Large forest bat

The large forest bat (Vespadelus darlingtoni) is a vespertilionid bat found in southeast Australia, Tasmania, and Lord Howe Island. They are classified as common.

Large forest bat
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Chiroptera
Family: Vespertilionidae
Genus: Vespadelus
Species:
V. darlingtoni
Binomial name
Vespadelus darlingtoni
Synonyms
  • Eptesicus darlingtoni G.M. Allen, 1933
  • Eptesicus sagittula McKean et al., 1978[3]

Taxonomy

The first description was published by G. M. Allen in 1933. The specimen described was obtained by Philip Darlington in northern Queensland, another member of a work group for the american Museum of Comparative Zoology, the Harvard Australian Expedition (1931–1932) led by William M. Wheeler[2]

Description

The fur over the back and front is a dark shade of rich brown or brownish red, nearly uniform in colour overall, the population in Tasmania may be very dark to black.[4][5] The hair of this larger species is coarse and long. A triangular shaped feature is seen at the lower point of the mouth.[5] The patagium across the wings is grey-black.[5] The range of length in the forearm is 32 to 39 millimetres, and they weigh 4 to 10 grams.[4]

The finer measurements of the species forearm length of 32.5 to 37.2 mm, the head and body combined is 28 to 49 mm, tail length is 29 to 38 millimetres. The sampled weight range of 6.0 to 8.3 g gives an average of 7.2 grams. A key to a diagnosis for the species is the proportion of the phalanx bones in the third finger, the ratio of the third to second phalanges is greater than 0.84. The length of the penis is small and it has as an angular bend, the tip is not enlarged. The larger size of the Vespadelus darlingtoni distinguishes it from others of the genus, the forearm length being greater than 33 mm, in particular the similar species V. pumilus (eastern forest bat). The richly coloured chocolate wattled species Chalinolobus morio is separable by the absence of that species lobe at the lower lip and raised fur between the eyes.[5]

A single birth during November and December is usual for the species.[5]

Distribution and habitat

Found in Victoria and New South Wales, Tasmania, and a volcanic outcrop, Lord Howe Island, to the east of Australia.[1] The species is also recorded at Flinders and Kangaroo Island.[5] The species occurs at elevations up to 1300 metres asl, possibly higher, the highest record is from Victoria.[1] They occur at all elevations in the southern regions, but the range to the north is restricted to the cooler environs at higher altitudes.[1]

Vespadelus darlingtoni is common around the eastern headwaters of the Murray and Murrumbidgee rivers, favouring woodland and other habitat in the agricultural regions.[4] The habitat is associated with the Great Dividing Range.[5]

The species is common and widely distributed, and not known to be declining in population. No threats are known, and the distribution range includes conservation areas that are inhabited by the species. It is found in dry and wet eucalypt forest, rainforest, and at sub-alpine to alpine habitats. Vespadelus darlingtoni is observed in small reserves of woodland of rural areas and present at the urbanised landscape. They roost in the hollows of trees with up to sixty others of the species.[1] The population at Lord Howe is the only species of bat confirmed to living on the island. Reports of a second larger species also existing there seemed to be confirmed when a new species, Nyctophilus howensis, was described using the skull of a recently deceased individual.[4]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Hall, L.; Lumsden, L.; Parnaby, H. (2008). "Large Forest Bat Vespadelus darlingtoni". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T15006A4486408. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T7920A12870313.en.
  2. ^ a b Allen, Glover M. (May 1933). "Two New Bats from Australia". Journal of Mammalogy. 14 (2): 149–151. doi:10.2307/1374021. JSTOR 1374021.
  3. ^ McKean, JL; Richards, GC; Price, WJ (1978). "A taxonomic appraisal of Eptesicus (Chiroptera : Mammalia) in Australia". Australian Journal of Zoology. 26 (3): 529. doi:10.1071/ZO9780529.
  4. ^ a b c d Richards, G.C.; Hall, L.S.; Parish, S. (photography) (2012). A natural history of Australian bats : working the night shift. CSIRO Pub. pp. 21, 24, 25, 26, 33, 35, 38, 173. ISBN 9780643103740.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Menkhorst, P.W.; Knight, F. (2011). A field guide to the mammals of Australia (3rd ed.). Melbourne: Oxford University Press. p. 146. ISBN 9780195573954.
African yellow bat

The African yellow bat (Scotophilus dinganii) is a species of bat in the family Vespertilionidae, the vesper bats. Other common names include African yellow house bat, yellow-bellied house bat, and Dingan's Bat. It is one of fifteen species in the genus Scotophilus.

Arielulus

Arielulus is a genus of vesper bats with the following species, sometimes in Pipistrellus:

Genus Arielulus

Collared pipistrelle (A. aureocollaris)

Black-gilded pipistrelle (A. circumdatus)

Coppery pipistrelle (A. cuprosus)

Social pipistrelle (A. societatis)

Necklace pipistrelle (A. torquatus)

Barbastella

Barbastella is a small genus of vespertilionid bats. There are five described species in this genus.

Eptesicus

Eptesicus is a genus of bats, commonly called house bats or serotine bats, in the family Vespertilionidae.The 25 species within this genus are:

Little black serotine (Eptesicus andinus)

Bobrinski's serotine (Eptesicus bobrinskoi)

Botta's serotine (Eptesicus bottae)

Brazilian brown bat (Eptesicus brasiliensis)

Chiriquinan serotine (Eptesicus chiriquinus)

Diminutive serotine (Eptesicus diminutus)

Surat serotine (Eptesicus dimissus)

Horn-skinned bat (Eptesicus floweri)

Argentine brown bat (Eptesicus furinalis)

Big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus)

Gobi big brown bat (Eptesicus gobiensis)

Guadeloupe big brown bat (Eptesicus guadeloupensis)

Long-tailed house bat (Eptesicus hottentotus)

Harmless serotine (Eptesicus innoxius)

Meridional serotine (Eptesicus isabellinus)

Japanese short-tailed bat (Eptesicus japonensis)

Kobayashi's bat (Eptesicus kobayashii)

Eptesicus lobatus

Jamaican serotine (Eptesicus lynni)

Sind bat (Eptesicus nasutus)

Northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii)

Thick-eared bat (Eptesicus pachyotis)

Lagos serotine (Eptesicus platyops)

Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus)

Eptesicus taddeii

Sombre bat (Eptesicus tatei)

Glauconycteris

Glauconycteris is a genus of vespertilionid bats in Africa.

Grey long-eared bat

The grey long-eared bat (Plecotus austriacus) is a fairly large European bat. It has distinctive ears, long and with a distinctive fold. It hunts above woodland, often by day, and mostly for moths. It is extremely similar to the more common brown long-eared bat, and was only distinguished in the 1960s, but has a paler belly.

Hypsugo

The genus Hypsugo contains many bats referred to as pipistrelles or pipistrelle bats. They belong to the family Vespertilionidae or vesper bats within the order Chiroptera.

Laephotis

Laephotis is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae. Species within this genus are:

Angolan long-eared bat (Laephotis angolensis)

Botswanan long-eared bat (Laephotis botswanae)

Namib long-eared bat (Laephotis namibensis)

De Winton's long-eared bat (Laephotis wintoni)

List of mammals of Victoria

This is a list of mammals of Victoria, Australia:

Acrobates pygmaeus (feathertail glider)

Aepyprymnus rufescens (rufous rat-kangaroo)

Antechinus agilis (agile antechinus)

Antechinus flavipes (yellow-footed antechinus)

Antechinus minimus (swamp antechinus)

Antechinus swainsonii (dusky antechinus)

Arctocephalus forsteri (New Zealand fur seal)

Arctocephalus pusillus (Cape fur seal)

Arctocephalus tropicalis (subantarctic fur seal)

Balaenoptera acutorostrata (minke whale)

Balaenoptera edeni (Bryde's whale)

Balaenoptera musculus (blue whale)

Balaenoptera physalus (fin whale)

Bettongia gaimardi (eastern bettong)

Bettongia penicillata (woylie)

Burramys parvus (mountain pygmy possum)

Canis lupus dingo (dingo)

Caperea marginata (pygmy right whale)

Capra hircus (goat) — naturalised

Cercartetus concinnus (southwestern pygmy possum)

Cercartetus lepidus (Tasmanian pygmy possum)

Cercartetus nanus (eastern pygmy possum)

Axis axis (axis deer) — naturalised

Dama dama (fallow deer) — naturalised

Cervus timorensis (rusa deer) — naturalised

Chalinolobus gouldii (Gould's wattled bat)

Chalinolobus morio (chocolate wattled bat)

Chaeropus ecaudatus (pig-footed bandicoot) - extinct

Conilurus albipes (white-footed rabbit-rat)

Dasyurus maculatus (tiger quoll)

Dasyurus geoffroii (western quoll)

Dasyurus viverrinus (eastern quoll)

Delphinus delphis (short-beaked common dolphin)

Equus caballus (horse) — naturalised

Eubalaena australis (southern right whale)

Falsistrellus tasmaniensis (eastern false pipistrelle)

Felis catus (cat) — naturalised

Globicephala melas (long-finned pilot whale)

Grampus griseus (Risso's dolphin)

Gymnobelideus leadbeateri (Leadbeater's possum)

Hydromys chrysogaster (water rat)

Hydrurga leptonyx (leopard seal)

Hyperoodon planifrons (bottlenose whale)

Isoodon obesulus (southern brown bandicoot)

Kogia breviceps (pygmy sperm whale)

Lagenodelphis hosei (Fraser's dolphin)

Lagorchestes leporides (eastern hare-wallaby) — extinct

Lepus europaeus (brown hare) — naturalised

Leporillus apicalis (lesser stick rat)

Lobodon carcinophaga (crabeater seal)

Macropus fuliginosus (western grey kangaroo)

Macropus giganteus (eastern grey kangaroo)

Macropus greyi (toolache wallaby) — extinct

Macropus robustus (eastern wallaroo)

Macropus rufogriseus (red-necked wallaby)

Macropus rufus (red kangaroo)

Macrotis lagotis (greater bilby)

Mastacomys fuscus (broad-toothed mouse)

Megaptera novaeangliae (humpback whale)

Mesoplodon bowdoini (Andrews' beaked whale)

Mesoplodon densirostris (Blainville's beaked whale)

Mesoplodon ginkgodens (ginkgo-toothed beaked whale)

Mesoplodon grayi (Gray's beaked whale)

Mesoplodon layardii (Layard's beaked whale)

Mesoplodon mirus (True's beaked whale)

Miniopterus schreibersii (common bentwing bat)

Mirounga leonina (southern elephant seal)

Mormopterus planiceps (southern free-tailed bat)

Mus musculus (house mouse) — naturalised

Myotis adversus (large-footed bat)

Neophoca cinerea (Australian sea lion)

Ningaui yvonneae (southern ningaui)

Notomys mitchellii (Mitchell's hopping mouse)

Nyctophilus geoffroyi (lesser long-eared bat)

Nyctophilus gouldi (Gould's long-eared bat)

Nyctophilus timoriensis (greater long-eared bat)

Onychogalea fraenata (bridled nail-tail wallaby)

Orcinus orca (orca)

Ornithorhynchus anatinus (platypus)

Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit) — naturalised

Perameles bougainville (western barred bandicoot)

Perameles gunnii (eastern barred bandicoot)

Perameles nasuta (long-nosed bandicoot)

Petauroides volans (greater glider)

Petaurus australis (yellow-bellied glider)

Petaurus breviceps (sugar glider)

Petaurus norfolcensis (squirrel glider)

Petrogale penicillata (brush-tailed rock-wallaby)

Phascogale calura (red-tailed phascogale)

Phascogale tapoatafa (brush-tailed phascogale)

Phascolarctos cinereus (koala)

Physeter macrocephalus (sperm whale)

Planigale gilesi (paucident planigale)

Potorous longipes (long-footed potoroo)

Potorous tridactylus (long-nosed potoroo)

Pseudocheirus peregrinus (common ringtail possum)

Pseudomys apodemoides (silky mouse)

Pseudomys australis (plains rat)

Pseudomys bolami (Bolam's mouse)

Pseudomys desertor (brown desert mouse)

Pseudomys fumeus (smoky mouse)

Pseudomys gouldii (Gould's mouse)

Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland mouse)

Pseudomys shortridgei (heath mouse)

Pseudorca crassidens (false killer whale)

Pteropus poliocephalus (grey-headed flying-fox)

Pteropus scapulatus (little red flying-fox)

Rattus fuscipes (bush rat)

Rattus lutreolus (Australian swamp rat)

Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) — naturalised

Rattus rattus (black rat) — naturalised

Rhinolophus megaphyllus (smaller horseshoe bat)

Saccolaimus flaviventris (yellow-bellied pouched bat)

Scotorepens balstoni (western broad-nosed bat)

Scotorepens orion (eastern broad-nosed bat)

Sminthopsis crassicaudata (fat-tailed dunnart)

Sminthopsis leucopus (white-footed dunnart)

Sminthopsis murina (slender-tailed dunnart)

Sus scrofa (pig) — naturalised

Tachyglossus aculeatus (short-beaked echidna)

Tadarida australis (white-striped free-tailed bat)

Thylogale billardierii (Tasmanian pademelon)

Trichosurus caninus (short-eared possum)

Trichosurus vulpecula (common brushtail possum)

Tursiops australis (burrunan dolphin)

Tursiops truncatus (bottlenose dolphin)

Vespadelus baverstocki (inland forest bat)

Vespadelus darlingtoni (large forest bat)

Vespadelus regulus (southern forest bat)

Vespadelus vulturnus (little forest bat)

Vombatus ursinus (common wombat)

Vulpes vulpes (fox) — naturalised

Wallabia bicolor (swamp wallaby)

Ziphius cavirostris (Cuvier's beaked whale)

Lord Howe long-eared bat

Lord Howe long-eared bat, species Nyctophilus howensis, is a vespertilionid bat known only by a single specimen, a skull found on Lord Howe Island in 1972. A mammalian insectivorous species resembling the long-eared Nyctophilus, with an elongated head that is comparatively larger, about which almost nothing is known. The bat may have been casually observed in flight during the twentieth century, but is likely to have become extinct since the island's discovery and occupation. The demise of N. howensis is possibly the result of shipwrecked rats and the owls introduced to control them.

Moloney's mimic bat

Moloney's mimic bat (Mimetillus moloneyi) is a species of vesper bat. It can be found in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia. It is found in subtropical or tropical dry or moist forests, subtropical or tropical mangrove forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, dry and moist savanna.

Neoromicia

Neoromicia is a genus of vesper bat in the family Vespertilionidae.

It contains the following species:

Dark-brown serotine (Neoromicia brunneus)

Cape serotine (Neoromicia capensis)

Yellow serotine (Neoromicia flavescens)

Neoromicia grandidieri

Tiny serotine (Neoromicia guineensis)

Heller's pipistrelle (Neoromicia helios)

Isabelline white-winged serotine (Neoromicia isabella)

Isalo serotine (Neoromicia malagasyensis)

Malagasy serotine (Neoromicia matroka)

Melck's house bat (Neoromicia melckorum)

Banana pipistrelle (Neoromicia nana)

Rendall's serotine (Neoromicia rendalli)

Rosevear's serotine (Neoromicia roseveari)

Neoromicia robertsi

Somali serotine (Neoromicia somalicus)

Neoromicia stanleyi

White-winged serotine (Neoromicia tenuipinnis)

Aloe serotine (Neoromicia zuluensis)

Nyctalus

Nyctalus is a genus of vespertilionid bats commonly known as the noctule bats. They are distributed in the temperate and subtropical areas of Europe, Asia and North Africa.

There are eight species within this genus:

Birdlike noctule, Nyctalus aviator

Azores noctule, Nyctalus azoreum

Japanese noctule, Nyctalus furvus

Greater noctule bat, Nyctalus lasiopterus

Lesser noctule, Nyctalus leisleri

Mountain noctule, Nyctalus montanus

Common noctule, Nyctalus noctula

Chinese noctule, Nyctalus plancyi

Plecotus

The genus Plecotus consists of the long-eared bats. Many species in the genus have only been described and recognized in recent years.

Rüppell's pipistrelle

Rüppell's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus rueppellii) is a species of vesper bat found in Africa and Asian republics such as Iraq and Israel. It is found in dry and moist savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, and hot deserts.

Scotoecus

Scotoecus is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae.

Scotophilus tandrefana

The western yellow bat (Scotophilus tandrefana) is a species of vesper bat endemic to Madagascar.

Vespadelus

Vespadelus is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae.

The genus name was first published by Ellis Le Geyt Troughton and Tom Iredale in 1934, but without an adequate description; the type was cited as Scotophilus pumilus Gray, 1841. The 1934 review included taxa previously ascribed to other generas and placed these with the proposed arrangement, the type species was assigned to a new combination as Vespadelus pumilus. Troughton later provided a diagnosis for the genus in 1943, making this name available. Other circumscriptions have assigned these species to genera Pipistrellus and Eptesicus.

An earlier treatment of populations had placed them as the sole species of Eptesicus (E. pumilus). The separation to this genus followed comparative studies that recognised its diversity and nominated new species (Kitchener, 1987; Queale.). Subsequent authors recognition of the arrangement published as Vespadelus by Troughton in 1943 saw the name of this genus reëstablished.The following nine species are currently recognised.

genus Vespadelus Troughton 1943. Reëlevated to genus with new combinations (Queale, 1997 et al). Also known as: forest bats, cave bats. little brown bats

species Vespadelus baverstocki (Kitchener et al, 1987). aka: Baverstock's or inland forest bat

sp. Vespadelus caurinus (Thomas, 1914). northern cave bat

sp. Vespadelus darlingtoni. (Allen, 1933). large forest bat

sp. Vespadelus douglasorum (Kitchener, 1976). yellow-lipped bat

sp. Vespadelus finlaysoni. (Kitchener et al, 1987). Finlayson's cave bat

sp. Vespadelus pumilus (Gray, 1841). eastern forest bat

sp. Vespadelus regulus (Thomas, 1906). southern forest bat

sp. Vespadelus troughtoni. eastern cave bat

sp. Vespadelus vulturnus. little forest bat

Vespertilioninae

The Vespertilioninae are a subfamily of vesper bats from the family Vespertilionidae.

Species of subfamily Vespertilioninae
Aeorestes
Antrozous
Arielulus
Barbastella
Bauerus
Chalinolobus
Corynorhinus
Dasypterus
Eptesicus
Euderma
Eudiscopus
Falsistrellus
Glauconycteris
Glischropus
Hesperoptenus
Histiotus
Hypsugo
Ia
Idionycteris
Laephotis
Lasionycteris
Lasiurus
Mimetillus
Neoromicia
Niumbaha
Nyctalus
Nycticeinops
Nycticeius
Nyctophilus
Otonycteris
Parastrellus
Perimyotis
Pharotis
Philetor
Pipistrellus
Plecotus
Rhogeessa
Scoteanax
Scotoecus
Scotomanes
Scotophilus
Scotorepens
Scotozous
Tylonycteris
Vespadelus
Vespertilio

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