Last Judgment

The Last Judgment[a] or The Day of the Lord (Hebrew: יום הדין‎, romanizedYom Ha Din, Arabic: یوم القيامة‎, romanizedYawm al-Qiyāmah or یوم الدین, translit. Yawm ad-Din) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.

Some Christian denominations consider the Second Coming of Christ to be the final and eternal judgment by God of the people in every nation[1] resulting in the glorification of some and the punishment of others. The concept is found in all the Canonical gospels, particularly the Gospel of Matthew. Christian Futurists believe it will take place after the Resurrection of the Dead and the Second Coming of Christ while Full Preterists believe it has already occurred. The Last Judgment has inspired numerous artistic depictions.

Christianity

Biblical sources

Michelangelo Buonarroti - Jugement dernier
The Last Judgment by Michelangelo

The doctrine and iconographic depiction of the "Last Judgment" are drawn from many passages from the apocalyptic sections of the Bible, but most notably from Jesus' teaching of the strait gate in the Gospel of Matthew and also found in the Gospel of Luke:

Enter ye in at the strait gate: for wide is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which go in thereat: Because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it. Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves. Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? Even so, every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit. A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit. Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. Therefore, by their fruits ye shall know them. Not every one that saith unto me: Lord, Lord, shall enter into the Kingdom of Heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in Heaven. Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity. (Matthew 7:13–23)

Then said one unto him, Lord, are there few that be saved? And he said unto them, Strive to enter in at the strait gate: for many, I say unto you, will seek to enter in, and shall not be able. When once the master of the house is risen up, and hath shut to the door, and ye begin to stand without, and to knock at the door, saying, Lord, Lord, open unto us; and he shall answer and say unto you, I know you not whence ye are: Then shall ye begin to say, We have eaten and drunk in thy presence, and thou hast taught in our streets. But he shall say, I tell you, I know you not whence ye are; depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity. There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, in the kingdom of God, and you yourselves thrust out. (Luke 13:23–28)

Cathedrale Saint-Guy Prague facade sud mosaique Jugement dernier
The Last Judgment mosaic (14th-century), Saint Vitus Cathedral, Prague, Czech Republic

It also appears in the Sheep and the Goats section of Matthew where the judgment seems entirely based on help given or refused to "one of the least of these my brethren"[2] who are identified in Matthew 12 as "whosoever shall do the will of my Father which is in heaven".[3]

“When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit on the throne of his glory. All the nations will be gathered before him, and he will separate people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats, and he will put the sheep at his right hand and the goats at the left. Then the king will say to those at his right hand, ‘Come, you that are blessed by my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; for I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink, I was a stranger and you welcomed me, I was naked and you gave me clothing, I was sick and you took care of me, I was in prison and you visited me.’ (Matthew 25:31–36),

And the king will answer them, ‘Truly I tell you, just as you did it to one of the least of these who are members of my family, you did it to me.’ Then he will say to those at his left hand, ‘You that are accursed, depart from me into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels; for I was hungry and you gave me no food, I was thirsty and you gave me nothing to drink, I was a stranger and you did not welcome me, naked and you did not give me clothing, sick and in prison and you did not visit me.’ (Matthew 25:40–43)

Then he will answer them, ‘Truly I tell you, just as you did not do it to one of the least of these, you did not do it to me.’ And these will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.” (Matthew 25:45–46)

The doctrine is further supported by passages in the Books of Daniel, Isaiah and the Revelation:

Then I saw a great white throne and him who was seated on it. From his presence earth and sky fled away, and no place was found for them. And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened. Then another book was opened, which is the book of life. And the dead were judged by what was written in the books, according to what they had done. (Rev 20:11–12)

Even now the axe is lying at the root of the trees; every tree therefore that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. "I baptize you with water for repentance, but one who is more powerful than I is coming after me; I am not worthy to carry his sandals. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire. His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will clear his threshing-floor and will gather his wheat into the granary; but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire." (Matthew 3:10–12)

Just as the weeds are collected and burned up with fire, so will it be at the end of the age. The Son of Man will send his angels, and they will collect out of his kingdom all causes of sin and all evildoers, and they will throw them into the furnace of fire, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. Then the righteous will shine like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Let anyone with ears listen! (Matthew 13:40–43)

I tell you, my friends, do not fear those who kill the body, and after that can do nothing more. But I will warn you whom to fear: fear him who, after he has killed, has authority to cast into hell. Yes, I tell you, fear him! (Luke 12:4–5)

I came to bring fire to the earth, and how I wish it were already kindled! (Luke 12:49)

Amillennialism

Amillennialism is the standard view in Christian denominations such as the Anglican, Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran, Methodist and Presbyterian/Reformed Churches.[4][5] It holds that "the kingdom of God is present in the church age",[6] and that the millennium mentioned in the Book of Revelation is a "symbol of the saints reigning with Christ forever in victory."[7]

Anglicanism and Methodism

Article IV - Of the Resurrection of Christ in Anglicanism's Articles of Religion and Article III - Of the Resurrection of Christ of Methodism's Articles of Religion state that:[8][9]

Christ did truly rise again from death, and took again his body, with flesh, bones, and all things appertaining to the perfection of Man's nature; wherewith he ascended into Heaven, and there sitteth, until he return to judge all Men at the last day.[8][9]

As such, Anglican and Methodist theology holds that "there is an intermediate state between death and the resurrection of the dead, in which the soul does not sleep in unconsciousness, but exists in happiness or misery till the resurrection, when it shall be reunited to the body and receive its final reward."[10][11] This space, termed Hades, is divided into Paradise (the Bosom of Abraham) and Gehenna "but with an impassable gulf between the two".[12][13] Souls remain in Hades until the Last Judgment and "Christians may also improve in holiness after death during the middle state before the final judgment".[14][15]

Anglican and Methodist theology holds that at the time of the Last Day, "Jesus will return and that He will 'judge both the quick and the dead',"[16][17] and "all [will] be bodily resurrected and stand before Christ as our Judge. After the Judgment, the Righteous will go to their eternal reward in Heaven and the Accursed will depart to Hell (see Matthew 25)."[18] The "issue of this judgment shall be a permanent separation of the evil and the good, the righteous and the wicked" (see The Sheep and the Goats).[19][20] Moreover, in "the final judgment every one of our thoughts, words, and deeds will be known and judged" and individuals will be justified on the basis of their faith in Jesus, although "our works will not escape God's examination."[17][21]

Catholicism

Belief in the Last Judgment (often linked with the General judgment) is held firmly in Catholicism. Immediately upon death each soul undergoes the particular judgment, and depending upon the state of the person's soul, goes to Heaven, Purgatory, or Hell. A soul in Purgatory will always reach Heaven, but those in Hell will be there eternally.

The Last Judgment will occur after the resurrection of the dead and the reuniting of a person's soul with its own physical body.[22] The Catholic Church teaches that at the time of the Last Judgment Christ will come in His glory, and all the angels with him, and in his presence the truth of each man's relationship with God will be laid bare, and each person who has ever lived will be judged with perfect justice with those believing in Christ (and the unknown number of the righteous ignorant of Christ's teaching, but who might be mysteriously saved through by Christ's atonement), going to everlasting bliss, and those who reject Christ going to everlasting condemnation.

A decisive factor in the Last Judgement will be the question, if the corporal works of mercy were practiced or not during lifetime. They rate as important acts of charity. Therefore, and according to the biblical sources (Mt 25:31-46), the conjunction of the Last Judgement and the works of mercy is very frequent in the pictorial tradition of Christian art.[23]

During the Last Judgment, all will be resurrected. Those who were in purgatory will have already been purged, meaning they would have already been released into Heaven, and so like those in Heaven and Hell will resurrect with their bodies. Following the Last Judgment, the bliss of Heaven & Earth, as well as the pains of Hell will be perfected in that those present will also be capable of physical bliss/pain.

After the Last Judgment the Universe itself will be renewed with a new Heaven and a new earth in the World to Come. The Eastern Orthodox and Catholic teachings of the Last Judgment differ only on the exact nature of the in-between state of purgatory/Abraham's Bosom. These differences may only be apparent and not actual due to differing theological terminology and tradition.

Eastern Orthodoxy

MHS Sad Ostateczny XVII w Lipie p
The Last Judgment, 17th-century icon from Lipie. Historic Museum in Sanok, Poland.
Voronet last judgment
The Last Judgment, mural from Voroneț Monastery, Romania

The Eastern Orthodox Church teaches that there are two judgments: the first, or "Particular" Judgment, is that experienced by each individual at the time of his or her death, at which time God will decide where[24] the soul is to spend the time until the Second Coming of Christ (see Hades in Christianity). This judgment is generally believed to occur on the fortieth day after death. The second, "General" or "Final" Judgment will occur after the Second Coming.

Although in modern times some have attempted to introduce the concept of soul sleep into Orthodox thought about life after death, it has never been a part of traditional Orthodox teaching, and it even contradicts the Orthodox understanding of the intercession of the Saints.

Eastern Orthodoxy teaches that salvation is bestowed by God as a free gift of Divine grace, which cannot be earned, and by which forgiveness of sins is available to all. However, the deeds done by each person are believed to affect how he will be judged, following the Parable of the Sheep and the Goats. How forgiveness is to be balanced against behavior is not well-defined in scripture, judgment in the matter being solely Christ's.

Similarly, although Orthodoxy teaches that salvation is obtained only through Christ and his Church, the fate of those outside the Church at the Last Judgment is left to the mercy of God and is not declared.

Vasnetsov Last Judgment
Viktor Vasnetsov's The Last Judgment, 1904

The theme of the Last Judgment is extremely important in Orthodoxy. Traditionally, an Orthodox church will have a fresco or mosaic of the Last Judgment on the back (western) wall (see the 12th-century mosaic pictured at the top of this page) so that the faithful, as they leave the services, are reminded that they will be judged by what they do during this earthly life.

The icon of the Last Judgment traditionally depicts Christ Pantokrator, enthroned in glory on a white throne, surrounded by the Theotokos (Virgin Mary), John the Baptist, Apostles, saints and angels. Beneath the throne the scene is divided in half with the "mansions of the righteous" (John 14:2), i.e., those who have been saved to Jesus' right (the viewer's left); and the torments of those who have been damned to his left. Separating the two is the River of fire which proceeds from Jesus' left foot. For more detail, see below.

The theme of the Last Judgment is found in the funeral and memorial hymnody of the Church, and is a major theme in the services during Great Lent. The second Sunday before the beginning of Great Lent is dedicated to the Last Judgment. It is also found in the hymns of the Octoechos used on Saturdays throughout the year.

Lutheranism

Lutherans do not believe in any sort of earthly millennial kingdom of Christ either before or after his second coming on the last day.[25] On the last day,[26] all the dead will be resurrected.[27] Their souls will then be reunited with the same bodies they had before dying.[28] The bodies will then be changed, those of the wicked to a state of everlasting shame and torment,[29] those of the righteous to an everlasting state of celestial glory.[30] After the resurrection of all the dead,[31] and the change of those still living,[32] all nations shall be gathered before Christ,[33] and he will separate the righteous from the wicked.[34] Christ will publicly judge[35] all people by the testimony of their faith— [36] the good works[37] of the righteous in evidence of their faith,[38] and the evil works of the wicked in evidence of their unbelief.[39] He will judge in righteousness[40] in the presence of all and men and angels,[41] and his final judgement will be just damnation to everlasting punishment for the wicked and a gracious gift of life everlasting to the righteous.[42]

Millennialism

Illustrations to Robert Blair's The Grave , object 12 The Day of Judgment
William Blake's The Day of Judgment printed in 1808 to illustrate the Robert Blair's poem "The Grave"

Particularly among those Protestant groups who adhere to a millennialist eschatology, the Last Judgment is said to be carried out before the Great White Throne by Jesus Christ to either eternal life or eternal consciousness in the lake of fire at the end of time. Salvation is granted by grace based on the individual's surrender and commitment to Jesus Christ. A second particular judgment they refer to as the Bema Seat judgement occurs after (or as) salvation is discerned when awards are granted based on works toward heavenly treasures.[43] What happens after death and before the final judgment is hotly contested; some believe all people sleep in Sheol until the resurrection, others believe Christians dwell in Heaven and pagans wander the earth, and others consider the time to pass instantaneously. Nevertheless, the body is not fully redeemed until after Death is destroyed after the Great Tribulation.

Protestant Millennialism falls into roughly two categories: Premillennialist (Christ's second coming precedes the millennium) and Postmillennialist (which sees Christ's second coming as occurring after the millennium).

Dispensational premillennialism generally holds that Israel and the Church are separate. It also widely holds to the pretribulational return of Christ, which believes that Jesus will return before a seven-year Tribulation followed by an additional return of Christ with his saints.

Esoteric Christian tradition

Although the Last Judgment is preached by a great part of Christian mainstream churches; the Esoteric Christian traditions like the Essenes and Rosicrucians, the Spiritualist movement, Christian Science, and some liberal theologies reject the traditional conception of the Last Judgment, as inconsistent with an all-just and loving God, in favor of some form of universal salvation.

Max Heindel taught that when the Day of Christ comes, marking the end of the current fifth or Aryan epoch, the human race will have to pass a final examination or last judgment, where, as in the Days of Noah,[44] the chosen ones or pioneers, the sheep, will be separated from the goats or stragglers,[45] by being carried forward into the next evolutionary period, inheriting the ethereal conditions of the New Galilee in the making. Nevertheless, it is emphasized that all beings of the human evolution will ultimately be saved in a distant future as they acquire a superior grade of consciousness and altruism. At the present period, the process of human evolution is conducted by means of successive rebirths in the physical world[46] and the salvation is seen as being mentioned in Revelation 3:12 (KJV), which states "Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God and he shall go no more out". However, this western esoteric tradition states—like those who have had a near-death experience—that after the death of the physical body, at the end of each physical lifetime and after the life review period (which occurs before the silver cord is broken), it occurs a judgment, more akin to a Final Review or End Report over one's life, where the life of the subject is fully evaluated and scrutinized.[47] This judgment is seen as being mentioned in Hebrews 9:27, which states that "it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment".

Artistic representations

Tom Schulhauser - The Last Judgment - Das Juengste Gericht - 2014
The Last Judgment, 2014, by Tom Schulhauser

In art, the Last Judgment is a common theme in medieval and renaissance religious iconography. Like most early iconographic innovations, its origins stem from Byzantine art, although it was a much less common subject than in the West during the Middle Ages.[48] In Western Christianity, it is often the subject depicted in medieval cathedrals and churches, either outside on the central tympanum of the entrance, or inside on the (rear) west wall, so that the congregation attending church saw the image on either entering of leaving.

In the 15th century it also appeared as the central section of a triptych on altarpieces, with the side panels showing heaven and hell, as in the Beaune Altarpiece or a triptych by Hans Memling. The usual composition has Christ seated high in the centre, flanked by angels and the Virgin Mary and John the Evangelist who are supplicating on behalf of the souls being judged (in what is called a Deesis group in Orthodoxy). Saint Michael is often shown, either weighing souls on scales or directing matters, and there might be a large crowd of saints, angels, and the saved around the central group.

At the bottom of the composition a crowd of souls are shown, often with some rising from their graves. These are being sorted and directed by angels into the saved and the damned. Almost always the saved are on the viewer's left (so on the right hand of Christ), and the damned on the right. The saved are led up to heaven, often shown as a fortified gateway, while the damned are handed over to devils who herd them down into hell on the right; the composition therefore has a circular pattern of movement. Often the damned disappear into a Hellmouth, the mouth of a huge monster, an image of Anglo-Saxon origin. The damned often include figures of high rank, wearing crowns, mitres and often the Papal tiara during the lengthy periods when there were antipopes, or in Protestant depictions. There may be detailed depictions of the torments of the damned.

The most famous Renaissance depiction is Michelangelo Buonarroti's The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel. Included in this fresco is his self-portrait, as St. Bartholomew's flayed skin.[49]

A contemporary adaptation of Michelangelos version is the Last Judgment (2014) by Tom Schulhauser. As a variable cluster of 96 painted portraits of people found on the World Wide Web, the protagonists can interchange their status within the composition. "Damned ones can be redeemed, trombonists turn to martyrs. and saints can be pushed into hell." (Tom Schulhauser)

The image in Eastern Orthodox icons has a similar composition, but usually less space is devoted to Hell, and there are often a larger number of scenes; the Orthodox readiness to label figures with inscriptions often allows more complex compositions. There is more often a large group of saints around Christ (which may include animals), and the hetoimasia or "empty throne", containing a cross, is usually shown below Christ, often guarded by archangels; figures representing Adam and Eve may kneel below it or below Christ. A distinctive feature of the Orthodox composition, especially in Russian icons, is a large band leading like a chute from the feet of Christ down to Hell; this may resemble a striped snake or be a "river of Fire" coloured flame red. If it is shown as a snake, it attempts to bite Adam on the heel, but as he is protected by Christ is unsuccessful.

Islam

According to Islamic tradition, Yawm al-Qiyāmah (Arabic: يوم القيامة‎ "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Din (Arabic: يوم الدين‎ "the Day of Judgment") is believed to be God's (Allāh) final assessment of humanity. The sequence of events (according to the most commonly held belief) is the annihilation of all creatures, resurrection of the body, and the judgment of all sentient creatures. It is a time where everyone would be shown his or her deeds and actions with justice.

The exact time when these events will occur is unknown, however there are said to be major[50] and minor signs[51] which are to occur near the time of Qiyammah (End time). It is believed that prior to the time of Qiyammah, two dangerous, evil tribes called Yajooj and Majooj are released from a dam-resembling wall that Allah makes stronger everyday. Other signs being the coming of Isa bin Maryam (Jesus), appearance of Antichrist (Al-Masih ad-Dajjal), the sun rising from the west, and the Beast of the Earth. Also other signs like the blowing of the first trumpet by an archangel Israfil, the coming of rain of mercy that will cause human to grow from the last remain of a back bone. Many verses of the Quran, especially the earlier ones, are dominated by the idea of the nearing of the day of resurrection.[52][53]

Belief in Judgment Day is considered a fundamental tenet of faith by all Muslims. It is one of the six articles of faith. The trials and tribulations associated with it are detailed in both the Quran and the hadith, sayings of the Prophet Muhammad. Hence they were added in the commentaries of the Islamic expositors and scholarly authorities such as al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Majah, Muhammad al-Bukhari, and Ibn Khuzaimah who explain them in detail. Every human, Muslim and non-Muslim alike, is believed to be held accountable for their deeds and are believed to be judged by God accordingly.

Judaism

In Judaism, beliefs vary about a last day of judgment for all mankind. Some rabbis hold that there will be such a day following the resurrection of the dead. Others hold that this accounting and judgment happens when one dies. Still others hold that the last judgment only applies to the gentiles (goyim) and not the Jewish people.[54]

Bahai Faith

The Bab and Baha'u'llah taught that there is one unfolding religion of one God and that once in about every 1000 years a new messenger prophet, Rasul al-Nabii, or as Bahais call them, Manifestation of God, comes to mankind to renew the Kingdom of God on earth and establish a new Covenant between humanity and God. Each time a new Manifestation of God comes it is considered the Day of Judgement, Day of Resurrection, or 'the Last Hour'[55] for the believers and unbelievers of the previous Manifestation of God. The Bab told of the judgment:

"There shall be no resurrection of the day, in the sense of the coming forth from the physical graves.

Rather, the resurrection of all shall occur (in the form of) those that are living in that age. If they belong to paradise, they shall be believers, if to hell, they shall be unbelievers. There is no denying that upon the Day of Resurrection, each and every thing shall be raised to life before God, may he be praised and glorified. For God shall originate that creation and then cause it to return. He has decreed the creation of all things, and he shall raise them to life again. God is powerful over all things." [56]

Also, the coming of The Bab is the promised Mahdi and Qaim, and the coming of Baha'u'llah is the return of Christ through His Revelation, which respectively signify the Day of Judgement foretold by Muhammad[57] and the Day of Resurrection foretold by the Bayan.[58]

Future Day of Judgment

Last Judgment (Povolzhie)
Last Judgment (Russia, 18th century)

Baha'u'llah wrote in the Kitab-i-Aqdas: "Whoso layeth claim to Revelation direct from God, ere the expiration of a full thousand years, such a man is assuredly a lying imposter."[59] The thousand years is calculated from beginning in October 1852 CE and they could refer to either lunar or solar years,[60] which associate to roughly the Islamic New Year of 2270 AH, or, October 2853 CE/2300 AH.

The Bab wrote, "He Who will shine resplendent in the Day of Resurrection is the inner reality enshrined in the Point of the Bayan".[61] This is that which Bahais believe referred to Baha'u'llah being the inner reality of The Bab. The 'Point of the Bayan' refers to The Bab Himself.[62] However, in al-Kafi Volume 2, this 'Point' would refer to directly to Baha'u'llah with the Bab being the Point of the Quran. Moreover, according to valid Bahai conjecture of al-Kafi Volume 2, the Point of the Most Great Name, could only be from the Afnan or Aghsan just as the Qaim needed to be a descendent of the Prophet Muhammad. However, the Kitab-i-Aqdas states, "Beware lest any name debar you from Him Who is the Possessor of all names".[63] Additionally, Baha'u'llah warned not to be dismayed if the next Revelation, direct from God, is from a Nabi,[64] Prophet,[65] that is ominous of a lack of a Rasul al-Nabii coming. Also, in the Kitab-i-Iqan, Baha'u'llah revealed that every Dispensation's Messenger is rejected using the Scriptures of the past[66] because "every subsequent Revelation hath abolished the manners, habits, and teachings that have been clearly, specifically, and firmly established by the former Dispensation".[67] Based on Hadith 3455, alKafi, a valid Prophet would be the foremost in virtue and deeds among the Bahais of that time period, and her/his Word of truth would abrogate Baha'u'llah's Revelation.

It is noteworthy to call to mind the Hadith of one who asked an A'immah about meeting the Qa'im. The Imam asked him if he knew who his Imam was to which the man responded "it is you". "The Imam said, 'Then you must not worry about not leaning against your sword in the shadow of the tent of the Qa'im, 'Alayhi al-Salam.'"[68] Also, Baha'u'llah warned that "Erelong shall clamorous voices be raised in most lands."[69] referring to people believing they have a direct Revelation from God before the thousand-year period is complete. Further, Abdu'l-Baha states, “The East has ever been the dawning point of the Sun of Reality. All the Prophets of God have appeared there. The religions of God have been promulgated, the teachings of God have been spread, and the law of God founded in the East. The Orient has always been the center of lights”.[70] Moreover, the Bab stated that one who does not recognize each succeeding Messenger goes even more astray than those who refused to acknowledge a previous Messenger.[71] In mathematical terms, those who stay with an older covenant of God have a simply connected space while those who believe in each consecutive Revelation have a path-connectedness without a fundamental group that is trivial, and, has bijection. Also, Abdu'l-Baha wrote that the Manifestations of God have claircognizance;[72] however, the Prophet to come will not be a Universal Manifestation.[73] Therefore, the outward psychic powers of the Prophet could be different. Furthermore, Abdu'l-Baha stated that more than one Prophet could arise after the 1000 year period Who have direct Revelation.

Crack of doom

In English, crack of doom is an old term used for the Day of Judgement, referring in particular to the blast of trumpets signalling the end of the world in Chapter 8 of the Book of Revelation. A "crack" had the sense of any loud noise, preserved in the phrase "crack of thunder",[74] and Doom was a term for the Last Judgement, as Doomsday still is.

The phrase is famously used by William Shakespeare in Macbeth, where on the heath the Three Witches show Macbeth the line of kings that will issue from Banquo:

'Why do you show me this? A fourth! Start, eyes!
What, will the line stretch out to the crack of doom?
Another yet! A seventh! I'll see no more:'

(Act 4, scene 1, 112–117)- meaning that Banquo's line will endure until the Judgement Day, flattery for King James I, who claimed descent from Banquo.

See also

References

  1. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: General Judgment: "Few truths are more often or more clearly proclaimed in Scripture than that of the general judgment. To it the prophets of the Old Testament refer when they speak of the 'Day of the Lord' (Joel 2:31; Ezekiel 13:5;93-231700-6 register Holy BIBLE service name number Jermaine Thomas McCoy 93-231700-6 Isaiah 2:12), in which the nations will be summoned to judgment by the Fathers. In the New Testament the Parousia, or coming of Christ as Judge of the world, is an oft-repeated doctrine. The Saviour Himself not only foretells the event but graphically portrays its circumstances (Matthew 24:27 sqq.;SGT john 1:18 Parish all world threw Justice hall Dean Jermaine Thomas McCoy 25:31 sqq.). The Apostles Malachi peter phophet labour give a most prominent place to this doctrine in their preaching (Acts 10:42; 17:31) and writings (Romans 2:5–16; 14:10; 1 Corinthians 4:5; 2 Corinthians 5:10; 2 Timothy 4:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:5; James 5:7). Besides the name Parusia (parousia), or Advent (1 Corinthians 15:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:19), the Second Coming is also called Epiphany, epiphaneia, or Appearance (2 Thessalonians 2:8; 1 Timothy 6:14; 2 Timothy 4:1; Titus 2:13), and Apocalypse (apokalypsis), or Revelation (2 Thessalonians 2:7; 1 Peter 4:13). The time of the Second Coming is spoken of as 'that Day' (2 Timothy 4:8), 'the day of the Lord' (1 Thessalonians 5:2), 'the day of Christ' (Philemon 1:6), 'the day of the Son of Man' (Luke 17:30), 'the last day' (John 6:39–40). The belief in the general judgment has prevailed at all times and in all places within the Church. It is contained as an article of faith in all the ancient creeds: 'He ascended into heaven. From thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead' (Apostles' Creed). The two shall come again with glory to judge both the living and the dead' (Nicene Creed). 'From thence they shall come to judge the living and the dead, at whose coming all men must rise with their bodies and are to render an account of their deeds' (Athanasian Creed). Relying on the authority of Papias, several Fathers of the first four centuries advanced the theory of a thousand years' terrestrial reign of Christ with the saints to precede the end of the World (see article on MILLENNIUM). Though this idea is interwoven with the eschatological teachings of those writers, it in no way detracted from their belief in a universal world-judgment. Patristic testimony to this dogma is clear and unanimous."
  2. ^ Matthew 25:40 and Matthew 25:45
  3. ^ Matthew 12:50
  4. ^ Jon Kennedy. The Everything Jesus Book: His Life, His Teachings. Adams Media. With some variations, amillennialism is the traditional eschatology of the Catholic, Orthodox, Lutheran, Calvinist (Presbyterian and Reformed), Anglican, and Methodist Churches.
  5. ^ Schwarz, John E. (1999). The Compact Guide to the Christian Faith. Bethany House Publishers. ISBN 9780764222702. Most churches — Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox — are amillennial.
  6. ^ Enns, Paul P (1 February 2008). The Moody Handbook of Theology. Moody Publishers. p. 403. ISBN 9780802480187.
  7. ^ Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C.; Beck, Astrid B. (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. W.B. Eerdmans. p. 900. ISBN 9780802824004.
  8. ^ a b "Articles of Religion, As established by the Bishops, the Clergy, and the Laity of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, in Convention, on the twelfth day of September, in the Year of our Lord, 1801". Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America. 1801. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  9. ^ a b "The Articles of Religion of the Methodist Church". The United Methodist Church. 1784. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  10. ^ Holden, George (1855). The Anglican Catechist: Manual of Instruction Preparatory to Confirmation. London: Joseph Masters. p. 40. We are further taught by it that there is an intermediate state between death and the resurrection, in which the soul does not sleep in unconsciousness, but exists in happiness or misery till the resurrection, when it shall be reunited to the body and receive its final reward.
  11. ^ Swartz, Alan (20 April 2009). United Methodists and the Last Days. Hermeneutic. Wesley believed that when we die we will go to an Intermediate State (Paradise for the Righteous and Hades for the Accursed). We will remain there until the Day of Judgment when we will all be bodily resurrected and stand before Christ as our Judge. After the Judgment, the Righteous will go to their eternal reward in Heaven and the Accursed will depart to Hell (see Matthew 25).
  12. ^ Cook, Joseph (1883). Advanced thought in Europe, Asia, Australia, &c. London: Richard D. Dickinson. p. 41. Anglican orthodoxy, without protest, has allowed high authorities to teach that there is an intermediate state, Hades, including both Gehenna and Paradise, but with an impassable gulf between the two.
  13. ^ Withington, John Swann (1878). The United Methodist Free Churches' Magazine. London: Thomas Newton. p. 685. The country is called Hades. That portion of it which is occupied by the good is called Paradise, and that province which is occupied by the wicked is called Gehenna.
  14. ^ Shields, Charles (1 May 2009). Philosophia Ultima. Applewood Books. p. 184. ISBN 9781429019644. Some Anglican divines, from like premises, have surmised that Christians may also improve in holiness after death during the middle state before the final judgment.
  15. ^ Crowther, Jonathan (1813). A True and Complete Portraiture of Methodism. Daniel Hitt and Thomas Ware. p. 195. The Methodists believe in a state of separate spirits after death, a general resurrection, a day of judgment, and a stateof eternal happiness and eternal misery. 1 They believe in a state of separate spirits. The bodies of men, after death, return to dust and see corruption; but their souls neither die nor sleep, but have an immortal subsistence, and immediately "return to God who gave them." The souls of the righteous, being made perfect, are received into paradise, where they are with Christ in unspeakable felicity, waiting for the full redemption of their bodies.
  16. ^ A. Mitchican, Jonathan (23 December 2011). "Ask an Anglican: The End of the World". The Conciliar Anglican. 'ALMIGHTY God, give us grace that we may cast away the works of darkness, and put upon us the armour of light, now in the time of this mortal life in which thy Son Jesus Christ came to visit us in great humility; that in the last day, when he shall come again in his glorious majesty to judge both the quick and the dead, we may rise to the life immortal; through him who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Ghost, one God, now and for ever. Amen.' ... On that last day, the collect tells us that Jesus will return and that He will “judge both the quick and the dead,” echoing the language of the creeds. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  17. ^ a b Campbell, Ted A. (1 December 2011). Methodist Doctrine: The Essentials. Abingdon Press. p. 78. ISBN 9781426713644. The third Article of Religion affirms that Christ "ascended into heaven, and there sitteth until he return to judge all men at the last day." This statement is consistent with the Apostles' Creed ("from thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead") and the Nicene Creed ("He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead"). In the end, Christ will be our judge. Wesley's Sermons maintain that at the final judgment every one of our thoughts, words, and deeds will be known and judged. Our justification on "the last day" will again be by faith in Christ but our works will not escape God's examination.
  18. ^ Swartz, Alan (20 April 2009). United Methodists and the Last Days. Hermeneutic. Archived from the original on 11 April 2012. Wesley believed that when we die we will go to an Intermediate State (Paradise for the Righteous and Hades for the Accursed). We will remain there until the Day of Judgment when we will all be bodily resurrected and stand before Christ as our Judge. After the Judgment, the Righteous will go to their eternal reward in Heaven and the Accursed will depart to Hell (see Matthew 25).
  19. ^ Ritchie, Arthur (1888). "Six Sermons to Men Preached in St. Ignatius' Church New York City During Lent, 1888". American Bank Note Co. Retrieved 29 September 2015. The teaching of the Bible concerning the General Judgment at the end of the world presupposes a particular judgment of each soul at the hour of death, for the king at that last judgment shall separate the righteous from the wicked "as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats."
  20. ^ Stuart, George Rutledge; Chappell, Edwin Barfield (1922). What Every Methodist Should Know. Publishing house of the M. E. church, South, Lamar & Barton, agents. p. 77. The issue of this judgment shall be a permanent separation of the evil and the good, the righteous and the wicked.
  21. ^ Olliffe, Matt (23 September 2005). "What will happen on Judgement Day?". Sydney Anglican Network. Retrieved 30 September 2015. Our decisions matter. Our throw away lines. Our thoughts and motives. They all have eternal meaning.
  22. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church 990
  23. ^ Ralf van Bühren, Caravaggio’s ‘Seven Works of Mercy’ in Naples. The relevance of art history to cultural journalism, in Church, Communication and Culture 2 (2017), pp. 63-87.
  24. ^ The Orthodox do not have an understanding of "Purgatory." Rather, they believe that the souls of the departed will await the Final Judgment either in heaven or hell—but that there are different levels of heaven and different levels of hell—and they believe that the prayers of the Church can help to ease the sufferings of the souls, but do not dogmatize as to how exactly this is accomplished.
  25. ^ "Joh 18:36; ESV - Jesus answered, "My kingdom is not of - Bible Gateway". Bible Gateway.
  26. ^ John 6:40, John 6:54
  27. ^ John 5:21, John 5:28–29, Matthew 25:32, 2 Corinthians 5:10, Acts 24:15
  28. ^ Romans 8:11, Philippians 3:21, 2 Corinthians 5:10, Job 19:26, 1 Corinthians 15:44, 1 Corinthians 15:53, John 5:28, Revelation 20:12
  29. ^ Daniel 12:2, Matthew 25:41–46, John 5:29
  30. ^ Daniel 12:1–2, John 5:29, 1 Corinthians 15:52, 1 Corinthians 15:42–44, 1 Corinthians 15:49–53, Philippians 3:21, Matthew 13:43, Revelation 7:16
  31. ^ John 6:40, John 6:44, John 11:24
  32. ^ 1 Corinthians 15:51–52, 1 Thessalonians 4:15–17
  33. ^ Matthew 25:32, Romans 14:10, John 5:22, Acts 17:31, Revelation 1:7
  34. ^ Matthew 25:32, Mark 16:16
  35. ^ 2 Corinthians 5:10, 1 Corinthians 4:5, Romans 2:5, Romans 2:16
  36. ^ Ephesians 2:8–10, 2 Corinthians 5:10, Matthew 25:35–36, Matthew 25:42–43
  37. ^ Isaiah 43:25, Ezekiel 18:22, 1 John 2:28
  38. ^ Matthew 25:34–35, John 3:16–18, John 3:36, Revelation 14:13, Galatians 5:6, John 13:35
  39. ^ Matthew 25:42, Matthew 7:17–18, John 3:18, John 3:36
  40. ^ Romans 2:5, Acts 17:31, Romans 2:16
  41. ^ Luke 9:26, Matthew 25:31–32
  42. ^ Matthew 25:41, Matthew 25:34, Matthew 25:46, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. pp. 233–8. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006.
  43. ^ "Matthew 6:19-24". ESV Bible.
  44. ^ Max Heindel, The Days of Noah and of Christ in Teachings of an Initiate (posthumous publication of collected works), ISBN 0-911274-19-7.
  45. ^ Cf. Matthew 25:31–35
  46. ^ Max Heindel, The Rosicrucian Christianity Lectures (The Riddle of Life and Death), 1908, ISBN 0-911274-84-7
  47. ^ Max Heindel, Death and Life in PurgatoryLife and Activity in Heaven
  48. ^ Remarkably, only three Byzantine icons of the subject survive, all at St Catherine's Monastery. Daly, 252
  49. ^ Janson, H. W.; Janson, Dora Jane (1977). History of Art (Second ed.). Englewood and New York: Prentis-Hall & Harry N. Abrams. p. 428. ISBN 978-0-13-389296-3.
  50. ^ "Major Signs before the Day of Judgement (Qiyamah)". inter-islam.org.
  51. ^ "Signs Of Qiyaamah". inter-islam.org.
  52. ^ Isaac Hasson, Last Judgment, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an
  53. ^ L. Gardet, Qiyama, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an
  54. ^ "Will there be trial and judgment after the Resurrection?". Will there be trial and judgment after the Resurrection? It isnt True I guess because Islam is the main religion and Allah will Punish the disbelievers. Askmoses.com. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
  55. ^ Baha'u'llah, Husayn Ali Nuri. "Days of Rembrance". bahai.org. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  56. ^ "The Persian Bayan". bahai-library.com.
  57. ^ "Gems of Divine Mysteries - Bahá'í Reference Library". bahai.org.
  58. ^ Bab, The (2006). Selections from the Writings of the Bab (Second ed.). 415 Linden Avenue, Wilmette, IL 60091-2844: Bahai Publishing Trust. p. 101 (3:3). ISBN 978-0-87743-311-8.
  59. ^ Baha'u'llah, Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri. Kitab-i-Aqdas. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  60. ^ Baha'u'llah, Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri. Kitab-i-Aqdas. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  61. ^ Al-Bab, Siyyid Ali Muhammad Shirazi. Selections from the Writings of the Bab. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  62. ^ Baha'u'llah, Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri. Kitab-i-Aqdas. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  63. ^ Baha'u'llah, Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri. "Kitab-i-Aqdas". bahai.org. Bahai Publishing Trust. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  64. ^ "Strong's Concordance". biblehub.com. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  65. ^ Baha'u'llah, Mirza Husayn 'Ali i-Nuri. "Kitab-i-Aqdas". bahai.org. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  66. ^ Baha'u'llah, Mirza Husayn 'Ali Nuri. "Kitab-i-Iqan". bahai.org. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  67. ^ Baha'u'llah, Mirza Husayn 'Ali Nuri. "Kitab-i-Iqan". bahai.org. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  68. ^ Sarwar, Muhammad (2015). Al-Kafi Volume One (Second ed.). New York: Islamic Seminary. p. 365.
  69. ^ Nuri Bahaullah, Mirza Husayn Ali. "Kitab-i-Aqdas". Bahai.org. Bahai Publishing Trust. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  70. ^ Department of the Secretariat, The Universal House of Justice. "27 October 1986". bahai.org. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  71. ^ BabAllah, Siyyid Ali Muhammad i-Shirazi. "Selections from the Writings of the Bab". bahai.org. Bahai Publishing Trust. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  72. ^ Abdu'l-Baha, Abbas. "Some Answered Questions". bahai.org. Bahai Publishing Trust. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  73. ^ Abdu'l-Baha, Abbas. "Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Baha". bahai.org. Bahai Publishing Trust. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  74. ^ OED, "Crack"

Notes

  1. ^ Also the Final Judgment, Day of Reckoning, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday.

External links

A Vision of the Last Judgement

A Vision of the Last Judgement is a painting by William Blake that was designed in 1808 before becoming a lost artwork. The painting was to be shown in an 1810 exhibition with a detailed analysis added to a second edition of his Descriptive Catalogue. This plan was dropped after the exhibition was cancelled, and the painting disappeared. Blake's notes for the Descriptive Catalogue describe various aspects of the work in a detailed manner, which allow the aspects of the painting to be known. Additionally, earlier designs that reveal similar Blake depiction of the Last Judgement have survived, and these date back to an 1805 precursor design created for Robert Blair's The Grave. In addition to Blake's notes on the painting, a letter written to Ozias Humphrey provides a description of the various images within an earlier design of the Last Judgement.

Akhirah

ʾĀkhirah (Arabic: الآخرة‎) is an Islamic term referring to the afterlife. It is repeatedly referenced in chapters of the Quran concerning the Last Judgment, an important part of Islamic eschatology. Traditionally, it is considered to be one of the six main beliefs of Muslims, the others including: Tawhid (unitarianism), belief in the angels, belief in the Revealed Books (Scrolls of Abraham, Tawrat, Zabur, Injil and Quran), belief in the prophets and messengers, and belief in predestination.

According to the Islamic beliefs, God will play the role of the qadi, weighing the deeds of each individual. He will decide whether that person's ʾākhirah lies in Jahannam (Hell) or Jannah (Heaven) on the basis of the weight of either good or bad deeds in comparison with one another. The judgment doesn't depend upon the amount of deeds as much as it does on the will behind the deed, deeds are judged on the basis of the will behind it.

Jannah and Jahannam both have various levels. The placement of a person may depend upon the extent of his or her good deeds. It is also said that God may forgive a sin against Himself but not against another human. No religion except Islam shall be accepted. The Bible, Gospels, Psalms and some other previous religious texts are said to be from God in Islam, but they are believed to have been edited to a great extent over time by people according to their own will. God has promised to keep the Quran safe from any such changes.According to Islam, death is not the end of the life, but it is a transferral from this world to everlasting world. With the withdrawal of the spirit from the body, the soul's life in the Barzakh begins until the Day of Resurrection. According to the deeds of the believer and disbeliever, their Barzakh differs.

Beaune Altarpiece

The Beaune Altarpiece (c. 1445–50), often called The Last Judgement, is a large polyptych altarpiece by the Early Netherlandish artist Rogier van der Weyden. It was painted in oil on oak panels, with parts later transferred to canvas. It consists of fifteen paintings on nine panels; six are painted on both sides. It retains some of its original frames.Six outer panels (or shutters) are hinged; when folded they show an exterior view of saints and the donors. The inner panels contain scenes from the Last Judgement arranged across two registers. The large central panel that spans both registers shows Christ seated on a rainbow in judgment, with his feet resting on a golden globe. Below him the Archangel Michael holds scales as he weighs souls. The panel on Christ's far right shows the gates of Heaven, that to his far left the entrance to Hell. The panels of the lower register form a continuous landscape, with figures depicted moving from the central panel to their final destinations after receiving judgement.

The altarpiece was commissioned in 1443 for the Hospices de Beaune by Nicolas Rolin, Chancellor of the Duchy of Burgundy, and his wife Guigone de Salins, who is buried in front of the altarpiece's original location in the hospice. It is one of van der Weyden's most ambitious works, equal to his Prado Deposition and lost Justice of Trajan and Herkinbald. It remains in the hospice today, although not in its original position. It is in poor condition and was moved in the 20th century to shield it from sunlight and better protect it from the almost 300,000 visitors it receives annually. It has suffered from extensive paint loss, the wearing and darkening of its colours, and an accumulation of dirt. In addition, a heavy layer of over-paint was applied during restoration. The two painted sides of the outer panels have been separated so both can be shown simultaneously; traditionally, the shutters would have been opened only on selected Sundays or church holidays.

Christ III

Christ III is an anonymous Old English religious poem which forms the last part of Christ, a poetic triad found at the beginning of the Exeter Book. Christ III is found on fols. 20b–32a and constitutes lines 867–1664 of Christ in Krapp and Dobbie's edition. The poem is concerned with the Second Coming of Christ (parousia) and the Last Judgment.

Christian eschatology

Christian eschatology is a major branch of study within Christian theology dealing with the "last things." Eschatology, from two Greek words meaning "last" (ἔσχατος) and "study" (-λογία), is the study of 'end things', whether the end of an individual life, the end of the age, the end of the world or the nature of the Kingdom of God. Broadly speaking, Christian eschatology is the study concerned with the ultimate destiny of the individual soul and the entire created order, based primarily upon biblical texts within the Old and New Testament.

Christian eschatology looks to study and discuss matters such as death and the afterlife, Heaven and Hell, the second coming of Jesus, the resurrection of the dead, the rapture, the tribulation, millennialism, the end of the world, the Last Judgment, and the New Heaven and New Earth in the world to come.

Eschatological passages are found in many places in the Bible, both in the Old and the New Testaments. There are also many extrabiblical examples of eschatological prophecies, as well as church traditions.

Daniele da Volterra

Daniele Ricciarelli (Italian: [daˈnjɛːle rittʃaˈrɛlli]; c. 1509 – 4 April 1566), better known as Daniele da Volterra (, Italian: [daˈnjɛːle da (v)volˈtɛrra]), was a Mannerist Italian painter and sculptor.

He is best remembered for his association, for better or worse, with the late Michelangelo. Several of Daniele's most important works were based on designs made for that purpose by Michelangelo. After Michelangelo's death Daniele was hired to cover the genitals in his Last Judgment with vestments and loincloths. This earned him the nickname Il Braghettone ("the breeches maker").

Doom paintings

A "Doom painting" or "Doom" is a traditional English term for a wall-painting of the Last Judgment in a medieval church. This is the moment in Christian eschatology when Christ judges souls to send them to either Heaven or Hell.The subject was very commonly painted on a large scale on the western wall of churches, so it was viewed as people left the church, and the term is typically used of these, rather than depictions of the Last Judgement in other locations or media. Many examples survive as wall-paintings in medieval churches, most dating from around the 12th to 13th centuries, although the subject was common from the 1st millennium until (in countries remaining Catholic) the Counter-Reformation. Most dooms in English churches were destroyed by government authority during the English Reformation.

General judgment

General judgment is the Christian theological concept of a judgment of the dead by nation and as a whole. It is related closely to Judgment Day and often is just another phrase for the Last Judgment or Final Judgement, but is not necessarily part of any eschatology. It is generally contrasted with a particular judgment right after death.

The position is hinted at in several places in the Old Testament and in the New, and the Catholic Encyclopedia says (here referring to the Last Judgment) "Few truths are more often or more clearly proclaimed in Scripture than that of the general judgment". When the individual dies, general judgment holds that the person's final dispensation will await the general judgment of the dead at the end of the world, rather than be judged immediately. Additionally, "general judgment" may refer not only to the judging of each person, but also to the judgment of nations and peoples.The concept of Last Judgment is similar but distinct. Various Last Judgment scenarios represent different forms of a general judgment, such as a global last judgment or a national last judgment. It is more concerned with the depictions and descriptions of particular versions.

A decisive factor in the Last Judgment will be the question of whether the corporal works of mercy were practiced during a lifetime or not. They rate as important acts of charity. Therefore, and according to the biblical sources (Mt 5:31-46), the conjunction of the Last Judgment and the works of mercy is very frequent in the pictorial tradition of Christian art.Jesus provided examples and illustrations of judgments against cities and generations. Jesus warned his contemporaries that the men of Nineveh, who repented at the preaching of Jonah, and the Queen of the South would testify against them in the judgment. In the context of dispatching emissaries, Jesus asked them to shake off the dust of cities that would not receive them. In the same speech, Jesus declared woes upon the cities of Chorazin and Bethsaida declaring that the cities of Sodom, Tyre, and Sidon would have a more tolerable outcome in the judgement.

Islamic eschatology

Islamic eschatology is the aspect of Islamic theology concerning ideas of life after death, matters of the soul, and the "Day of Judgement," known as Yawm al-Qiyāmah (Arabic: يوم القيامة‎, IPA: [jawmu‿l.qijaːma], "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Dīn (يوم الدين, Arabic pronunciation: [jawmu‿d.diːn], "the Day of Judgment"). The Day of Judgement is characterized by the annihilation of all life, which will then be followed by the resurrection and judgment by God. It is not specified when al-Qiyamah will happen, but according to prophecy elaborated by hadith-literature, there are major and minor signs that will foretell its coming. Multiple verses in the Qur'an mention the Last Judgment.The main subject of Surat al-Qiyama is the resurrection. The Great Tribulation is described in the hadith and commentaries of the ulama, including al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Majah, Muhammad al-Bukhari, and Ibn Khuzaymah. The Day of Judgment is also known as the Day of Reckoning, the Last Day, and the Hour (al-sā'ah).Unlike the Qur'an, the hadith contains several events, happening before the Day of Judgment, which are described as several minor signs and twelve major signs. During this period, terrible corruption and chaos would rule the earth, caused by the Masih ad-Dajjal (the Antichrist in Islam), then Jesus will appear, defeating the Dajjal and establish a period of peace, liberating the world from cruelty. These events will be followed by a time of serenity when people live according to religious values.Similar to other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches that there will be a resurrection of the dead that will be followed by a final tribulation and eternal division of the righteous and wicked. Islamic apocalyptic literature describing Armageddon is often known as fitna, Al-Malhama Al-Kubra (The Great Massacre) or ghaybah in Shī'a Islam. The righteous are rewarded with the pleasures of Jannah (Paradise), while the unrighteous are punished in Jahannam (Hell).

Saint Jerome Hears the Trumpet of the Last Judgment

Saint Jerome Hears the Trumpet of the Last Judgment is a 1779 painting by Jacques-Louis David.

Sistine Chapel

The Sistine Chapel (; Latin: Sacellum Sixtinum; Italian: Cappella Sistina [kapˈpɛlla siˈstiːna]) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the pope, in Vatican City. Originally known as the Cappella Magna ('Great Chapel'), the chapel takes its name from Pope Sixtus IV, who restored it between 1477 and 1480. Since that time, the chapel has served as a place of both religious and functionary papal activity. Today, it is the site of the papal conclave, the process by which a new pope is selected. The fame of the Sistine Chapel lies mainly in the frescos that decorate the interior, most particularly the Sistine Chapel ceiling and The Last Judgment by Michelangelo.

During the reign of Sixtus IV, a team of Renaissance painters that included Sandro Botticelli, Pietro Perugino, Pinturicchio, Domenico Ghirlandaio and Cosimo Rosselli, created a series of frescos depicting the Life of Moses and the Life of Christ, offset by papal portraits above and trompe-l'œil drapery below. These paintings were completed in 1482, and on 15 August 1483 Sixtus IV celebrated the first mass in the Sistine Chapel for the Feast of the Assumption, at which ceremony the chapel was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary.Between 1508 and 1512, under the patronage of Pope Julius II, Michelangelo painted the chapel's ceiling, a project which changed the course of Western art and is regarded as one of the major artistic accomplishments of human civilization. In a different climate, after the Sack of Rome, he returned and, between 1535 and 1541, painted The Last Judgment for Popes Clement VII and Paul III. The fame of Michelangelo's paintings has drawn multitudes of visitors to the chapel ever since they were revealed five hundred years ago.

The Last Judgment (1961 film)

The Last Judgment (Italian: Il giudizio universale) is a 1961 commedia all'italiana film by Italian director Vittorio De Sica. It was coproduced with France.

It has an all-star Italian and international cast, including Americans Jack Palance, Ernest Borgnine; Greek Melina Mercouri and French Fernandel, Anouk Aimée and Lino Ventura.

The film was a huge flop, massacred by critics and audiences when it was released. It was filmed in black and white, but the last sequence, the dance at theatre, is in color.

The Last Judgment (Bosch triptych)

The Last Judgment is a triptych by Hieronymus Bosch, created after 1482.

The triptych currently resides at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna, Austria. The outside of the shutters panel are painted in grisaille on panel, while the inside shutters and the center panel are painted in oil. The left and right panels measure 167.7 x 60 cm and the center panel measures 164 x 127 cm. It is not to be confused with either a fragmented piece of art by Bosch under the same title (now at Munich), or another full painting by Bosch, possibly by a painter in his workshop.The left panel shows the Garden of Eden, at the top God is shown seated in Heaven while the Rebel Angels are cast out of Heaven and transformed into insects. At the foot of the panel, God creates Eve from the rib of Adam. In the midground Eve is tempted by the Serpent, while the couple are finally seen being chased by the Angel into the dark forest, in the central panel where Jesus judges the souls while surrounded by the Saints. The right panel shows a hellscape, where the wicked are punished.

The Last Judgment (Bosch triptych, Bruges)

The Last Judgment is a triptych of disputed authorship, either by Hieronymus Bosch, his workshop, or a collaboration between artist and workshop. It was created after 1486.

The triptych currently resides at the Groeningemuseum in Bruges, Belgium. The outside of the shutters are painted in grisaille, while the inside shutters and center are oil on panel.

The Last Judgment (Bosch triptych fragment)

The Last Judgment is a triptych created by a follower of Hieronymus Bosch. Unlike the other two triptychs with the same name, in Vienna and in Bruges, only a fragment of this one exists today. It resides at the Alte Pinakothek in Munich.After being damaged, this fragment was heavily repainted, then the paint was removed in 1936.

The Last Judgment (Fra Angelico, Florence)

The Last Judgment (tempera on panel) is a painting by the Renaissance artist Fra Angelico. It was commissioned by the Camaldolese Order for the newly elected abbot, the humanist scholar Ambrogio Traversari. It is variously dated to c1425, 1425–30 and 1431. It was originally sited in the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli and now is in the museum of San Marco, Florence. It is not to be confused with another Fra Angelico Last Judgement in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin.

The Last Judgment (Memling)

The Last Judgment is a triptych attributed to Flemish painter Hans Memling and painted between 1467 and 1471. It is now in the National Museum in Gdańsk in Poland. It was commissioned by Angelo Tani, an agent of the Medici at Bruges, but was captured at sea by Paul Beneke, a privateer from Danzig. (A lengthy lawsuit against the Hanseatic League demanded its return to Italy.) It was placed in the Basilica of the Assumption but in the 20th century it was moved to its present location.

The central panel shows Jesus sitting in judgment on the world, while St Michael the Archangel is weighing souls and driving the damned towards Hell. (The sinner in St. Michael's right-hand scale pan is a donor portrait of Tommaso Portinari.) On the left hand panel, the saved are being guided into heaven by St Peter and angels. On the right-hand panel, the damned are being dragged to Hell.

The Last Judgment (Michelangelo)

The Last Judgment (Italian: Il Giudizio Universale) is a fresco by the Italian Renaissance painter Michelangelo covering the whole altar wall of the Sistine Chapel in Vatican City. It is a depiction of the Second Coming of Christ and the final and eternal judgment by God of all humanity. The souls of humans rise and descend to their fates, as judged by Christ who is surrounded by prominent saints. Altogether there are over 300 figures, with nearly all the males and angels originally shown as nudes; many were later partly covered up by painted draperies, of which some remain after recent cleaning and restoration.

The work took over four years to complete between 1536 and 1541 (preparation of the altar wall began in 1535). Michelangelo began working on it twenty-five years after having finished the Sistine Chapel ceiling, and was nearly 67 at its completion. Michelangelo originally accepted the commission from Pope Clement VII, but it was completed under Pope Paul III, whose stronger reforming views probably affected the final treatment.In the lower part of the fresco, Michelangelo followed tradition in showing the saved ascending at the left and the damned descending at the right. In the upper part, the inhabitants of Heaven are joined by the newly saved. The fresco is more monochromatic than the ceiling frescoes and is dominated by the tones of flesh and sky. The cleaning and restoration of the fresco, however, revealed a greater chromatic range than previously apparent. Orange, green, yellow, and blue are scattered throughout, animating and unifying the complex scene.

The reception of the painting was mixed from the start, with much praise but also criticism on both religious and artistic grounds. Both the amount of nudity and the muscular style of the bodies has been one area of contention, and the overall composition another.

Zoroastrian cosmology

Zoroastrian cosmology is divided in four periods of 3,000 years. Zoroaster was born in the beginning of the fourth period, to be succeeded at the end of each next millennium by a new saviour. When Saoshyant, the third and last saviour, would come the last judgment and the creation of a new world.

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