. This gave rise to the unofficial use of the name "Prayers for the Conversion of Russia" for the prayers.The final form of the Leonine Prayers consisted of three Ave Marias, a Salve Regina followed by a versicle and response, a prayer for the conversion of sinners and the liberty and exaltation of the Catholic Church, and a prayer to Saint Michael the Archangel. Pope Pius X permitted the addition of the invocation "Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, have mercy on us", repeated three times.
The Holy See's 26 September 1964 Inter Oecumenici which came into force on 7 March 1965, simply declared: "The Leonine Prayers are suppressed." However, many celebrations of Mass in the 1962 form are still followed by the same prayers with some discussion surrounding the intention for which they are offered.List of English Bible translations
The Bible has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek. The Latin Vulgate translation was dominant in Western Christianity through the Middle Ages. Since then, the Bible has been translated into many more languages. English Bible translations also have a rich and varied history of more than a millennium.
Included when possible are dates and the source language(s) and, for incomplete translations, what portion of the text has been translated. Certain terms that occur in many entries are linked at the bottom of the page.
Because different groups of Jews and Christians differ on the true content of the Bible, the "incomplete translations" section includes only translations seen by their translators as incomplete, such as Christian translations of the New Testament alone. Translations such as Jewish versions of the Tanakh are included in the "complete" category, even though Christians traditionally have considered the Bible to consist properly of more than just the Tanakh.Mea culpa
Mea culpa is a Latin phrase that means "through my fault" and is an acknowledgement of having done wrong.
Grammatically, meā culpā is in the ablative case, with an instrumental meaning.
The phrase comes from a prayer of confession of sinfulness, known as the Confiteor, used in the Roman Rite at the beginning of Mass or when receiving the sacrament of Penance.
The expression is used also as an admission of having made a mistake that should have been avoided, and may be accompanied by beating the breast as in its use in a religious context.Oblation
Oblation, meaning an offering (Late Latin oblatio, from offerre, oblatum, to offer), is a term used, particularly in ecclesiastical use, for a solemn offering or presentation to God.Psalm 95
Psalm 95 (Greek numbering: Psalm 94) is part of the biblical Book of Psalms. It is one of the Royal Psalms, Psalm 93-99, praising God as the King of His people. Psalm 95 identifies no author, but Hebrews 4:7 attributes it to David. In the Greek Septuagint version of the bible, and in its Latin translation in the Vulgate, this psalm is Psalm 94 in a slightly different numbering system.Psalter
A psalter is a volume containing the Book of Psalms, often with other devotional material bound in as well, such as a liturgical calendar and litany of the Saints. Until the later medieval emergence of the book of hours, psalters were the books most widely owned by wealthy lay persons and were commonly used for learning to read. Many Psalters were richly illuminated and they include some of the most spectacular surviving examples of medieval book art.
The English term (Old English psaltere, saltere) is from Church Latin psalterium, which is simply the name of the Book of Psalms (in secular Latin, it is the term for a stringed instrument, from Greek ψαλτήριον psalterion).
The Book of Psalms contains the bulk of the Divine Office of the Roman Catholic Church.
The other books associated with it were the Lectionary, the Antiphonary, and Responsoriale, and the Hymnary.
In Late Modern English, psalter has mostly ceased to refer to the Book of Psalms (as the text of a book of the Bible) and mostly refers to the dedicated physical volumes containing this text.Super flumina Babylonis (Nuffel)
Super flumina Babylonis (By the rivers of Babylon), Op. 25, is a musical setting of Psalm 137 (Psalm 136 in the Vulgate) in Latin by Jules Van Nuffel, composed in 1916 for mixed choir and organ.Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina ("Old Latin" in Latin), also known as Vetus Itala ("Old Italian"), Itala ("Italian") and Old Italic, is the collective name given to the Latin translations of biblical texts (both Old Testament and New Testament) that existed before the Vulgate, the Latin translation produced by Jerome in the late 4th century. The Vetus Latina translations continued to be used alongside the Vulgate, but eventually the Vulgate became the standard Latin Bible used by the Catholic Church, especially after the Council of Trent (1545–1563) affirmed the Vulgate translation as authoritative for the text of Scripture. However, the Vetus Latina texts survive in some parts of the liturgy (eg., the Pater Noster).
As the English translation of Vetus Latina is "Old Latin", they are also sometimes referred to as the Old Latin Bible, although they are written in the form of Latin known as Late Latin, not that known as Old Latin. The Vetus Latina manuscripts that are preserved today are dated from AD 350 to the 13th century.
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