Larne (from Irish: Latharna, the name of a Gaelic territory) is a seaport and industrial market town, as well as a civil parish, on the east coast of County Antrim, Northern Ireland, with a population of 18,755 people at the 2011 Census. The Larne Local Government District had a population of 32,180 in 2011. It has been used as a seaport for over 1,000 years, and is today a major passenger and freight roll-on roll-off port. Larne is administered by Mid and East Antrim Borough Council. Together with parts of the neighbouring districts of Antrim and Newtownabbey and Causeway Coast and Glens, it forms the East Antrim constituency for elections to the Westminster Parliament and Northern Ireland Assembly. The civil parish is situated in the historic barony of Glenarm Upper.
A birds-eye view looking south-east towards Larne Harbour, Islandmagee, and down the length of Larne Lough. Chaine Memorial Tower can be seen in the left of the picture, with Ballylumford power station behind the ferry.
Larne Coat of Arms
|Population||18,755 (2011 Census)|
|Irish grid reference||D4102|
|• Belfast||30 km (19 mi)|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|EU Parliament||Northern Ireland|
The coastal area around Larne has been inhabited for millennia, and is thought to have been one of the earliest inhabited areas of Ireland, with these early human populations believed to have arrived from Scotland via the North Channel. Knockdhu, north of Larne, was the site of a Bronze Age promontory fort and settlement. The early coastal dwellers are thought to have had a sophisticated culture which involved trading between the shores of the North Channel and between other settlements on the coasts of Scotland. The coast of Scotland is in fact clearly visible from here. Archaeological digs in the area have found flintwork and other artefacts which have been assigned dates from 6000 BC onwards. The term Larnian has even been coined by archaeologists to describe such flintworks and similar artefacts of the Mesolithic era (and one time to describe Mesolithic culture in Ireland as a whole). Larnian is also currently used to refer to people from Larne.
Larne takes its name from Latharna, a Gaelic territory or túath that was part of the Ulaid minor-kingdom of Dál nAraidi. The name spelt as Latharne was used at one point in reference to the Anglo-Norman cantred of Carrickfergus. Latharna itself means "descendants of Lathar", with Lathar according to legend being a son of the pre-Christian king Úgaine Mór. The town sprang up where the River Inver flows into Larne Lough. This area was known in Irish as Inbhear an Latharna ("rivermouth/estuary of Latharna") and was later anglicised as Inver Larne or simply Inver. The loch was known as Loch Ollarbha or Inbhear nOllarbha. The territorial name Latharna was only applied exclusively to the town in recent centuries.
There was Viking activity in the area during the 10th and 11th centuries AD. Viking burial sites and artefacts have been found in the area and dated to that time. Ulfreksfjord was an Old Norse name for Larne Lough. According to the Norse historian Snorri Sturluson, Connor, King of Ireland, defeated Orkney Vikings at Ulfreksfjord in 1018. Later anglicised names include Wulfrichford, Wolderfirth, Wolverflete and the surviving name Olderfleet. The ending -fleet comes from the Norse fljot, meaning "inlet". Older- may come from the Norse oldu, meaning "wave". However, P.W. Joyce in his Irish Names of Places suggests that it comes from Ollarbha, the Irish name for the loch.
In the 13th Century the Scots Bissett family built Olderfleet Castle at Curran Point. In 1315 Edward the Bruce of Scotland (brother of Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland) landed at Larne with his 6000 strong army en route to conquer Ireland, where Olderfleet Castle was of strategic importance. Edward saw Ireland as another front in the ongoing war against Norman England.
In 1569 Queen Elizabeth I, Queen of England and Ireland, appointed Sir Moyses Hill as the governor of Olderfleet Castle. It was seen as strategically important for any Tudor conquest of Ulster. Following the 17th century Union of the Crowns of Scotland, England and Ireland under James VI & I many more settlers would have arrived to Ulster via Larne during the Plantation of Ulster. The area around County Antrim itself, however, was not part of the official 17th century Plantation; instead many Scottish settlers arrived in the area through private settlement in the 17th century (as they had also been doing for centuries before).
During the 18th century many Scots-Irish emigrated to America from the port of Larne. A monument in the Curran Park commemorates the Friends Goodwill, the first emigrant ship to sail from Larne in May 1717, heading for Boston, Massachusetts in the New England region of the modern United States of America. Boston's long standing Scots-Irish roots can be traced to Larne. The town is documented as being the first in county Antrim to be taken by United Irishmen during the ill-fated rebellion of 1798. The Protestant rebels from this area (almost entirely Presbyterian) filled Larne and engaged the government forces around 2am on the morning of the 7th of June. This surprise attack drove the garrison to flee the town, at which point the rebel force marched off to join up with McCracken and fight in the Battle of Antrim.
In 1914, Loyalists opposed to the Home Rule Act 1914 prepared for armed resistance. In an episode known as the Larne Gun Running German, Austrian and Italian weapons with ammunition were transported into the ports of Larne and Bangor in the dead of night and distributed throughout Ulster. This event marked a major step in cementing the right to Ulster Unionist self-determination, with the recognition of such a right ultimately leading to the creation of Northern Ireland.
Larne throughout the course of The Troubles had a significant paramilitary presence in the town, mostly through the presence of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and Ulster Defence Association (UDA). For further information see UDA South East Antrim Brigade.
The town suffered a number of IRA bomb attacks during The Troubles, notably including a large car bomb at the King's Arms hotel in 1980 that caused damage to the main shopping areas, for which the PIRA claimed responsibility. This incident was raised in Parliament at the time.
Incidents which involved fatalities
Larne sits on the western side of a narrow inlet that links Larne Lough to the sea. On the eastern side of the inlet is a peninsula called Islandmagee. To the west of Larne is the ancient volcanic formation of Antrim Plateau, with its glaciated valleys scenically sweeping down to the sea to the north of Larne in what are known as the Glens of Antrim. Larne is 25 miles from the Scottish mainland, with stunning views across the North Channel towards the Mull of Kintyre, Rhins of Galloway, Islay and Paps of Jura often visible from the Larne area – this proximity to Scotland has had a defining influence on Larne's history and culture.
The town is within the small parish of the same name. Like the rest of Ireland, this parish is divided into townlands. The following is a list of townlands within Larne's urban area, along with their likely etymologies:
Many streetnames in Larne end in brae, such as 'Whitla's Brae' which comes from the Scots for "hillside".
There are a number of Christian churches in Larne, including the following in alphabetical order:
On Census day (27 March 2011) there were 18,755 people living in Larne, accounting for 1.04% of the NI total. Of these:
A variety of shops can be found mainly along Larne Main Street, Dunluce Street, Laharna Retail Park, and large supermarkets off the Harbour Highway near the harbour. A variety market is also held every Wednesday at the Larne Market Yard.
There are a number of educational establishments in the area:
In memory of a battle in the town of Musa Qala in Afghanistan in 2006, involving the Royal Irish Regiment, a new regimental march, composed by Chris Attrill and commissioned by Larne Borough Council, was gifted to the regiment on Saturday 1 November 2008 in Larne, during an event in which the regiment was also presented with the 'Freedom of the Borough'.
This gave the regiment the right to march through the towns of the borough with 'flags flying, bands playing and bayonets fixed'. The march was named Musa Qala.
The Belfast–Larne line, or Larne line, is a railway line in Northern Ireland, operated by Northern Ireland Railways. It runs as double track along the majority of its route north along the scenic east Antrim coastline from Belfast to the coastal seaport town of Larne, serving commuters and ferry passengers.Drains Bay
Drains Bay (possibly from Irish: Draighean, meaning "blackthorn" + English "bay") is a small residential and commuter settlement about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) north of Larne and south of Ballygalley on the coast of County Antrim, Northern Ireland.
The village is mainly residential with many retired people living there. Some residents commute to Larne by car and to Belfast by car or by train (from Larne). There is a nearby beach with benches, public toilets, picnic tables and a play area for children. On the other side of the settlement are hills popular with walkers, hikers and also landscape painters. There are no shops in Drains Bay, but it is visited by mobile shops at weekends.
To the north of Drains Bay lies Carnfunnock Country Park.George Wilson Cup
The George Wilson Memorial Cup is a competition open to the reserve football teams of member clubs of the NIFL Premiership. Initially it was open to all members of the B Division, both "attached and unattached" (i.e. reserve sides and independent intermediate clubs), but since 1977/78 it has been limited to reserve sides only.Glenarm Upper
Glenarm Upper is a barony in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. To its east runs the east-Antrim coast, and it is bordered by four other baronies: Glenarm Lower to the north; Antrim Lower to the west; Antrim Upper to the south-west; and Belfast Lower to the south. Chaine Tower, situated at the entrance to Larne Lough, is located within Glenarm Upper.Glynn
Glynn (from Irish: an Gleann, meaning "the valley") is a small village and civil parish in the Mid and East Antrim Borough Council area of County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It lies a short distance south of Larne, on the shore of Larne Lough. Glynn had a population of 2,027 people in the 2011 Census.Islandmagee
Islandmagee (from Irish: Oileán Mhic Aodha, meaning "Magee’s island/peninsula") is a peninsula and civil parish on the east coast of County Antrim, Northern Ireland, located between the towns of Larne and Whitehead. It is part of the Mid and East Antrim Borough Council area and is a sparsely populated rural community with a long history since the mesolithic period. In the early medieval period it was known as Semne, a petty-kingdom within Ulaid.
As part of an agricultural crop rotation programme of old, beans were grown to supply nitrogen to the soil. "Bean Eaters" became a nickname for the people of Islandmagee. It is the site of Northern Ireland's main power station Ballylumford and the endpoint of the Scotland-Northern Ireland gas pipeline.John L. Robinson
John Larne Robinson (May 3, 1813 – March 21, 1860) was a U.S. Representative from Indiana.
Born near Maysville, Kentucky, Robinson attended the public schools.
He moved to Rush County, Indiana.
He engaged in the mercantile business in Milroy, Indiana.
County clerk of Rush County, Indiana from 1841 to 1845.
Robinson was elected as a Democrat to the Thirtieth, Thirty-first, and Thirty-second Congresses (March 4, 1847 – March 3, 1853).
He served as chairman of the Committee on Roads and Canals (Thirty-first and Thirty-second Congresses).
He was appointed by President Pierce as United States marshal for the southern district of Indiana in 1853.
Reappointed by President Buchanan in 1858 and served until his death.
He was appointed brigade inspector of the fourth military district of Indiana in 1854.
Trustee of Indiana University at Bloomington 1856-1859.
He died at Rushville, Indiana, March 21, 1860.
He was interred in East Hill Cemetery.Lanyon Place railway station
Belfast Lanyon Place (formerly Belfast Central) is a railway station serving the city of Belfast in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It is one of the four stations located in Belfast City Centre, the others being Great Victoria Street, City Hospital and Botanic.
Located on East Bridge Street in the city, Lanyon Place is the northern terminus of the cross border Enterprise service to Dublin Connolly, which runs every two hours. As well as this service, Lanyon Place is also served by Northern Ireland Railways, which operates routes to other locations in Northern Ireland, including Derry, Bangor, Portadown and Larne.Larne (Northern Ireland Parliament constituency)
Larne was a single-member county constituency of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.Larne Borough Council
Larne Borough Council was a Local Council in County Antrim in Northern Ireland. It merged with Ballymena Borough Council and Carrickfergus Borough Council in May 2015 under the reorganisation of local government in Northern Ireland to become Mid and East Antrim Borough Council.
Its headquarters was in the town of Larne, one of the most modern roll on-roll off ferry ports in the United Kingdom with a busy passenger traffic with Scotland.
The Borough of Larne was divided into 3 electoral areas: Larne Town, Larne Lough and Coast Road. At the final election in 2011 15 members were elected from the following political parties: 4 Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), 3 Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), 2 Independent, 3 Alliance Party, 1 Traditional Unionist Voice, 1 Sinn Féin and 1 Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP).
Aldermen Jack McKee (TUV) and Roy Beggs (UUP) were the longest serving councillors on the council.
Together with the neighbouring former district of Carrickfergus and part of the former district of Newtownabbey, it forms the East Antrim constituency for elections to the Westminster Parliament and Northern Ireland Assembly.
Settlements and villages in the former borough include Ballycarry, Islandmagee, Ballystrudder, Glynn, Magheramorne, Ballygalley, Cairnalbanagh, Glenarm and Carnlough.
See Also: Local Councils in Northern IrelandLarne F.C.
Larne Football Club is a professional Northern Irish football club based in Larne, County Antrim that play in the NIFL Premiership.Larne Lough
Larne Lough (sometimes Larne Loch, Lough Larne or Loch Larne; from Irish: Loch Latharna) is a sea lough or inlet in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. The lough lies between Islandmagee (a peninsula) and the mainland. At its mouth is the town of Larne. It is designated as an area of special scientific interest, a special protection area, and a Ramsar site to protect the wetland environment, particularly due to the presence of certain bird species and shellfish.Larne gun-running
The Larne gun-running was a major gun smuggling operation organised in April 1914 in Ireland by Major Frederick H. Crawford and Captain Wilfrid Spender for the Ulster Unionist Council to equip the Ulster Volunteer Force. The operation involved the smuggling of almost 25,000 rifles and between 3 and 5 million rounds of ammunition from the German Empire, with the shipments landing in Larne, Donaghadee, and Bangor in the early hours between Friday 24 and Saturday 25 April 1914. The Larne gun-running may have been the first time in history that motor-vehicles were used "on a large scale for a military-purpose, and with striking success".Magheramorne
Magheramorne (from Irish: Machaire Morna) is a hamlet in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It is about 5 miles south of Larne on the shores of Larne Lough. It had a population of 75 people in the 2001 Census. Following the reform of Northern Ireland's local government system on 1 April 2015, Magheramorne lies within the Mid and East Antrim Borough Council area.Mounthill
Mounthill is a small village in County Antrim, Northern Ireland, near Larne. In the 2011 Census, it had a population of 114 people. It is situated in the Larne Borough Council area.
Mounthill Fair, which takes place in October each year, is predominantly a horse fair (with shire horses dominating). The fair is nearly 300 years old and is said to have begun with a Charter from King James of England.Roy Beggs
John Robert Beggs (born 20 February 1936), commonly known as Roy Beggs, is a Northern Ireland politician.
Beggs was educated at Ballyclare High School, followed by Stranmillis College, to study teacher training. After his training Beggs became a teacher at Larne High School and had risen to be deputy principal before leaving the profession upon his election to the Westminster Parliament.He first entered politics in 1973 as a councillor for Larne Borough Council. for the Democratic Unionist Party. He was suspended from the party in 1981 after taking part in a council visit to Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown County Council local authority in the South. he moved to the Ulster Unionist Party and was re-elected in 1981 as a 'loyalist'. He joined the UUP in 1982 and has retained his council seat to date, serving several terms as Mayor of Larne from 1978 until 1983. In 1982 he was elected to the Northern Ireland Assembly representing North Antrim.In 1983 he was selected for the new East Antrim in the 1983 general election. With most expecting the DUP to win the seat, he became the new MP in the surprise result. He held the position until the 2005 general election when he was defeated by Sammy Wilson of the DUP. He was UUP Education Spokesman from 1986 up to and including his last few years in Parliament when he also served as Deputy Leader and Chief Whip of the Ulster Unionist Parliamentary Party.Beggs was known as one of the more hard-line members of the UUP, being vociferous in his Euroscepticism and his suspicions about the Belfast Agreement - initially involving himself in Union First (a group within the Ulster Unionist Party opposed to the Agreement), although in his final two years in Parliament he appeared publicly supportive of the Agreement and of leader David Trimble. A renowned opponent of "progressive" teaching methods and supporter of corporal punishment in schools he was closely associated with the pro-3Rs Campaign for Real Education and the Freedom Association, as well as his support for the History Curriculum Association's unsuccessful attempts to secure the inclusion of key events, personalities and developments of British History into the school history curriculum and have pupils assessed on their ability to acquire facts and knowledge rather than empathise from a range of psychological perspectives. A strong supporter of maintaining Northern Ireland's grammar schools, he attacked proposals to abolish academic selection in post-primary education in Northern Ireland, whilst also opposing the introduction of tuition fees for university students claiming that the latter discouraged many from entering higher education.
Beggs was also a strong supporter of the Orange Order during their stand-off over Drumcree Church and in 1995 took part in a blockade of the port of Larne as part of a show of solidarity. Beggs was charged with Public Order offences for his involvement and was fined £1,350. In March 2001, he apologised in the House of Commons for failing to register a local business interest.He lives in Larne and operates a farm and owns a landfill site. He is also the Chairman of the North Eastern Education and Library Board, as well as continuing his council work. He has four children. His son, Roy Jr. is a member of the Northern Ireland Assembly.Steel
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, and sometimes other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons.
Iron is the base metal of steel. Iron is able to take on two crystalline forms (allotropic forms), body centered cubic and face centered cubic, depending on its temperature. In the body-centered cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the center and eight atoms at the vertices of each cubic unit cell; in the face-centered cubic, there is one atom at the center of each of the six faces of the cubic unit cell and eight atoms at its vertices. It is the interaction of the allotropes of iron with the alloying elements, primarily carbon, that gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties.
In pure iron, the crystal structure has relatively little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another, and so pure iron is quite ductile, or soft and easily formed. In steel, small amounts of carbon, other elements, and inclusions within the iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations.
The carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.14% of its weight. Varying the amount of carbon and many other alloying elements, as well as controlling their chemical and physical makeup in the final steel (either as solute elements, or as precipitated phases), slows the movement of those dislocations that make pure iron ductile, and thus controls and enhances its qualities. These qualities include the hardness, quenching behavior, need for annealing, tempering behavior, yield strength, and tensile strength of the resulting steel. The increase in steel's strength compared to pure iron is possible only by reducing iron's ductility.
Steel was produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years, but its large-scale, industrial use began only after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century, with the introduction of the blast furnace and production of crucible steel. This was followed by the open-hearth furnace and then the Bessemer process in England in the mid-19th
century. With the invention of the Bessemer process, a new era of mass-produced steel began. Mild steel replaced wrought iron.
Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS), largely replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the final product. Today, steel is one of the most common manmade materials in the world, with more than 1.6 billion tons produced annually. Modern steel is generally identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organizations.Waterloo Bay
Waterloo Bay is an area of foreshore in Larne on the east coast of County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It is of particular interest to geologists because it provides a clear, complete and accessible example of the sequences from Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic, when the rock types changed from land to marine.
Italics denote settlements that are classed as towns but also have city status Northern Ireland portal
Places in County Antrim