The term Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is an English-language acronym referring to the Caribbean and Latin America region. The term LAC covers an extensive region, extending from Bahamas to Chile and Argentina. The region consists over 670.230.000 people as for 2016, and spanned for 21.951.000 km2 (8.475.000 sq mi).
Main articles: Mexico
The Permanent Conference of Political Parties of Latin America and the Caribbean (French: Conférence permanente des partis politiques d'Amérique latine et des Caraïbes; Spanish: Conferencia Permanente de Partidos Políticos de América Latina y el Caribe, COPPPAL) is an international organization of political parties in Latin America and the Caribbean. It was created at the behest of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) on 12 October 1979 in Oaxaca, Mexico, and brings together Liberal, social democratic, Christian democratic, and leftist political parties. Today COPPPAL is the most important forum of political parties in Latin America and the Caribbean.Its first president (1979-1981) was Gustavo Carvajal Moreno of Mexico (PRI). Its current president is the Dominican politician Manolo Pichardo (PLD).Canadian mining in Latin America and the Caribbean
Canadian mining in Latin America and the Caribbean began in the 20th century. Latin America and the Caribbean's vast resources give the region great geopolitical importance, attracting foreign interest for centuries. From the colonial race of European empires, to the multinationals of today's neoliberal capitalist world, this region continues to draw interest. Canada's involvement in Latin America increased dramatically since 1989 with several landmark negotiations and agreements. By 2009, the Canadian larger-company mineral exploration market in this region was valued at US$1.7 billion. Currently, Latin America and the Caribbean are dominated by Canadian companies falling from a 49% to 32% held control over the larger-company mineral exploration market after the global recession of 2008. The Canadian share of the market is roughly US$59 million more than the amount domestic companies planned to spend in this region. Both Mexico and Chile have the most intense focus of Canadian mining companies; however, their interest and involvement in other Latin American countries is prevalent.History of the Jews in Latin America and the Caribbean
The history of the Jews in Latin America began with conversos who joined the Spanish and Portuguese expeditions to the continents. The Alhambra Decree of 1492 led to the mass conversion of Spain's Jews to Catholicism and the expulsion of those who refused to do so. However, the vast majority of Conversos never made it to the New Word and remained in Spain slowly assimilating to the dominant Catholic culture. This was due to the requirement by Spain's Blood Statues to provide written documentation of Old Christian lineage in order to travel to the New World.
However, throughout the 15th and 16th centuries a number of Converso families migrated to the Netherlands, France and eventually Italy, from where they joined other expeditions to the Americas. Others migrated to England or France and accompanied their colonists as traders and merchants. By the late 16th century, fully functioning Jewish communities were founded in the Portuguese colony of Brazil, the Dutch Suriname and Curaçao; Spanish Santo Domingo, and the English colonies of Jamaica and Barbados. In addition, there were unorganized communities of Jews in Spanish and Portuguese territories where the Inquisition was active, including Colombia, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Mexico and Peru. Many in such communities were crypto-Jews, who had generally concealed their identity from the authorities.
By the mid-17th century, the largest Jewish communities in the Western Hemisphere were located in Suriname and Brazil. Several Jewish communities in the Caribbean, Central and South America flourished, particularly in those areas under Dutch and English control, which were more tolerant. More immigrants went to this region as part of the massive emigration of Jews from eastern Europe in the late 19th century. During and after World War II, many Ashkenazi Jews emigrated to South America for refuge. In the 21st century, fewer than 300,000 Jews live in Latin America. They are concentrated in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, with the first considered the center of the Jewish population in Latin America.Illegal drug trade in Latin America
The illegal drug trade in Latin America concerns primarily the production and sale of cocaine and cannabis, including the export of these banned substances to the United States and Europe. The Coca cultivation is concentrated in the Andes of South America, particularly in Colombia, Peru and Bolivia; this is the world's only source region for coca.Drug consumption in Latin America remains relatively low, but cocaine in particular has increased in recent years in countries along the major smuggling routes. As of 2008, the primary pathway for drugs into the United States is through Mexico and Central America, though crackdowns on drug trafficking by the Mexican government has forced many cartels to operate routes through Guatemala and Honduras instead. This is a shift from the 1980s and early 90s, when the main smuggling route was via the Caribbean into Florida. The United States is the primary destination, but around 25 to 30% of global cocaine production travels from Latin America to Europe, typically via West Africa.The major drug trafficking organizations (drug cartels) are Mexican and Colombian, and said to generate a total of $18 to $39bn in wholesale drug proceeds per year. Mexican cartels are currently considered the "greatest organized crime threat" to the United States. Since February 2010, the major Mexican cartels have again aligned in two factions, one integrated by the Juárez Cartel, Tijuana Cartel, Los Zetas and the Beltrán-Leyva Cartel; the other faction integrated by the Gulf Cartel, Sinaloa Cartel and La Familia Cartel.Prior to the Mexican cartels' rise, the Colombian Cali cartel and Medellín cartel dominated in the late 1980s and early 90s. Following their demise, the Norte del Valle cartel has filled the Colombian vacuum, along with rightwing paramilitaries (e.g. United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia, AUC) and leftwing insurgent groups (FARC, ELN).As a result of the concentration of drug trafficking, Latin America and the Caribbean has the world's highest crime rates, with murder reaching 32.6 per 100,000 of population in 2008. Violence has surged in Mexico since 2006 when Mexican President Felipe Calderón intensified the Mexican Drug War.Institute of Latin American Studies
The Institute of Latin American Studies (ILAS) was established in 1965 at the University of London, with the objective of providing a focus for research on the literature, history, politics and economics of Latin America and the Caribbean. Between 2004 and 2013, the ILAS formed part of the Institute for the Study of the Americas (ISA), along with the Institute of United States Studies (IUSS). In August 2013, ILAS was re-established to focus solely on supporting research on Latin America and the Caribbean. Located in Senate House, ILAS is one of ten institutes that together comprise the School of Advanced Study, University of London.
The national and international mission of ILAS is to support researchers engaged in scholarship in the humanities broadly defined pertaining to Latin America and the Caribbean by building and maintaining national scholarly networks; hosting visiting fellows; hosting and promoting academic events; and providing digital resources of use for the research community. The Institute’s focus is multidisciplinary and, as part of the School of Advanced Study, benefits from academic collaboration across a wide range of subject fields in the humanities and social sciences. Further, ILAS works closely with cultural, diplomatic and business organizations with an interest in Latin America.Liberalism and conservatism in Latin America
Liberalism and conservatism in Latin America have unique historical roots as Latin American independence began to occur in 1808 after the French Revolution and the subsequent Napoleonic Wars that eventually engulfed all of Europe. French revolutionaries in the 1790s began an intellectual awakening called the Enlightenment, which opened the door for ideas of positivism in Latin American society and people in Latin America turned to liberal ideologies as liberalism means the idea of liberty, equality and popular sovereignty.
During the early 19th century in Latin America, liberalism clashed with conservative views as liberals wanted to end the dominance of the Catholic Church, class stratification and slavery. These issues for many years strongly affected the way that Latin American society was organized. The majority of liberals believed in a democratic system of government, but this system would create many changes and much confusion in Latin American communities in the early 19th century. On the other hand, conservatism favored existing systems and hierarchies. Conservatives believed chaos and social disorder would break out if the political system were liberalized. Latin American conservatives generally believed in class stratification and opposed radical change in government in Latin America.
The contest between liberals and conservatives in Latin America, while sweeping in effect, was largely fought between members of the landed, white or creole elite. Systems in place from the colonial period—such as slavery, patronage by the elite and debt peonage—meant that the great mass of Indians, Africans and people of mixed race had little, if any power compared to the very small creole ruling class. Thus the concern that liberalization would lead to "disorder" that the conservatives spoke about was often a veiled or transparent fear of race war.
Caudillos soon came to power in some Latin American societies, such as Argentina and Mexico. Caudillos were conservatives who promised protection and restoration of traditional ways to the people. They were generally pragmatic, believing in a ruling system of what works best. Caudillos used military force to hold society together.List of World Heritage Sites in the Americas
The following are lists of World Heritage Sites in the Americas:
List of World Heritage Sites in North America
List of World Heritage Sites in Central America
List of World Heritage Sites in the Caribbean
List of World Heritage Sites in South AmericaList of responsibilities in the water supply and sanitation sector in Latin America and the Caribbean
This is a list of the different responsibilities in the water supply and sanitation sector in several Latin American and Caribbean countries. It includes the responsible institutions which set sector policies, agencies of economic regulation and service providers in urban and rural areas. The list can only give a simplified description in many cases due to overlapping responsibilities and/or unclear definitions. For more information on water supply and sanitation in each country, please click the respective country link.Media of Latin America
Media of Latin America includes a range of media groups across television, radio and the press. Pan-Latin American television networks include the US-based CNN en Español, Univision, and MundoVision, as well as Spain's Canal 24 Horas. In 2005 TeleSUR, headquartered in Caracas, Venezuela, was launched with the support of regional governments, with the objective of providing information to promote the integration of Latin America. and as a counterweight to existing large international media.
Mexican media mogul Remigio Ángel González's Albavision encompasses 26 TV stations and 82 radio stations, and includes La Red (Chile), ATV (Peru), SNT (Paraguay) and Canal 9 (Argentina). González's is a particularly powerful force in the media of Guatemala, with a virtual monopoly of the commercial television airwaves.
Grupo Clarín, with 2009 revenues of $1.7bn, is Argentina's largest media group. Established as such in 1999, it includes the Clarín newspaper (the most-widely circulated in Latin America), the Artear media company, and numerous other media outlets.
The Peruvian newspaper, "El Peruano" was founded in October 22, 1825 is the oldest daily newspaper in Latin America, currently in circulation.Music of Latin America
The music of Latin America refers to music originating from Latin America, namely the Romance-speaking countries and territories of the Americas and the Caribbean south of the United States. Latin American music also incorporates African music from slaves who were transported to the Americas by European settlers as well as music from the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Due to its highly syncretic nature, Latin American music encompasses a wide variety of styles, including influential genres such as cumbia, bachata, bossa nova, merengue, rumba, salsa, samba, son, and tango. During the 20th century, many styles were influenced by the music of the United States giving rise to genres such as Latin pop, rock, jazz, hip hop, and reggaeton.
Geographically, it usually refers to the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of Latin America, but sometimes includes Francophone countries and territories of the Caribbean and South America as well. It also encompasses Latin American styles that have originated in the United States such as salsa and Tejano. The origins of Latin American music can be traced back to the Spanish and Portuguese conquest of the Americas in the 16th century, when the European settlers brought their music from overseas. Latin American music is performed in Spanish, Portuguese, and to a lesser extent, French.OPANAL
The OPANAL (which stands for el Organismo para la Proscripción de las Armas Nucleares en la América Latina y el Caribe) is an international organization which promotes a non-aggression pact and nuclear disarmament in much of the Americas. In English, its name is the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. The agency was created as a result of the Treaty of Tlatelolco, ratified in 1969, which forbids its signatory nations from use, storage, or transport of nuclear weapons.
The first official Secretary General was Leopoldo Benites from Ecuador.Obi divination
Obi divination is a system of divination used in the traditional Yoruba religion and in Yoruba-derived Afro-American religions. In Yorubaland, it uses palm or kola nuts; in Latin America and the Caribbean it uses four pieces of coconut.Religion in Latin America
Religions in Latin America is characterized by the historical predominance of Catholic Christianity, increasing Protestant influence, as well as by the presence of other world religions. According to survey data from 2014, 69% of the Latin American population is Catholic and 17% is Protestant, rising to 26% in Brazil and over 44% in much of Central America.Television in Latin America
Television in Latin America currently includes more than 1,500 television stations and more than 60 million TV sets throughout the 20 countries that constitute Latin America. Due to economic and political problems television networks in some countries of this region have developed less than the North American and European networks, for instance. In other countries like Colombia or Chile, television broadcasting has historically been public-broadcast dominated until the 1990s. The largest commercial television groups are Mexico-based Televisa, Brazil-based Globo and Canada-based Canwest Latin American Group. Due to the shared language of Spanish by two thirds of Latin Americans a lot of programmes and broadcasters operate throughout the region, offering both United States television (often dubbed into Spanish) and Spanish-language television.Treaty of Tlatelolco
The Treaty of Tlatelolco is the conventional name given to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. It is embodied in the OPANAL (Spanish: Organismo para la Proscripción de las Armas Nucleares en la América Latina y el Caribe, English: the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean).United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, known as ECLAC, UNECLAC or in Spanish and Portuguese CEPAL, is a United Nations regional commission to encourage economic cooperation. ECLAC includes 46 member States (20 in Latin America, 13 in the Caribbean and 13 from outside the region), and 13 associate members which are various non-independent territories, associated island countries and a commonwealth in the Caribbean. ECLAC publishes statistics covering the countries of the region and makes cooperative agreements with nonprofit institutions. ECLAC's headquarters is in Santiago, Chile.
ECLAC was established in 1948 as the UN Economic Commission for Latin America, or UNECLA. In 1984, a resolution was passed to include the countries of the Caribbean in the name. It reports to the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).Water supply and sanitation in Latin America
Water supply and sanitation in Latin America is characterized by insufficient access and in many cases by poor service quality, with detrimental impacts on public health. Water and sanitation services are provided by a vast array of mostly local service providers under an often fragmented policy and regulatory framework. Financing of water and sanitation remains a serious challenge.World Heritage Sites by country
As of July 2018, there are a total of 1,092 World Heritage Sites located in 167 States Parties (countries that have adhered to the World Heritage Convention), of which 845 are cultural, 209 are natural and 38 are mixed properties. The countries have been divided by the World Heritage Committee into five geographic zones: Africa, Arab States, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and North America, and Latin America and the Caribbean. The country with the largest number of sites (including sites shared with other countries) is Italy, with 54 entries. The country with the largest number of sites by itself alone (excluding sites shared with other countries) is China, with 53 entries.World Network of Biosphere Reserves in Latin America and the Caribbean
Under UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme, there are 125 biosphere reserves recognized as part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves in Latin America and the Caribbean (as of April, 2016). These are distributed across 21 countries in the region.