Larnaca (Greek: Λάρνακα [ˈlarnaka]; Turkish: Larnaka or İskele) is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and the capital of the eponymous district. It is the third-largest city in the country, after Nicosia and Limassol, with a metro population of 144,200 in 2015.
Larnaca is known for its palm-tree seafront and the Church of Saint Lazarus, Hala Sultan Tekke, Kamares Aqueduct, and Larnaca Castle. It is built on the ruins of ancient Citium, which was the birthplace of Stoic philosopher Zeno. Larnaca is home to the country's primary airport, Larnaca International Airport. It also has a seaport and a marina.
Location in Cyprus
|• Type||Municipal council|
|• Mayor||Andreas Vyras (AKEL)|
|Elevation||85 ft (26 m)|
|The urban population is the aggregate of the populations of Larnaca, Aradippou, Livadia, Dromolaxia, and Meneou|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|Area code(s)||+357 24|
The word Larnaca derives from the Greek n. larnax, meaning: "coffer", "box", "chest", e.g. for household stores, "cinerary urn", "sarcophagus" or "coffin"; "drinking trough" and "chalice". An informal etymology, attributes the origin of the name to (sarcophagi) that were found in the area. Sophocles Hadjisavvas, a state archeologist, states that "[the city's U.S.] consul of the last quarter of the 19th century, claimed to have explored more than 3,000 tombs in the area of Larnaca, so-called after the immense number of sarcophagi found in the modern town". In the vernacular, Larnaca is also known as Scala (Greek: Σκάλα [ˈskala] from the word (Greek: σκάλα [ˈskala] a loanword from the Italian scala). During the Middle Ages, until the end of the 18th century, a small port-anchorage close to Larnaca Bay refers to maps, engravings, travel descriptions and documents as Scala di Saline and may account for this second name; (other names that appear in maps are include: Porto delle Salines, Rada delle Saline, Ponta delle Saline, Punta delle Salino, Golfo delle Saline, Port Salines, Selines, Salines, Le Seline, Le Salline, Saline, Salin, Salinas, Arnicho di Salinas, Port of Lazarus, Lazare [o], Marine, Marina, Commercio [customs]).
The former city-kingdom of Kition was originally established in the 13th century BC. New cultural elements appearing between 1200 BC and 1000 BC (personal objects, pottery, new architectural forms and ideas) are interpreted as indications of significant political changes and the arrival of the Achaeans, the first Greek colonists of Kition. Around the same time, Phoenicians settled the area.
At the archaeological sites of Kiteon, remains that date from the 13th century BC have been found. Around 1000 BC, Kition was rebuilt by Phoenicians and it subsequently became a center of Phoenician culture. The remains of the sites include cyclopean walls and a complex of five temples and a naval port.
It was conquered in the first millennium BC by a series of great powers of the region. First by the Assyrian Empire, then by Egypt. Like most Cypriot cities, Kition belonged to the Persian or Achaemenid Empire. In 450 BC, the Athenian general Cimon died at sea, while militarily supporting the revolt against Persia's rule over Cyprus. On his deathbed, he urged his officers to conceal his death from both their allies and the Persians.
Strong earthquakes hit the city in 76 AD and the year after.
Earthquakes of 322 AD and 342 "caused the destruction not only of Kition but also of Salamis and Pafos". Kition's harbor silted up, and the population moved to the seafront farther south, sometime after this. (Contributing factors to the silting are thought to have been earthquakes, deforestation and overgrazing.)
The commercial port was located at Skala, during the Ottoman Period. Skala is the name of the seashore immediately south of the Larnaca castle—and its neighborhood. The city is sometimes colloquially referred to as "Skala" (Greek: Σκάλα) meaning "ladder" or "landing stage", referring to the historical port.
The Kamares aqueduct was built in 1747—bringing water to the city from a source around six miles (9.7 km) from the city.
The Salt Lake fills with water during the winter season and is visited by flocks of flamingoes who stay there from November until the end of March. It usually dries up in the summer. In the past, it yielded good quality salt scraped from the dried surface. The salt from the lake is now considered unsuitable for consumption.
The climate in this area is described by the Köppen Climate Classification System as a hot semi-arid climate (BSh) due to its low annual rainfall and strong summer drought. It is sometimes described as a mediterranean climate, but its winter rainfall is below the required amount to avoid the semi-arid classification.
Larnaca's economy has been growing since 1975, after the loss of the Port of Famagusta, which handled 80% of general cargo, and the closure of Nicosia International Airport, meant that Larnaca's airport and seaport had increasingly important roles in the economy of the island. A €650m upgrade of Larnaca Airport has been completed.
The service sector, including tourism, employs three-quarters of Larnaca's labor force. Many travel and tour operators and other travel-related companies have their head offices in Larnaca.
Larnaca has a theatre and an art gallery, which are operated by the municipality. The Cornaro Institute was a cultural centre founded by the celebrated Cypriot artist Stass Paraskos in the Old Town in 2007, which staged contemporary art exhibitions and other cultural events, prior to its closure by Larnaca Municipality in 2017.
Local institutions include the Municipal Wind Orchestra.
International competitions held in the city, include the Shooting Shotgun European Championships in 2012, the FIVB Beach Volleyball SWATCH Youth World Championship in 2012, the European Under-19 Football Championship final in 1998 and the European Under-17 Football Championship final in 1992.
Larnaca attracts windsurfers from around the world especially in autumn. Mackenzie Beach hosts windsurfing centre together with an extreme sports centre.
Much of the activity is centered on the city promenade during the major festivals. The most important of these is Kataklysmos or the Festival of the Flood, celebrated in early summer with a series of cultural events. The festival used to last for about a week, but, in recent years, with the increased commercialism of peripheral stalls, rides and temporary Loukoumades restaurants, the festival has been extended to about three weeks, during which the seafront is closed to traffic in the evenings.
Museums found in Larnaca include the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum, Pierides Museum, Agios Lazaros Byzantine Museum, Kallinikeio Municipal Museum of Athienou, Larnaca Medieval Museum, Larnaca Municipal Museum of Natural History, Larnaca Municipal Historical Archives - Museum of Larnaca, Folklore Museum ‘Kostas Kaimakliotis’ - Aradippou, Theasis Museum and Kyriazis Medical Museum.
The beaches of Larnaca are lined with nearly identical seafood restaurants catering to tourists. Although there are many continental and international restaurants in Larnaca, visitors do not miss out on indulging in the local food. Many of the staple dishes involve beans, such as fasolaki (French beans cooked in red wine with lamb), and louvi me lahana (black-eyed beans with chard). Some of the standard appetizers are potato salad, kohlrabi salad, and hot grilled black olives. The next course may include Cyprus village sausage and sheftalia, dolmades and keftedes, kolokassi in tomato sauce, and several aubergine-based dishes. Baked or grilled lamb (souvla) usually appears somewhere in the course of dining, as does some kind of fish.
Public transport in Larnaca is served only by buses. Bus routes and timetables can be found here.
The 2013–14 Cypriot Cup was the 72nd edition of the Cypriot Cup. A total of 30 clubs entered the competition. It began on 23 October 2013 with the first round and concluded on 21 May 2014 with the final which was held at GSP Stadium. APOEL won their 20th Cypriot Cup trophy after beating Ermis Aradippou 2–0 in the final.2017–18 Cypriot Cup
The 2017–18 Cypriot Cup was the 76th edition of the Cypriot Cup. A total of 22 clubs were accepted to enter the competition. It began on 29 November 2019 with the first round and concluded on 16 May 2018 with the final held at GSP Stadium. The winner of the Cup was AEK Larnaca for second time and qualified for the 2018–19 Europa League second qualifying round.AEK Arena – Georgios Karapatakis
AEK Arena – Georgios Karapatakis (Greek: ΑΕΚ Αρένα – Γεώργιος Καραπατάκης) is a football stadium in Larnaca, Cyprus. The new home ground of AEK Larnaca has a seating capacity of 7,400.AEK Larnaca FC
AEK Larnaca FC (Greek: AEK; for short Αθλητική Έvωση Κίτιον Λάρνακας, romanized: Athletiki Enosi Kition Larnakas, "Athletic Union Kition of Larnaca") is a Cypriot professional football club from Larnaca, Cyprus. Their home ground as from the 2016–2017 season is the brand new AEK Arena - Georgios Karapatakis stadium with a capacity of 7,400 spectators. The club was formed in 1994 after a merger of two Larnaca clubs, EPA Larnaca and Pezoporikos. The club has also basketball sections for men AEK Larnaca BC and women Petrolina AEK and a volleyball section for women.
The club's name comes from the ancient Greek city-kingdom of Cyprus Kition, located on the site of today's Larnaca. The colours of the club are yellow and green and their emblem is admiral Kimon, who died at the seafront defending the city of Kition (modern Larnaca) in a major battle in Cyprus at about 450 BC, in a fight against the Persians. He had told his officers to keep the news of his possible death secret. The quote "Και Νεκρος Ενικα" ("Even in death he was victorious") refers to Kimon.Greatest successes of the football club are the qualification to the 2011–12 UEFA Europa League group stage and the win of Cypriot Cup in 2004 and 2018. The highest league performance is the 2nd place in three consecutive years.
In 2019 AEK signed their biggest ever shirt sponsorship with Cypriot-based betting company Bet on Alfa Ltd. in a three-year deal. It was also the first time Bet on Alfa became a major sponsor of a Cypriot professional football club.Alki Larnaca FC
Alki Larnaca (Greek: ΑΛΚΗ Λάρνακας, ALKI Larnakas) was a Cypriot football club based in the town of Larnaca. The club was founded in 1948 and the club's colours were blue and red. They reached the Cypriot Cup final on five occasions without a win.Antonis Papadopoulos Stadium
The Antonis Papadopoulos Stadium (Greek: Γήπεδο 'Αντώνης Παπαδόπουλος') is a football stadium in Larnaca, Cyprus. With a current seating capacity of 10,230, it has been the home stadium of Anorthosis Famagusta since its completion in 1986.Cobalt Air
Cobalt Air was a Cypriot airline headquartered in Nicosia based out of Larnaca International Airport.
The airline operated its maiden flight on 1 June 2016 from Larnaca to Athens. It was the second Cypriot airline after Tus Airways to be established since the dissolution of flag carrier Cyprus Airways in 2015. From June 2017 until October 2018, it was the second largest airline at Larnaca International Airport with 8.2% of weekly capacity after Aegean Airlines, and was predicted to become the largest airline by summer 2018 following expansion and the subsequent reduction by Aegean in Larnaca. However, Cobalt Air ceased all operations on 17 October 2018 facing financial difficulties.Cypriot First Division
The Cypriot First Division (Greek: Πρωτάθλημα Α΄ Κατηγορίας); is the top tier football league competition in Cyprus, run by the Cyprus Football Association. Since February 2016, it is sponsored by Cyta and thus officially known as Cyta Championship. The league is contested by 12 teams and runs from August to May, with the three lowest-placed teams relegated to the Cypriot Second Division and replaced by the top three teams in that division. At the seasons 2018–19 and 2019–20, the league will be contested by 12 teams and will also be run from August to May, with the two lowest-placed teams relegated to the Cypriot Second Division and replaced by the top two teams in that division.EPA Larnaca FC
EPA Larnaca (Greek: Ένωσις Πεζοπορικού Αμολ, Enosis Pezoporikou Amol) was a Cypriot football club based in the city of Larnaca. Founded in 1930 with the merge of two local clubs, Pezoporikos and AMOL, the club was a founding member of Cyprus Football Association and participated in the first Cypriot Championship in 1934/35. Few years later, Pezoporikos was re-established. The golden era of the club was in the period 1944–1946, when the team won the Double in two consecutive seasons. In 1970, the club participated in the Greek First National Division, as Cyprus champions. They were also cup winners 5 times. In 1994, they merged with Pezoporikos Larnaca and formed AEK Larnaca FC.The team had also basketball and volleyball sections. The women's volleyball team won the first Cyprus Championship in 1976.Ermis Aradippou FC
Ermis Aradippou (Greek: Ερμής Αραδίππου) is a Cypriot professional football club based in Aradippou, a settlement on the outskirts of the city of Larnaca. The club is currently playing in the Cypriot First Division, the top league of Cypriot football. Since its formation in 1958, the club has won the Cypriot Super Cup in 2014. Ermis have a long-standing rivalry with their neighbouring club Omonia.GSZ Stadium
GSZ Stadium or Gymnastic Club Zenon Stadium (Greek: Γυμναστικός Σύλλογος Ζήνων; Γ.Σ.Ζ., Greek pronunciation: [ɣasiˈzi]) is a multi-purpose stadium in Larnaca, Cyprus. Usually it is referred to as the 'neo GSZ Stadium' to distinguish it from the old GSZ Stadium, which it replaced. It is currently used mostly for football matches and is the home ground of AEK Larnaca FC. The stadium holds 13,032 people. Its owner is the Gymnastic Club Zeno which took its name from the native philosopher of Larnaca Zeno of Citium. Before the merge of Pezoporikos and EPA Larnaca into the new football club AEK Larnaca FC, it was also the home of those two clubs.
In 2006 it hosted the Cypriot Cup final between APOEL and AEK Larnaca FC, where APOEL won 3-2. However the greatest event that was hosted in the Larnaca Stadium was the final for the 1998 UEFA European Under-18 Football Championship between Republic of Ireland and Germany where they tied 1-1. The Republic of Ireland beat Germany 4-3 on penalties and won the trophy. During the same day, the Third Position final playoff was played for the same tournament and in that match Portugal beat Croatia 5-4 on penalties as well while the match ended 0-0.Larnaca District
Larnaca District (Greek: Επαρχία Λάρνακας, Turkish: Larnaka kazası) is one of the six districts of Cyprus. Its capital is Larnaca. It is bordered on the east by Famagusta District, on the north by Nicosia District and on the west by Limassol District.
A small part of the district was occupied by the Turkish army in 1974, and is now de facto administered as part of Northern Cyprus' Lefkoşa District.
The communities of Melouseia, Tremetousia and Arsos lie in the occupied zone, while the municipal/community areas of Athienou, Troulloi and Pergamos are partially occupied. Located in the district are Larnaca International Airport, the island's primary airport, and the Hala Sultan Tekke and the towns of Larnaca, Aradippou, Athienou and Lefkara.
In 2011, Larnaca District had a population of 143,192, of which 59% was urban.Larnaca International Airport
Larnaca International Airport – Glafcos Clerides (IATA: LCA, ICAO: LCLK) is an international airport located 4 km (2.5 mi) southwest of Larnaca, Cyprus. Larnaca International Airport is Cyprus' main international gateway and the largest of the islands' two commercial airports, the other being Paphos International Airport on the island's southwestern coast.
The airport was given its current name in July 2016, in honour of former President of Cyprus (1993 – 2003) Glafcos Clerides.List of football clubs in Cyprus
The following list includes all the men's Association football clubs of Cyprus who are participating or have participated in the national championships of the country. A total of 197 clubs have played in the national championships of Cyprus from their inception in 1934 until the 2019–20 season.
The national championships of Cyprus are the Cypriot First Division, the Cypriot Second Division, the Cypriot Third Division and the Cypriot Fourth Division which has been dissolved after 2014–15 season. The championships are run and organized by the Cyprus Football Association (CFA). Since 2015, National Championship is also the STOK Elite Division which is run and organized by the Confederation of local federations of Cyprus (STOK).
The following table is a list of Cypriot football clubs. For a complete list see Category:Football clubs in Cyprus.List of foreign football players in Cypriot First Division
This is a list of foreign players that have played in the Cypriot First Division. The following players:
have played at least one Cypriot First Division game for the respective club.
have been born in Cyprus and were capped by a foreign national team. This includes players who have dual citizenship with Cyprus.The players written with bold text have at least one cap for their national team.Livadia, Larnaca
Livadia (Greek: Λιβάδια [locally [liˈvaθca]]) is a municipality and suburb of Larnaca. It has been a settlement since the middle bronze age.Omonia Aradippou
Omonia Aradippou (Greek: Ομόνοια Αραδίππου) is a Cypriot professional football club based in Aradippou, a settlement on the outskirts of the city of Larnaca. The club was founded in 4 April 1929 and currently, they compete in the Cypriot Second Division. They have competed in the Cypriot First Division several times in the past. The 1995–1996 season is their most recent one in the First Division. Omonia plays their home games at the Municipal Aradippou stadium. Omonia has a long-standing rivalry with their neighbouring club Ermis.Othellos Athienou FC
Othellos Athienou (Greek: Οθέλλος Αθηαίνου) is a football club based in Athienou, Larnaca, Cyprus and competes in the Cypriot Second Division. The football department is the only activity of the club at the moment, which participated for the first time in the Cypriot First Division, the top football level division in Cyprus. The club colours are green and white.Pezoporikos Larnaca FC
Pezoporikos Club Larnaca (Greek: Πεζοπορικός Όμιλος Λάρνακας, Pezoporikos Omilos Larnakas) was a Cypriot sports club based in Larnaca with football, basketball and volleyball teams. Founded in 1927, the football club joined the Cypriot Championship in 1938, winning it twice as well as one Cypriot Cup. The colours of the club were green and white. In 1994 the club merged with EPA Larnaca and they formed AEK Larnaca (Αθλητική Ένωση Κιτίου).
The club also had a basketball and volleyball department and were basketball champions four times and five times cup winners. Since the 1990–91 season, the club dominated the Cyprus Basketball by winning 3 championships and one cup in four years. During the 1993–94 season the team eliminated Hapoel Eilat with 86–80 and 65–65 for the Korać Cup and qualified in the second round of Korać Cup where they were eliminated by Panionios. Even as champions, the club merged like the football department, however, AEK Larnaca didn't continue with the same success as Pezoporikos Basketball Club had.
Founding member of the Cyprus Volleyball Federation, the volleyball women's team was more successful than the men's one. The women's team won the Cup once in 1979 when they beat AEL Limassol in the final 3–2. They were Runners up twice each in the championship and in the cup.
|Climate data for Larnaca (extremes 1881–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||22.6
|Average high °C (°F)||16.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.1
|Average low °C (°F)||7.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−0.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||77.6
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||7.9||5.7||4.5||3.1||0.7||0.3||0.1||0.1||0.5||2.1||4.7||8.0||37.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||195.3||208.8||238.7||267.0||331.7||378.0||387.5||365.8||312.0||275.9||216.0||179.8||3,356.5|
|Source #1: Meteorological Service (Cyprus)|
|Source #2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)|
Landmarks of Larnaca