The Latin Patriarchate of Constantinople was an office established as a result of the Fourth Crusade and its conquest of Constantinople in 1204. It was a Roman Catholic replacement for the Eastern Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, and remained in the city until the reconquest of Constantinople by the Byzantines in 1261, whereupon it became a titular see. The office was finally abolished in 1964.
Before the East–West Schism in 1054, the Christian Church within the borders of the ancient Roman Empire was effectively ruled by five patriarchs (the "Pentarchy"): In descending order of precedence: Rome by the Bishop of Rome (who rarely used the title "Patriarch") and those of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem.
In the West the Bishop of Rome was recognized as having superiority over the other Patriarchs, while in the East, the Patriarch of Constantinople gradually came to occupy a leading position. In the East the Pope was generally considered first among equals, but not a direct superior. The sees of Rome and Constantinople were often at odds with one another, just as the Greek and Latin Churches as a whole were often at odds both politically and in things ecclesiastical. There were complex cultural currents underlying these difficulties, including the fact that in the West feudal models began to influence the way of viewing relations within the Church. The tensions led in 1054 to a serious rupture between the Greek East and Latin West called the East–West Schism, which while not in many places absolute, still dominates the ecclesiastical landscape.
In 1204, the Fourth Crusade invaded, seized and sacked Constantinople, and established the Latin Empire. This was not the doing of the Bishop of Rome, the Pope. Initially he spoke out against the fourth crusade. In writing to his legate the pope said, in part "How, indeed, is the Greek church to be brought back into ecclesiastical union and to a devotion for the Apostolic See when she has been beset with so many afflictions and persecutions that she sees in the Latins only an example of perdition and the works of darkness, so that she now, and with reason, detests the Latins more than dogs?" However the popes accepted the acts of the accompanying Catholic clergy who set up a patriarchate subservient in the Western manner to the Pope, in similar manner to what had already occurred in the Crusader states of the Holy Land. The pope recognised these "Latin" sees at the Fourth Council of the Lateran. Furthermore, those Orthodox bishops left in their place were made to swear an oath of allegiance to the pope.
When the last Latin emperor Baldwin II fled from Constantinople he was well received in Rome by Pope Urban IV who promised him support to regain the throne. This threat of continued support prompted the new Greek emperor to seek out a reunion. Understanding the situation of 1204 helps with the context of the reunion council.
By establishing communion with the Latin Patriarchs the Papacy in effect made official their position within the Roman Catholic Church. This act was part of a more general picture in which the Crusaders on the one hand established Latin Kingdoms officially acknowledged by the Roman Catholic Church, in the Middle East and in Greece and the Greek Islands, and also in parts of the Balkans. Included were a similar array of Latin episcopal sees.
However, the Latin Empire in Constantinople was eventually defeated and dispossessed by a resurgent Byzantium in 1261, and since that time Latin Patriarch Pantaleonе Giustinian (d. 1286) resided in the West, but continued to oversee the remaining Latin Catholic dioceses in various parts of Latin Greece. After the Union of Lyon (1274), John Bekkos was installed as a Greek Catholic Patriarch of Constantinople in 1275, but that did not affect the position of Pantaleonе Giustinian. His Greek Catholic counterpart was deposed in 1282 by Eastern Orthodox hierarchy, thus ending a short lived union. in 1286, Latin Patriarch Pantaleonе Giustinian was succeeded by Pietro Correr who was the first holder of that office in a new form of a titular see.
On 8 February 1314, Pope Clement V united the Patriarchate with the episcopal see of Negroponte (Chalcis), hitherto a suffragan of the Latin Archbishopric of Athens, so that the patriarchs could once more have a territorial diocese on Greek soil and exercise a direct role as the head of the Latin clergy in what remained of Latin Greece.
For a time, like many ecclesiastical offices in the West, it had rival contenders who were supporters or protégés of the rival popes. As to the title Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, this was the case at least from 1378 to 1423. Thereafter the office continued as an honorific title, during the later centuries attributed to a leading clergyman in Rome, until it ceased to be assigned after 1948 and was finally abolished in 1964.
A Vicariate Apostolic of Istanbul (until 1990, Constantinople) has existed from 1742 into the present day.
This title was officially abolished in 1965.
Argyrokastro (Greek: Αργυρόκαστρο, "silver castle") is a castle in the region of the Peloponnese, Greece. It is located in mountainous Arcadia, near the village of Magouliana, at an elevation of 1,450 m. It is also known as the Gortyniako dynamari (Γορτυνιακό δυναμάρι, "Gortynian stronghold").
The castle was erected during the Frankish rule by the Villehardouin dynasty of the Principality of Achaea, and served as their summer retreat.Carlo Nocella
Carlo Nocella (25 November 1826 – 22 July 1908) was an Italian cardinal. He was Secretary of the Sacred Consistorial Congregation (1892–1899), Latin Patriarch of Antioch (1899–1901), and Latin Patriarch of Constantinople (1901–1903).
Nocella was born in Rome and studied at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum S. Apollinare, from where he obtained a doctorate in canon and civil law. Ordained a priest on 2 September 1849, he joined the faculty of the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum S. Apollinare and later became Secretary of Latin Letters, canon of the Liberian Basilica and of St. Peter's Basilica, and protonotary apostolic de numero participantium. He was named Secretary of Briefs to the Princes on 5 December 1884, and Secretary of the Sacred Consistorial Congregation on 21 March 1892.On 22 June 1899, Nocella was appointed Latin Patriarch of Antioch by Pope Leo XIII. He received his episcopal consecration on the following 16 July from Cardinal Mariano Rampolla, with Archbishops Felice Maria de Neckere and Casimiro Gennari, at the altar of the Chair of Peter in St. Peter's Basilica. He was transferred to the Latin Patriarchate of Constantinople on 18 April 1901.Leo XIII created him Cardinal Priest of S. Callisto in the consistory of 22 June 1903. He participated in the 1903 papal conclave, which elected Pope Pius X. Nocella died in Rome, aged 81; he is buried in Campo Verano cemetery.Catholic Church in Turkey
The Catholic Church in Turkey is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and the canonical leadership of the curia in Rome.
Turkey is notable for being the only country with territory in Europe, other than Estonia, to have never had a Catholic bishop from its own dominant ethnic group in recent centuries.Catholic Patriarch of Antioch
Catholic Patriarch or Patriarchate of Antioch may refer to:
Latin Patriarchate of Antioch, a Roman Catholic titular see
Maronite Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch
For its Patriarchs, see List of Maronite Patriarchs of Antioch
Melkite Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch
For its Patriarchs, see List of Melkite Catholic Patriarchs of Antioch
Syriac Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch, a.k.a the Syriac Catholic Church
For its Patriarchs, see Syriac Catholic Patriarchs of AntiochKingdom of Thessalonica
The Kingdom of Thessalonica was a short-lived Crusader State founded after the Fourth Crusade over conquered Byzantine lands in Macedonia and Thessaly.Latins (Middle Ages)
The name Latin was in the Middle Ages a common demonym among the followers of the Latin Church of Western Christianity. It derived from the Italic tribe who in antiquity developed ancient Roman civilization. The name was used irrespective of ethnicity, including by Germanic, Italic and Slavic peoples. In the Byzantine Empire, and the broader Greek Orthodox world, Latins was an exonym for all people who followed Roman Catholic Christianity. It was generally a negative characterization, especially after the 1054 schism. Thus the people associated with the states created during the Crusades were generally referred to as Latins or Franks.Lordship of Chios
The Lordship of Chios was a short-lived autonomous lordship run by the Genoese Zaccaria family. Its core was the eastern Aegean island of Chios, and in its height it encompassed a number of other islands off the shore of Asia Minor. Although theoretically a vassal of the Byzantine Empire, the Zaccaria ruled the island as a practically independent domain from its capture in 1304 until the Greek-Byzantines recovered it, with the support of the local Greek population, in 1329.Lordship of Salona
The Lordship of Salona, after 1318 the County of Salona, was a Crusader state established after the Fourth Crusade (1204) in Central Greece, around the town of Salona (modern Amfissa, known in French as La Sole and Italian as La Sola).Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes
The Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes, also known as the Kastello (Greek: Καστέλο, from Italian: Castello, "castle"), is a medieval castle in the city of Rhodes, on the island of Rhodes in Greece. It is one of the few examples of Gothic architecture in Greece. The site was previously a citadel of the Knights Hospitaller that functioned as a palace, headquarters, and fortress.Patriarchate of Constantinople (disambiguation)
The term Patriarchate of Constantinople may refer to:
Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, an Eastern Orthodox Patriarchate, created by the Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon in 451
Latin Patriarchate of Constantinople, a Roman Catholic Patriarchate, of the Latin Rite, created in 1204, effectively existed until 1261, and later continued to exist just nominally, as a titular see
Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople, an Oriental Orthodox Patriarchate, created soon after Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453Princess of Achaea
This is a list of the princess consorts of Achaea, the consorts of the Princes of Achaea.
The Principality of Achaea had three princesses by their own rights: Isabella, Matilda, and Joan. Their husbands were not consorts. Maria II Zaccaria was princess consort and later reigning princess.Siege of Candia
The Siege of Candia (modern Heraklion, Crete) was a military conflict in which Ottoman forces besieged the Venetian-ruled city. Lasting from 1648 to 1669, or a total of 21 years, it is the second longest siege in history after the siege of Ceuta; however, the Ottomans were ultimately victorious despite Candia's unprecedented resistance.Siege of Rhodes (1480)
In 1480 the small Knights Hospitaller garrison of Rhodes withstood an attack of the Ottoman Empire.Stato da Màr
The Stato da Màr or Domini da Mar ("State/Domains of the Sea") was the name given to the Republic of Venice's maritime and overseas possessions, including Istria, Dalmatia, Albania, Negroponte, the Morea (the "Kingdom of the Morea"), the Aegean islands of the Duchy of the Archipelago, and the islands of Crete (the "Kingdom of Candia") and Cyprus. It was one of the three subdivisions of the Republic of Venice's possessions, the other two being the Dogado, i.e. Venice proper, and the Domini di Terraferma in northern Italy.Stefano Ugolini
Stefano Ugolini (died 1681) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Titular Patriarch of Constantinople (1667–1681) and Titular Archbishop of Corinthus (1666–1667).Theodore II of Constantinople
Theodore II Eirenikos (Greek: Θεόδωρος Β' Εἰρηνικός), (? – 31 January 1216), also known as Theodore Kopas or Koupas (Κωπάς/Κουπάς), was a high-ranking Byzantine official and chief minister during most of the reign of the Byzantine emperor Alexios III Angelos (r. 1195–1203). After the fall of Constantinople to the Fourth Crusade, he fled to the Empire of Nicaea, where he became a monk and served as Patriarch of Constantinople in exile in 1214–1216.Thomas Morosini
Thomas Morosini (Italian: Tommaso Morosini; Venice, ca. 1170/1175 – Thessalonica, June/July 1211) was the first Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, from 1204 to his death in July 1211. Morosini, then a sub-deacon, was elected patriarch by the Venetians immediately after the sack of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade and the establishment of the Latin Empire. At first, his election was contested as uncanonical by Pope Innocent III.
His tenure was troubled and decreased the Latin Church's prestige. His relationship to the court of the Latin emperor Henry of Flanders was strained due to questions of jurisdiction, accusations of embezzlement from the treasury of the Hagia Sophia, and chiefly due to Morosini's exclusive promotion of Venetian clergy to higher ecclesiastical offices. He also failed to reconcile the Orthodox Byzantine Greeks, both clergy and people, to Catholic rule; instead, they transferred their allegiance to the Empire of Nicaea. After his death, the see remained vacant until the election in November 1215 of Bishop Gervasius (Gervais) of Heraclea Pontica.Treaty of Nymphaeum (1214)
The Treaty of Nymphaeum (Greek: Συνθήκη του Νυμφαίου) was a peace treaty signed in December 1214 between the Nicaean Empire, successor state of the Byzantine Empire, and the Latin Empire, which was established in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade of 1204.Zaraka Monastery
Zaraka Monastery is a ruined Frankish abbey near Stymfalia, in the Peloponnese, in Greece. It was built about a kilometre from the shores of Lake Stymphalia, the site of the ancient city of Stymphalus, during the "Frankokratia", i.e. the occupation of parts of the Byzantine Empire by Franks and Venetians, following the events of the Fourth Crusade in 1204, and the establishment of the Latin Empire of Constantinople and Greece.
|Latin Church Fathers|
Traditional ecclesiastical jurisidictions in Christianity (and denominational claimants), sorted according to earliest legacy
Legend: in bold blue the patriarchs belonging to the Catholic Church, in light blue those belonging to the Eastern Catholic Church, and in green those belonging to Oriental Orthodoxy.
in late Antiquity
Christ Pantocrator (circa 1261) in Hagia Sophia
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