The sweat bee genus Lasioglossum is the largest of all bee genera, containing over 1700 species in numerous subgenera worldwide. They are highly variable in size, coloration, and sculpture; among the more unusual variants, some are cleptoparasites, some are nocturnal, and some are oligolectic. Most Lasioglossum species nest in the ground, but some nest in rotten logs.
The genus Lasioglossum can be divided into two informal series based on the strength of the distal veins of the forewing. The Lasioglossum series (or strong-veined Lasioglossum) is mostly composed of solitary or communal species. Two possible exceptions are L. aegyptiellum and L. rubricaudis, both of which show signs of division of labour indicative of eusociality.
The Hemihalictus series (or weak-veined Lasioglossum) includes species with a wide range of sociality. The Hemihalictus series is composed of species which are solitary, communal, semisocial, primitively eusocial, cleptoparasitic, or socially parasitic. Eusocial species may have small colonies with only one or a few workers or large colonies with dozens of workers. The largest colony sizes occur in L. marginatum, which forms perennial colonies lasting five or six years, with hundreds of workers.
A list of subgenera (modified from Michener's Bees of the World):
Lasioglossum series: Australictus, Callalictus, Chilalictus, Ctenonomia, Echthralictus, Glossalictus, Homalictus, Lasioglossum s. str., Leuchalictus, Oxyhalictus, Parasphecodes, Pseudochilalictus, Rubrihalictus, Urohalictus.
Hemihalictus series: Acanthalictus, Austevylaeus, Dialictus, Evylaeus, Hemihalictus, Paradialictus, Sellalictus, Sphecodogastra, Sudila.
Subgeneric classification of Lasioglossum remains controversial, with disagreement among experts on the number and extent of subgenera.
Halictidae is the second-largest family of Apoidea bees. Halictid species occur all over the world and are usually dark-colored and often metallic in appearance. Several species are all or partly green and a few are red; a number of them have yellow markings, especially the males, which commonly have yellow faces, a pattern widespread among the various families of bees.
They are commonly referred to as "sweat bees" (especially the smaller species), as they are often attracted to perspiration. They are only likely to sting if disturbed; the sting is minor.Homalictus
Homalictus is a subgenus of bees in the genus Lasioglossum subfamily Halictinae of the family Halictidae. They are found in Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, east across the Pacific to the Mariana Islands, Samoa and are most prevalent in Australia.Lasioglossum aeneiventre
Lasioglossum aeneiventre, also known as Dialictus aeneiventre, is a social sweat bee and is part of the family Halictidae of the order Hymenoptera. Found in Central America, it nests mostly on flat ground though sometimes in vertical banks. It is often compared to L. figueresi.Lasioglossum bidentatum
Lasioglossum bidentatum, also known as the Lasioglossum (Sudila) bidentatum, is a species of bee in the genus Lasioglossum, of the family Halictidae. The species is mispellingly known as specific name bidendatum in some books.Lasioglossum cire
Lasioglossum cire, also known as the Lasioglossum (Ctenomia) cire, is a species of bee in the genus Lasioglossum, of the family Halictidae.Lasioglossum clarum
Lasioglossum clarum, also known as the Lasioglossum (Ctenomia) clarum, is a species of bee in the genus Lasioglossum, of the family Halictidae.Lasioglossum figueresi
Lasioglossum figueresi (Wcislo, 1990), formerly known as Dialictus figueresi, is a solitary sweat bee that is part of the family Halictidae of the order Hymenoptera. Found in Central America, it nests in vertical earthen banks which are normally inhabited by one, though sometimes two or even three, females. Females die before their larvae hatch. It was named after José Figueres Ferrer, a famous Costa Rican patriot, and studies of its behavior are now general models for social behavior studies.Lasioglossum gotham
Lasioglossum gotham, commonly known as the Gotham bee, is an extant species of sweat bee native to Eastern and Midwestern United States.Lasioglossum leucozonium
Lasioglossum leucozonium (Schrank, 1781), also known as Lasioglossum similis, is a widespread solitary sweat bee found in North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of northern Africa. While now a common bee in North America, population genetic analysis has shown that it is actually an introduced species in this region. This population was most likely founded by a single female bee.Lasioglossum malachurum
Lasioglossum malachurum, the sharp-collared furrow bee, is a small European halictid bee. This species is obligately eusocial, with queens and workers, though the differences between the castes are not nearly as extreme as in honey bees. Early taxonomists mistakenly assigned the worker females to a different species from the queens. They are small (about 1 cm), shiny, mostly black bees with off-white hair bands at the bases of the abdominal segments. L. malachurum is one of the more extensively studied species in the genus Lasioglossum, also known as sweat bees. Researchers have discovered that the eusocial behavior in colonies of L. malachurum varies significantly dependent upon the region of Europe in which each colony is located.Lasioglossum pictum
Lasioglossum pictum is a species of sweat bee in the family Halictidae.Lasioglossum serenum
Lasioglossum serenum, also known as the Lasioglossum (Nesohalictus) serenum, is a species of bee in the genus Lasioglossum, of the family Halictidae.
Its discovery is widely accredited to the biologist Chris Rouse.Lasioglossum vierecki
Lasioglossum vierecki, also known as Dialictus vierecki and Halictus vierecki, is a sand sweat bee and is part of the family Halictidae of the order Hymenoptera. It is found in the Eastern half of the United States from Minnesota to the New England States down to Georgia and Louisiana and up in Manitoba and Ontario. Commonly found in sandy areas, it pollinates various flowers such as grass-leaved goldenrod (Euthamia graminifolia) and rattlesnake master (Eryngium yuccifolium).Lasioglossum zephyrus
Lasioglossum zephyrus is a sweat bee of the family Halictidae, found in the U.S. and Canada. It appears in the literature primarily under the misspelling "zephyrum". It is considered a primitively eusocial bee (meaning that they do not have a permanent division of labor within colonies), although it may be facultatively solitary (i.e., displaying both solitary and eusocial behaviors). The species nests in underground burrows and has been observed forcing open unbloomed flowers of species Xyris tennesseensis to extract the pollen, ensuring first and exclusive access.List of bees of Great Britain
This page contains a list of bees of Great Britain. The following species are all within the superfamily Apoidea.List of bees of Israel
Israel is home to about 1100 described species of bees. A partial list is given below, with around 850 species as of 2014. Bee taxonomy and nomenclature are in accordance with the Discover Life website.List of bees of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka is a tropical island situated close to the southern tip of India. The invertebrate fauna is as large as it is common to other regions of the world. There are about 2 million species of arthropods found in the world, and still it is counting. So many new species are discover up to this time also. So it is very complicated and difficult to summarize the exact number of species found within a certain region.
The following list provide the bees of Sri Lanka.Overwintering
Overwintering is the process by which some organisms pass through or wait out the winter season, or pass through that period of the year when "winter" conditions (cold or sub-zero temperatures, ice, snow, limited food supplies) make normal activity or even survival difficult or near impossible. In some cases "winter" is characterized not necessarily by cold but by dry conditions; passing through such periods could likewise be called overwintering.
Hibernation and migration are the two major ways in which overwintering is accomplished.
Overwintering occurs in several classes of lifeform:
In entomology, overwintering is how an insect passes the winter season. Many insects overwinter as adults, pupae, or eggs. This can be done inside buildings, under tree bark, or beneath fallen leaves or other plant matter on the ground, among other places. All such overwintering sites shield the insect from adverse conditions associated with winter. Activity almost completely ceases until conditions become more favourable. One example is the mourning cloak butterfly, which experiences advantages to overwintering in its desired locations by being one of the first butterflies to emerge after a cold winter. Another example are the eggs of the forest tent caterpillar moth which overwinter tightly packed on tree branches. Other insects, such as the monarch butterfly, migrate and overwinter in warmer areas. Additionally, the ghost moth overwinters as a larva. The common brimstone, found across a broad geographic range, overwinters for 7 months to wait for the development of their larval host plants. Another unique butterfly, the large white, will only overwinter in southern Eurasia; they are not seen overwintering elsewhere. The queens of the yellow-faced bumblebee (Bombus vosnesenskii) will over-winter, and then emerge early in the flight season to obtain the best available subterranean nests. Lastly, many species of Lasioglossum, including L. hemichalceum (which is a common sweat bee), will overwinter in underground nests before emerging in the spring to start new colonies.
Many birds migrate and then overwinter in regions where temperatures are warmer or food is more readily available.
Plants are sometimes said to overwinter. At such times, growth of vegetative tissues and reproductive structures becomes minimal or ceases completely. For plants, overwintering often involves restricted water supplies and reduced light exposure. In the spring following overwintering many plants will enter their flowering stage.
People are also described from time to time as overwintering. This was especially true in the past during the exploration of the planet when people had to pass the winter in places not ideally suited for winter survival, and even today in the polar regions. Today people may be said to overwinter when they temporarily move to warmer areas during the months of prevailing cold weather in northern latitudes, such as people from various parts of North America staying in Florida, Arizona, or New Mexico (among other places) for parts of November to March.
In plant pathology, overwintering is where a plant pathogen survives the winter, during which its normal crop host species is not growing, by transferring to an alternative host, living freely in the soil or surviving on plant refuse such as discarded potatoes.Western Palaearctic
The Western Palaearctic or Western Palearctic is part of the Palaearctic ecozone, one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth's surface. Because of its size, the Palaearctic is often divided for convenience into two, with Europe, North Africa, northern and central parts of the Arabian Peninsula, and part of temperate Asia, roughly to the Ural Mountains forming the western zone, and the rest of temperate Asia becoming the Eastern Palaearctic. Its exact boundaries differ depending on the authority in question, but the Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palearctic) (BWP) definition is widely used, and is followed by the most popular Western Palearctic checklist, that of the Association of European Rarities Committees (AERC). The Western Palearctic ecozone includes mostly boreal and temperate climate ecoregions.The Palaearctic region has been recognised as a natural zoogeographic region since Sclater proposed it in 1858. The oceans to the north and west, and the Sahara to the south are obvious natural boundaries with other ecozones, but the eastern boundary is more arbitrary, since it merges into another part of the same ecozone, and the mountain ranges used as markers are less effective biogeographic separators. The climate differences across the Western Palearctic region can cause behavioral differences within the same species across geographical distance, such as in the sociality of behavior for bees of the species Lasioglossum malachurum.