Lanthanum carbonate

Lanthanum carbonate, La2(CO3)3, is the salt formed by lanthanum(III) cations and carbonate anions. It is an ore of lanthanum metal, (Bastnäsite) along with monazite.

Lanthanum carbonate
Names
IUPAC name
Lanthanum carbonate
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.008.728
EC Number
  • 209-599-5
UNII
Properties
La2(CO3)3
Molar mass 457.838 g/mol
Appearance White powder, hygroscopic
Density 2.6–2.7 g/cm3
Melting point decomposes
negligible
Solubility soluble in acids
Pharmacology
V03AE03 (WHO)
Related compounds
Other anions
Lanthanum(III) oxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

Chemistry

Lanthanum carbonate is used as a starting material in lanthanum chemistry, particularly in forming mixed oxides, for example

Medical uses

Lanthanum carbonate is used in medicine as a phosphate binder.[1] As a medication it is sold under the trade name Fosrenol by the pharmaceutical company Shire Pharmaceuticals. Due to its large size (1000 mg tablet is 2.2 cm in diameter), it may be possible to choke on the tablet if it is not chewed. It is prescribed for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia, primarily in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is taken with meals and binds to dietary phosphate, preventing phosphate from being absorbed by the intestine. For cats suffering from hyperphosphatemia it is available under the trade name Renalzin by Bayer Animal Health.[2]

However, when lanthanum carbonate is used for treating hyperphosphatemia, its side effects, namely myalgia, muscular cramping, and peripheral edema, should be clinically monitored.[3]

Other applications

Lanthanum carbonate is also used for the tinting of glass, for water treatment, and as a catalyst for hydrocarbon cracking.

References

  1. ^ Editorial Staff (December 2004). "Lanthanum Carbonate". All Micromedex Systems. Micromedex, Inc. Archived from the original on 2007-09-14. Retrieved 2007-11-25.
  2. ^ Bayer Animal Health (26 September 2008). "Bayer Animal Health launches Renalzin for Cats" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  3. ^ Tonelli, Marcello; Pannu, Neesh; Manns, Braden (2010). "Oral Phosphate Binders in Patients with Kidney Failure". New England Journal of Medicine. 362 (14): 1312. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0912522. PMID 20375408.

External links

Wrong mineralogical data

" It is an ore of lanthanum metal, (Bastnäsite) along with monazite." Not true! Bastnäsite (correct name: bastnäsite-(La)) is La(CO3)F, that is, lanthanum carbonate fluoride. The mineral with the formula La2(CO3)3*8H2O is LANTHANITE-(La). Anhydrous La carbonate is unknown in the nature.Eudialytos (talk) 19:26, 29 July 2019 (UTC)

ATC code V03

ATC code V03 All other therapeutic products is a therapeutic subgroup of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, a system of alphanumeric codes developed by the WHO for the classification of drugs and other medical products. Subgroup V03 is part of the anatomical group V Various.

Codes for veterinary use (ATCvet codes) can be created by placing the letter Q in front of the human ATC code: for example, QV03. ATCvet codes without corresponding human ATC codes are cited with the leading Q in the following list.National issues of the ATC classification may include additional codes not present in this list, which follows the WHO version.

Ciprofloxacin

Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections. This includes bone and joint infections, intra abdominal infections, certain type of infectious diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, skin infections, typhoid fever, and urinary tract infections, among others. For some infections it is used in addition to other antibiotics. It can be taken by mouth, as eye drops, as ear drops, or intravenously.Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and rash. Ciprofloxacin increases the risk of tendon rupture. In people with myasthenia gravis, there is worsening muscle weakness. Rates of side effects appear to be higher than some groups of antibiotics such as cephalosporins but lower than others such as clindamycin. Studies in other animals raise concerns regarding use in pregnancy. No problems were identified, however, in the children of a small number of women who took the medication. It appears to be safe during breastfeeding. It is a second-generation fluoroquinolone with a broad spectrum of activity that usually results in the death of the bacteria.Ciprofloxacin was patented in 1980 and introduced in 1987. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is available as a generic medication and is not very expensive. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between US$0.03 and US$0.13 a dose. In the United States it is sold for about US$0.40 per dose. In 2016 it was the 102nd most prescribed medication in the United States with more than seven million prescriptions.

Glossary of fuel cell terms

The Glossary of fuel cell terms lists the definitions of many terms used within the fuel cell industry. The terms in this fuel cell glossary may be used by fuel cell industry associations, in education material and fuel cell codes and standards to name but a few.

Lanthanum

Lanthanum is a chemical element with the symbol La and atomic number 57. It is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal that tarnishes slowly when exposed to air and is soft enough to be cut with a knife. It is the eponym of the lanthanide series, a group of 15 similar elements between lanthanum and lutetium in the periodic table, of which lanthanum is the first and the prototype. It is also sometimes considered the first element of the 6th-period transition metals, which would put it in group 3, although lutetium is sometimes placed in this position instead. Lanthanum is traditionally counted among the rare earth elements. The usual oxidation state is +3. Lanthanum has no biological role in humans but is essential to some bacteria. It is not particularly toxic to humans but does show some antimicrobial activity.

Lanthanum usually occurs together with cerium and the other rare earth elements. Lanthanum was first found by the Swedish chemist Carl Gustav Mosander in 1839 as an impurity in cerium nitrate – hence the name lanthanum, from the Ancient Greek λανθάνειν (lanthanein), meaning "to lie hidden". Although it is classified as a rare earth element, lanthanum is the 28th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, almost three times as abundant as lead. In minerals such as monazite and bastnäsite, lanthanum composes about a quarter of the lanthanide content. It is extracted from those minerals by a process of such complexity that pure lanthanum metal was not isolated until 1923.

Lanthanum compounds have numerous applications as catalysts, additives in glass, carbon arc lamps for studio lights and projectors, ignition elements in lighters and torches, electron cathodes, scintillators, GTAW electrodes, and other things. Lanthanum carbonate is used as a phosphate binder in cases of renal failure.

List of inorganic compounds

Although most compounds are referred to by their IUPAC systematic names (following IUPAC nomenclature), "traditional" names have also been kept where they are in wide use or of significant historical interests.

List of minerals B (complete)

This list includes those recognised minerals beginning with the letter B. The International Mineralogical Association is the international group that recognises new minerals and new mineral names, however minerals discovered before 1959 did not go through the official naming procedure, although some minerals published previously have been either confirmed or discredited since that date. This list contains a mixture of mineral names that have been approved since 1959 and those mineral names believed to still refer to valid mineral species (these are called "grandfathered" species).

The list is divided into groups:

Introduction • (Main synonyms)

A • B • C • D • E • F • G • H • I • J • K • L • M • N • O • P–Q • R • S • T • U–V • W–X • Y–ZThe data was exported from mindat.org on 29 April 2005; updated up to 'IMA2018'.

The minerals are sorted by name, followed by the structural group (rruff.info/ima and ima-cnmnc by mineralienatlas.de, mainly) or chemical class (mindat.org and basics), the year of publication (if it's before of an IMA approval procedure), the IMA approval and the Nickel–Strunz code. The first link is to mindat.org, the second link is to webmineral.com, and the third is to the Handbook of Mineralogy (Mineralogical Society of America).

Abbreviations:

D – discredited (IMA/CNMNC status).

Q – questionable/ doubtful (IMA/CNMNC, mindat.org or mineralienatlas.de status).

N – published without approval of the IMA/CNMNC, or just not an IMA approved mineral but with some acceptance in the scientific community nowadays.

I – intermediate member of a solid-solution series.

H – hypothetical mineral (synthetic, anthropogenic, suspended approval procedure, etc.)

ch – incomplete description, hypothetical solid solution end member.

Rd – redefinition of ...

"s.p." – special procedure.

group – a name used to designate a group of species, sometimes only a mineral group name.

no – no link available.

IUPAC – chemical name.

Y: 1NNN – year of publication.

Y: old – known before publications were available.

List of minerals H (complete)

This list includes those recognised minerals beginning with the letter H. The International Mineralogical Association is the international group that recognises new minerals and new mineral names, however minerals discovered before 1959 did not go through the official naming procedure, although some minerals published previously have been either confirmed or discredited since that date. This list contains a mixture of mineral names that have been approved since 1959 and those mineral names believed to still refer to valid mineral species (these are called "grandfathered" species).

The list is divided into groups:

Introduction • (Main synonyms)

A • B • C • D • E • F • G • H • I • J • K • L • M • N • O • P–Q • R • S • T • U–V • W–X • Y–ZThe data was exported from mindat.org on 29 April 2005; updated up to 'IMA2018'.

The minerals are sorted by name, followed by the structural group (rruff.info/ima and ima-cnmnc by mineralienatlas.de, mainly) or chemical class (mindat.org and basics), the year of publication (if it's before of an IMA approval procedure), the IMA approval and the Nickel–Strunz code. The first link is to mindat.org, the second link is to webmineral.com, and the third is to the Handbook of Mineralogy (Mineralogical Society of America).

Abbreviations:

D – discredited (IMA/CNMNC status).

Q – questionable/ doubtful (IMA/CNMNC, mindat.org or mineralienatlas.de status).

N – published without approval of the IMA/CNMNC, or just not an IMA approved mineral but with some acceptance in the scientific community nowadays.

I – intermediate member of a solid-solution series.

H – hypothetical mineral (synthetic, anthropogenic, suspended approval procedure, etc.)

ch – incomplete description, hypothetical solid solution end member.

Rd – redefinition of ...

"s.p." – special procedure.

group – a name used to designate a group of species, sometimes only a mineral group name.

no – no link available.

IUPAC – chemical name.

Y: 1NNN – year of publication.

Y: old – known before publications were available.

Metals in medicine

Metals in medicine are used in organic systems for diagnostic and treatment purposes. Inorganic elements are also essential for organic life as cofactors in enzymes called metalloproteins. When metals are scarce or high quantities, equilibrium is set out of balance and must be returned to its natural state via interventional and natural methods.

Period 6 element

A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the lanthanides. The periodic table is laid out in rows to illustrate recurring (periodic) trends in the chemical behaviour of the elements as their atomic number increases: a new row is begun when chemical behaviour begins to repeat, meaning that elements with similar behaviour fall into the same vertical columns. The sixth period contains 32 elements, tied for the most with period 7, beginning with caesium and ending with radon. Lead is currently the last stable element; all subsequent elements are radioactive. For bismuth, however, its only primordial isotope, 209Bi, has a half-life of more than 1019 years, over a billion times longer than the current age of the universe. As a rule, period 6 elements fill their 6s shells first, then their 4f, 5d, and 6p shells, in that order; however, there are exceptions, such as gold.

Phosphate binder

Phosphate binders are medications used to reduce the absorption of dietary phosphate; they are taken along with meals and snacks. They are frequently used in people with chronic kidney failure (CKF), who are less able to excrete phosphate, resulting in an elevated serum phosphate.

Renal osteodystrophy

Renal osteodystrophy is currently defined as an alteration of bone morphology in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is one measure of the skeletal component of the systemic disorder of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The term "renal osteodystrophy" was coined in 1943, 60 years after an association was identified between bone disease and renal failure.The traditional types of renal osteodystrophy have been defined on the basis of turnover and mineralization as follows: 1) mild, slight increase in turnover and normal mineralization; 2) osteitis fibrosa, increased turnover and normal mineralization; 3) osteomalacia, decreased turnover and abnormal mineralization; 4) adynamic, decreased turnover and acellularity; and, 5) mixed, increased turnover with abnormal mineralization. A Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes report has suggested that bone biopsies in patients with CKD should be characterized by determining bone turnover, mineralization, and volume (TMV system).On the other hand, CKD-MBD is defined as a systemic disorder of mineral and bone metabolism due to CKD manifested by either one or a combination of the following: 1) abnormalities of calcium, phosphorus, PTH, or vitamin D metabolism; 2) abnormalities in bone turnover, mineralization, volume, linear growth, or strength (renal osteodystrophy); and 3) vascular or other soft-tissue calcification.

Sucroferric oxyhydroxide

Sucroferric oxyhydroxide (trade name Velphoro) is a non-calcium, iron-based phosphate binder used for the control of serum phosphorus levels in adult patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on haemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). It is used in form of chewable tablets.

Lanthanum compounds
Drugs for treatment of hyperkalemia and hyperphosphatemia (V03AE)
Potassium binders
Phosphate binders

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