Landscape architecture

Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes.[2] It involves the systematic investigation of existing social, ecological, and soil conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of interventions that will produce the desired outcome. The scope of the profession includes landscape design; site planning; stormwater management; erosion control; environmental restoration; parks and recreation planning; visual resource management; green infrastructure planning and provision; and private estate and residence landscape master planning and design; all at varying scales of design, planning and management. A practitioner in the profession of landscape architecture is called a landscape architect.

Stourhead Pantheon
Stourhead in Wiltshire, England, designed by Henry Hoare (1705–1785), "the first landscape gardener, who showed in a single work, genius of the highest order"[1]


Landscape architecture is a multi-disciplinary field, incorporating aspects of botany, horticulture, the fine arts, architecture, industrial design, soil sciences, environmental psychology, geography, ecology, and civil engineering. The activities of a landscape architect can range from the creation of public parks and parkways to site planning for campuses and corporate office parks, from the design of residential estates to the design of civil infrastructure and the management of large wilderness areas or reclamation of degraded landscapes such as mines or landfills. Landscape architects work on structures and external spaces with limitations toward the landscape or park aspect of the design – large or small, urban, suburban and rural, and with "hard" (built) and "soft" (planted) materials, while integrating ecological sustainability. The most valuable contribution can be made at the first stage of a project to generate ideas with technical understanding and creative flair for the design, organization, and use of spaces. The landscape architect can conceive the overall concept and prepare the master plan, from which detailed design drawings and technical specifications are prepared. They can also review proposals to authorize and supervise contracts for the construction work. Other skills include preparing design impact assessments, conducting environmental assessments and audits, and serving as an expert witness at inquiries on land use issues.


Orangery at the Palace of Versailles, outside Paris

For the period before 1800, the history of landscape gardening (later called landscape architecture) is largely that of master planning and garden design for manor houses, palaces and royal properties, religious complexes, and centers of government. An example is the extensive work by André Le Nôtre at Vaux-le-Vicomte for King Louis XIV of France at the Palace of Versailles. The first person to write of making a landscape was Joseph Addison in 1712. The term landscape architecture was invented by Gilbert Laing Meason in 1828, and John Claudius Loudon (1783–1843) was instrumental in the adoption of the term landscape architecture by the modern profession. He took up the term from Meason and gave it publicity in his Encyclopedias and in his 1840 book on the Landscape Gardening and Landscape Architecture of the Late Humphry Repton.[3]

The practice of landscape architecture spread from the Old to the New World. The term "landscape architect" was used as a professional title by Frederick Law Olmsted in the United States in 1863 and Andrew Jackson Downing (1815–1852),[4] another early American landscape designer, was editor of The Horticulturist magazine (1846–52). In 1841 his first book, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America, was published to a great success; it was the first book of its kind published in the United States.[5] During the latter 19th century, the term landscape architect begun to be used by professional landscapes designers, and was firmly established after Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. and Beatrix Jones (later Farrand) with others founded the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) in 1899. IFLA was founded at Cambridge, England, in 1948 with Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe as its first president, representing 15 countries from Europe and North America. Later, in 1978, IFLA's Headquarters were established in Versailles.[6][7][8]

Fields of activity

Kew Gardens Palm House, London - July 2009
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London, established 1759
The Palm House built 1844–1848 by Richard Turner to Decimus Burton's designs
Water feature Silence, Mayfair, London
Urban design in city squares. Water feature in London, by Tadao Ando who also works with landscapes and gardens

The variety of the professional tasks that landscape architects collaborate on is very broad, but some examples of project types include:[9]

Landscape managers use their knowledge of landscape processes to advise on the long-term care and development of the landscape. They often work in forestry, nature conservation and agriculture.

Landscape scientists have specialist skills such as soil science, hydrology, geomorphology or botany that they relate to the practical problems of landscape work. Their projects can range from site surveys to the ecological assessment of broad areas for planning or management purposes. They may also report on the impact of development or the importance of particular species in a given area.

Landscape planners are concerned with landscape planning for the location, scenic, ecological and recreational aspects of urban, rural and coastal land use. Their work is embodied in written statements of policy and strategy, and their remit includes master planning for new developments, landscape evaluations and assessments, and preparing countryside management or policy plans. Some may also apply an additional specialism such as landscape archaeology or law to the process of landscape planning.

Green roof (or more specifically, vegetative roof) designers design extensive and intensive roof gardens for storm water management, evapo-transpirative cooling, sustainable architecture, aesthetics, and habitat creation.[10]

Relation to urban planning

Central park photo D Ramey Logan
The combination of the traditional landscape gardening and the emerging city planning combined together gave landscape architecture its unique focus. Frederick Law Olmsted used the term 'landscape architecture' using the word as a profession for the first time when designing the Central Park.

Through the 19th century, urban planning became a focal point and central issue in cities. The combination of the tradition of landscape gardening and the emerging field of urban planning offered landscape architecture an opportunity to serve these needs.[11] In the second half of the century, Frederick Law Olmsted completed a series of parks which continue to have a significant influence on the practices of landscape architecture today. Among these were Central Park in New York City, Prospect Park in Brooklyn, New York and Boston's Emerald Necklace park system. Jens Jensen designed sophisticated and naturalistic urban and regional parks for Chicago, Illinois, and private estates for the Ford family including Fair Lane and Gaukler Point. One of the original eleven founding members of the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA), and the only woman, was Beatrix Farrand. She was design consultant for over a dozen universities including: Princeton in Princeton, New Jersey; Yale in New Haven, Connecticut; and the Arnold Arboretum for Harvard in Boston, Massachusetts. Her numerous private estate projects include the landmark Dumbarton Oaks in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C..[12] Since that time, other architects – most notably Ruth Havey and Alden Hopkins – changed certain elements of the Farrand design.

Since this period urban planning has developed into a separate independent profession that has incorporated important contributions from other fields such as civil engineering, architecture and public administration. Urban Planners are qualified to perform tasks independent of landscape architects, and in general, the curriculum of landscape architecture programs do not prepare students to become urban planners.[13]

Landscape architecture continues to develop as a design discipline, and to respond to the various movements in architecture and design throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. Thomas Church was a mid-century landscape architect significant in the profession. Roberto Burle Marx in Brazil combined the International style and native Brazilian plants and culture for a new aesthetic. Innovation continues today solving challenging problems with contemporary design solutions for master planning, landscapes, and gardens.

Ian McHarg was known for introducing environmental concerns in landscape architecture.[14][15] He popularized a system of analyzing the layers of a site in order to compile a complete understanding of the qualitative attributes of a place. This system became the foundation of today's Geographic Information Systems (GIS). McHarg would give every qualitative aspect of the site a layer, such as the history, hydrology, topography, vegetation, etc. GIS software is ubiquitously used in the landscape architecture profession today to analyze materials in and on the Earth's surface and is similarly used by urban planners, geographers, forestry and natural resources professionals, etc.


In many countries, a professional institute, comprising members of the professional community, exists in order to protect the standing of the profession and promote its interests, and sometimes also regulate the practice of landscape architecture. The standard and strength of legal regulations governing landscape architecture practice varies from nation to nation, with some requiring licensure in order to practice; and some having little or no regulation. In Europe, North America, parts of South America, Australia, India, and New Zealand, landscape architecture is a regulated profession.[16]


Since 1889, with the arrival of the French architect and urbanist landscaper Carlos Thays, recommended to recreate the National Capital's parks and public gardens, it was consolidated an apprentice and training program in landscaping that eventually became a regulated profession, currently the leading academic institution is the UBA University of Buenos Aires"UBA Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseño y Urbanismo" (Faculty of Architecture, Design and Urbanism) offering a Bacherlor’s degree in Urban Landscaping Design and Planning, the profession itself is regulated by the National Ministry of Urban Planning of Argentina and the Institute of the Buenos Aires Botanical Garden.


The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA) provides accreditation of university degrees and non statutory professional registration for landscape architects. Once recognized by AILA, landscape architects use the title 'Registered Landscape Architect' across the six states and territories within Australia.

AILA's system of professional recognition is a national system overseen by the AILA National Office in Canberra. To apply for AILA Registration, an applicant usually needs to satisfy a number of pre-requisites, including university qualification, a minimum number years of practice and a record of professional experience.[17]

Landscape Architecture within Australia covers a broad spectrum of planning, design, management and research. From specialist design services for government and private sector developments through to specialist professional advice as an expert witness.


In Canada, landscape architecture, like law and medicine, is a self-regulating profession pursuant to provincial statute. For example, Ontario's profession is governed by the Ontario Association of Landscape Architects pursuant to the Ontario Association of Landscape Architects Act. Landscape architects in Ontario, British Columbia, and Alberta must complete the specified components of L.A.R.E (Landscape Architecture Registration Examination) as a prerequisite to full professional standing.

Provincial regulatory bodies are members of a national organization, the Canadian Society of Landscape Architects / L'Association des Architectes Paysagistes du Canada (CSLA-AAPC), and individual membership in the CSLA-AAPC is obtained through joining one of the provincial or territorial components.[18]


AIAPP (Associazione Italiana Architettura del Paesaggio) is the Italian association of professional landscape architects formed in 1950 and is a member of IFLA and IFLA Europe (formerly known as EFLA). AIAPP is in the process of contesting this new law which has given the Architects' Association the new title of Architects, Landscape Architects, Planners and Conservationists whether or not they have had any training or experience in any of these fields other than Architecture. In Italy, there are several different professions involved in landscape architecture:

  • Architects
  • Landscape designers
  • Doctor landscape agronomists and Doctor landscape foresters, often called Landscape agronomists.
  • Agrarian Experts and Graduated Agrarian experts.

New Zealand

The New Zealand Institute of Landscape Architects (NZILA) is the professional body for Landscape Architects in NZ

In April 2013, NZILA jointly with AILA, hosted the 50th International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA) World Congress in Auckland, New Zealand. The World Congress is an international conference where Landscape Architects from all around the globe meet to share ideas around a particular topic.

Within NZ, Members of NZILA when they achieve their professional standing, can use the title Registered Landscape Architect NZILA.

NZILA provides an education policy and an accreditation process to review education programme providers; currently there are three accredited undergraduate Landscape Architecture programmes in New Zealand. Lincoln University also has an accredited masters programme in landscape architecture.

Republic of Ireland

The Irish Landscape Institute [ILI] ( is the officially recognized (by the Irish State) professional body representing landscape architects and parks professionals, in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The ILI was formed in 1992 by the merger of the ILHI (Institute of Landscape Horticulture of Ireland) and the IILA (Irish Institute of Landscape Architects), representing the related disciplines of landscape architecture and landscape horticulture. The Institute currently (October 2017) has a total membership of 160 (approx.) within 7 membership categories (student, graduate, affiliate, parks professional, corporate, fellow, honorary). In the absence of state regulation of the profession or title 'landscape architect', ILI is self-regulating, as for example in its adoption of the trade-marked title, 'Registered Landscape Architect', that is solely permissible for use by corporate members.

At international level, the ILI is a full member of the International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA) through its European Region (IFLA-Europe). The ILI has play a consistent and active role in IFLA and the current president of IFLA-Europe is Irishman and ILI Past President, Mr. Tony Williams MILI. In the Republic of Ireland, the ILI is a member institute of the Urban Forum, which represents 5 built-environment professional bodies in engineering, architecture, planning, quantity surveying and landscape architecture.

ILI promotes the landscape profession by its accreditation of the master's degree programme in University College Dublin, its certification of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) for its members, administration of professional practice examinations, advocacy and lobbying in respect of government policies, guidelines and standards (e.g. the National Landscape Strategy, National Planning Framework, Blue-Green Infrastructure), conferences and seminars, public lectures and design awards.

The profession grew rapidly during the Irish economic boom of the early 21st. century, benefiting from the upsurge in the construction and development sectors and from the States' capital investment in infrastructure. The recession brought a sharp reduction in membership numbers. The profession and ILI has proven resilient with clear evidence of a slow but steady recovery through growth in membership and in employment, since the commencement of economic recovery in 2014.

A key challenge remains: there is still no professional regulation or protection registration of title in Ireland, despite calls for such on successive government by ILI over many years. Therefore, there is no state-guarantee or protection of clients, for example in terms of insuring and verifying educational qualifications, professional indemnity insurance or Continuing Professional Development (CPD) of those claiming to be landscape architects. Notwithstanding this, there is a growing awareness in some important sectors (e.g. government departments, media, construction, tourism) of the profession. This is due - to some degree - to the ongoing work of the ILI in promoting the benefits of landscape architecture to Irish society, economy and environment.

Landscape architects in Ireland work in private practice, public sector bodies at local government level and in some state bodies (e.g. transport, national heritage) and in academia. The demand for their professional services is often associated with public infrastructure projects (e.g. roads, motorways, renewable energy facilities, water treatment plants, etc.), Blue-Green Infrastructure (planning, design and management of parks, greenspaces, amenity trees) and with construction projects related to land use developments, principally residential, commercial and mixed-use developments in urban landscapes.

Landscape architects are employed in design of: green infrastructure, public realm, institutional/medical/industrial campuses and settings, parks, play facilities, transport (road/rail/cycle/port) corridors, retail complexes, residential estates (including plans for remediation of now-abandoned housing 'ghost' estates), village improvements, accessibility audits, graveyard restoration schemes, wind farms, wetland drainage systems and coastal zones. They are also significantly employed in preparation/review of statutory impact assessment reports on landscape, visual and ecological impacts of planning proposals.

South Africa

In May 1962, Joane Pim, Ann Sutton, Peter Leutscher and Roelf Botha (considered the forefathers of the profession in South Africa) established the Institute for Landscape Architects, now known as the Institute for Landscape Architecture in South Africa (ILASA).[19] ILASA is a voluntary organisation registered with the South African Council for the Landscape Architectural Profession (SACLAP).[20] It consists of three regional bodies, namely, Gauteng, KwaZula-Natal and the Western Cape. ILASA’s mission is to advance the profession of landscape architecture and uphold high standards of professional service to its members, and to represent the profession of landscape architecture in any matter which may affect the interests of the members of the Institute. ILASA holds the country’s membership with The International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA).[21]

In South Africa, the profession is regulated by SACLAP, established as a statutory council in terms of Section 2 of the South African Council for the Landscape Architectural Profession Act – Act 45 of 2000. The Council evolved out of the Board of Control for Landscape Architects (BOCLASA), which functioned under the Council of Architects in terms of The Architectural Act, Act 73 of 1970. SACLAP’s mission is to establish, direct, sustain and ensure a high level of professional responsibilities and ethical conduct within the art and science of landscape architecture with honesty, dignity and integrity in the broad interest of public health, safety and welfare of the community.

After completion of an accredited under-graduate and/or post-graduate qualification in landscape architecture at either the University of Cape Town or the University of Pretoria, or landscape technology at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology, professional registration is attained via a mandatory mentored candidacy period (minimum of two years) and sitting of the professional registration exam. After successfully completing the exam, the individual is entitled to the status of Professional Landscape Architect or Professional Landscape Technologist.

United Kingdom

The UK's professional body is the Landscape Institute (LI). It is a chartered body which accredits landscape professionals and university courses. At present there are fifteen accredited programmes in the UK. Membership of the LI is available to students, academics and professionals, and there are over 3,000 professionally qualified members.

The Institute provides services to assist members including support and promotion of the work of landscape architects; information and guidance to the public and industry about the specific expertise offered by those in the profession; and training and educational advice to students and professionals looking to build upon their experience.

In 2008, the LI launched a major recruitment drive entitled "I want to be a Landscape Architect" to encourage the study of Landscape Architecture. The campaign aimed to raise the profile of landscape architecture and highlight its valuable role in building sustainable communities and fighting climate change.[22]

As of July 2018, the "I want to be a Landscape Architect" initiative was replaced by a brand new careers campaign entitled #ChooseLandscape, which aims to raise awareness of landscape as a profession; improve and increase access to landscape education; and inspire young people to choose landscape as a career.[23] This new campaign includes other landscape-related professions such as landscape management, landscape planning, landscape science and urban design.[24]

United States

In the United States, Landscape Architecture is regulated by individual state governments. For a landscape architect, obtaining licensure requires advanced education and work experience, plus passage of the national examination called The Landscape Architect Registration Examination (L.A.R.E.). Several states require passage of a state exam as well. In the United States licensing is overseen both at the state level, and nationally by the Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards (CLARB). Landscape architecture has been identified as an above-average growth profession by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and was listed in U.S. News & World Report's list of Best Jobs to Have in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010.[25] The national trade association for United States landscape architects is the American Society of Landscape Architects.


Molières (24) Sautet potager (2)

Potager in Dordogne, France

Kloster Bebenhausen Alte Bewässerungsgräben

Monastery garden Bebenhausen Abbey in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Arch at entrance to walled kitchen garden - - 935467

Entrance to walled Kitchen garden in Norfolk, United Kingdom

Coulommiers Vue Jardin Medieval

Medieval garden (reconstruction) in Île-de-France, France


Woodland in Saihō-ji, Japan

Pinjore Gardens at night

Garden lighting in Pinjore, India

Henckelska gården 3

Topiary in Helsingborg, Sweden

The monolith

Vigeland sculpture garden in Oslo, Norway

Giardini pensili 2

Roof terrace garden (Ventimiglia, Italy)

El Escorial-Gardens

Escorial Formal palace garden in Madrid, Spain

Medieval garden of Sainte-Agnes

Mediterranean garden in Alpes-Maritimes, France

Herb Garden - - 1404860

Herb garden in Warwickshire, United Kingdom

Villa la magia 03

Use of steps at Villa la Magia, in Quarrata, Italy

Lurie Garden in sun

Lurie Garden in Chicago, United States

High Line Park the new second section

High Line (second section) in New York City, United States


Parque Madrid Rio in Madrid, Spain

Stanley McCormick Memorial Court (North Garden), The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (9179513269)

Stanley McCormick Memorial Court, The Art Institute of Chicago in Chicago, United States

Bryant Park-Oct 8, 2015

Bryant Park in New York City, United States

Olympic sculpture park 0462

Olympic Sculpture Park in Seattle, United States

911 Memorial Park

911 Memorial Park in New York City United States

Trees in Central Park, NYC (June 2004)

Central Park in New York City, United States

Sugar Beach Toronto 2010

Sugar Beach in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

See also


  1. ^ Hyams, Edward (1971). A History of Gardens and Gardening. New York, Washington: Praeger Publishers. p. 239.
  2. ^ Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe, Susan Jellicoe, The Landscape of Man: Shaping the Environment from Prehistory to the Present Day ISBN 9780500274316
  3. ^ London: Longman.
  4. ^ Find a Grave
  5. ^ "History of Horticulture". Ohio State University. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
  6. ^ IFLA Past, Present, Future - A publication about the history of IFLA. ISBN 3-9522080-0-0
  7. ^ UNCESCO Documents and Publications
  8. ^ The International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA)
  9. ^ "Landscape Architecture - Your Environment. Designed". Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  10. ^ "Extensive Vegetative Roofs | Whole Building Design Guide". Retrieved 28 December 2015.
  11. ^ Van Assche, K., Beunen, R., Duineveld, M., & de Jong, H. (2013). Co-evolutions of planning and design: Risks and benefits of design perspectives in planning systems. Planning Theory, 12(2), 177-198.
  12. ^ National Park Service (2000). Cultural Landscape Report: Dumbarton Oaks Park, Rock Creek Park. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior.
  13. ^ "Bulletin of Information for the AICP Comprehensive Planning Examination" (PDF). Retrieved 29 August 2016. There are important distinctions between planners and allied professionals and between planning and related fields. Planners approach problems comprehensively, have a long-range perspective, and deal with unique place-based issues. Although people in related professions (e.g., law, architecture, landscape architecture, engineering, real estate development, etc.) and disciplines (humanities, psychology, etc.) often work with planners, they do not necessarily have the same knowledge base, skillset, and approach.
  14. ^ Corbett, John. "Ian McHarg: Overlay Maps and the Evaluation of Social and Environmental Costs of Land Use Change". Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  15. ^ Ozio, Ron (6 March 2001). "Obituary: Ian McHarg Dies". Penn News. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  16. ^ "The Ontario Association of Landscape Architects". Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ Canadian Society of Landscape Architects Official Site - English
  19. ^
  20. ^ "The South African Council for the Landscape Architectural Profession (SACLAP) - Home". Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  21. ^ "IFLA World · International Federation of Landscape Architects". Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  22. ^ "CC Position Statement". 2011. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
  23. ^ Gosling, Ben. "#ChooseLandscape launches next month – here's how to get involved | Landscape Institute". Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  24. ^ "Choose Your Career – Chooselandscape". Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  25. ^ "Career Advice and Guide for Job Searches - US News Business". Retrieved 6 April 2013.

External links

American Society of Landscape Architects

The American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) is the national professional association representing landscape architects, with more than 15,000 members in 49 chapters, representing all 50 states, U.S. territories, and 42 countries around the world, plus 72 student chapters.

Avenue (landscape)

In landscaping, an avenue, or allée, is traditionally a straight path or road with a line of trees or large shrubs running along each side, which is used, as its Latin source venire ("to come") indicates, to emphasize the "coming to," or arrival at a landscape or architectural feature. In most cases, the trees planted in an avenue will be all of the same species or cultivar, so as to give uniform appearance along the full length of the avenue.

The French term allée is used for avenues planted in parks and landscape gardens, as well as boulevards such as the Grande Allée in Quebec City, Canada, and Karl-Marx-Allee in Berlin.

Back garden

A back garden is a residential garden located at the rear of a property, on the other side of the house from the front garden. Such gardens have a special place in English suburban and gardening culture.

Conservation and restoration of historic gardens

Historic garden conservation is a specialised type of historic preservation and conservation or restoration concerned with historical and landmark gardens and designed landscapes.

Grade (slope)

The grade (also called slope, incline, gradient, mainfall, pitch or rise) of a physical feature, landform or constructed line refers to the tangent of the angle of that surface to the horizontal. It is a special case of the slope, where zero indicates horizontality. A larger number indicates higher or steeper degree of "tilt". Often slope is calculated as a ratio of "rise" to "run", or as a fraction ("rise over run") in which run is the horizontal distance (not the distance along the slope) and rise is the vertical distance.

The grades or slopes of existing physical features such as canyons and hillsides, stream and river banks and beds are often described. Grades are typically specified for new linear constructions (such as roads, landscape grading, roof pitches, railroads, aqueducts, and pedestrian or bicycle circulation routes). The grade may refer to the longitudinal slope or the perpendicular cross slope.

Grading (engineering)

Grading in civil engineering and landscape architectural construction is the work of ensuring a level base, or one with a specified slope, for a construction work such as a foundation, the base course for a road or a railway, or landscape and garden improvements, or surface drainage. The earthworks created for such a purpose are often called the sub-grade or finished contouring (see diagram).

Hanging garden (cultivation)

A hanging garden is a sustainable landscape architecture, an artistic garden or a small urban farm, attached to or built on a wall. They are mainly found in areas where land is scarce or where the farmer is mobile or not permanent.

Harvard Graduate School of Design

The Harvard Graduate School of Design (also known as The GSD) is a professional graduate school at Harvard University, located at Gund Hall, Cambridge, Massachusetts. The GSD offers masters and doctoral programs in architecture, landscape architecture, urban planning, urban design, real estate, design engineering, and design studies.

The GSD has over 13,000 alumni and has graduated many famous architects, urban planners, and landscape architects. The school is considered a global academic leader in the design fields.The GSD has the world's oldest landscape architecture program (founded in 1893), and North America's oldest urban planning program (founded in 1900). Architecture courses were first taught at Harvard University in 1874. The Graduate School of Design was officially established in 1936, combining the three fields of architecture, urban planning, and landscape architecture under one graduate school.The market value of the school's endowment for the fiscal year 2016 was approximately $428 million.

Kitchen garden

Kailyard redirects here. For the grouping of Scottish literature see Kailyard school

The traditional kitchen garden, also known as a potager (in French, jardin potager) or in Scotland a kailyaird, is a space separate from the rest of the residential garden – the ornamental plants and lawn areas. Most vegetable gardens are still miniature versions of old family farm plots, but the kitchen garden is different not only in its history, but also its design.

The kitchen garden may serve as the central feature of an ornamental, all-season landscape, or it may be little more than a humble vegetable plot. It is a source of herbs, vegetables and fruits, but it is often also a structured garden space with a design based on repetitive geometric patterns.

The kitchen garden has year-round visual appeal and can incorporate permanent perennials or woody shrub plantings around (or among) the annuals.

Landscape architect

A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of landscape architecture includes: site analysis, site inventory, land planning, planting design, grading, storm water management, sustainable design, construction specification and ensuring that all plans meet the current building codes and local and federal ordinances.

The title landscape architect was first used by Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of New York City's Central Park.

Landscape design

Landscape design is an independent profession and a design and art tradition, practiced by landscape designers, combining nature and culture. In contemporary practice, landscape design bridges the space between landscape architecture and garden design.


Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including:

living elements, such as flora or fauna; or what is commonly called gardening, the art and craft of growing plants with a goal of creating a beauty within the landscape.

natural elements such as landforms, terrain shape and elevation, or bodies of water; and

abstract elements such as the weather and lighting conditions.Landscaping requires expertise in horticulture and artistic design.

List of garden types

A wide range of garden types exists. Below is a list of examples.

Olmsted Brothers

The Olmsted Brothers company was an influential landscape architectural firm in the United States, established in 1898 by brothers John Charles Olmsted (1852–1920) and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. (1870–1957), sons of the eminent landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted.

Paradise garden

The paradise garden is a form of garden of Old Iranian origin, specifically Achaemenid. Originally denominated by a single noun denoting "a walled-in compound or garden", from "pairi" ("around") and "daeza" or "diz" ("wall", "brick", or "shape"), Xenophon Grecized the Persian phrase "pairi-daeza" into "paradeisos". The idea of the enclosed garden is often referred to as the paradise garden because of additional Indo-European connotations of "paradise".

Spanish garden

A traditional Spanish garden is a style of garden or designed landscape developed in historic Spain, incorporating principles and elements of garden design from precedents in ancient Persian gardens, Roman gardens and Islamic gardens, and the great Moorish gardens of the Al-Andalus era on the Iberian Peninsula. In the 20th and 21st centuries a 'Spanish Garden,' or new gardens in Spain, have continued, interpreted, abstracted, or departed from these traditional planning and aesthetic motifs.

Spatial design

Spatial design is a relatively new conceptual design discipline that crosses the boundaries of traditional design specialisms such as architecture, landscape architecture, landscape design, interior design and service design as well as certain areas of public art.

It focuses upon the flow of people between multiple areas of interior and exterior environments and delivers value and understanding in spaces across both the private and public realm. The emphasis of the discipline is upon working with people and space, particularly looking at the notion of place, also place identity and genius loci. As such the discipline covers a variety of scales, from detailed design of interior spaces to large regional strategies, and is largely found within the UK.

As a discipline it uses the language of architecture, interior design and landscape architecture to communicate design intentions.

Spatial design uses research methods often found in disciplines such as product and service design, identified by IDEO, as well as social and historical methods that help with the identification and determination of place.

As a growth area of design, the number of spatial design practitioners work within existing disciplines or as independent consultants.

The subject is studied at a number of institutions within the UK, though, as with any new field of study, these courses differ in their scope and ambition.

Ultimately it can be seen as 'the glue that joins traditional built environment disciplines together with the people they are designed to serve'.

Sustainable landscape architecture

Sustainable landscape architecture is a category of sustainable design concerned with the planning and design of outdoor space.This can include ecological, politically correct, social and economic aspects of sustainability. For example, the design of a sustainable urban drainage system can: improve habitats for fauna and flora; improve recreational facilities, because people love to be beside water; save money, because building culverts is expensive and floods cause severe financial harm.

The design of a green roof or a roof garden can also contribute to the sustainability of a landscape architecture project. The roof will help manage surface water, provide for wildlife and provide for recreation.

Sustainability appears to be a new addition to the traditional Vitruvian objectives of the design process: a structure must be solid, useful, and beautiful (firmitas, utilitas, venustas). But it can be seen as an aspect of both solidity and usefulness: an outdoor space is likely to last longer and give more usefulness to its owners if it requires low inputs of energy, water, fertiliser etc., and if it produces fewer outputs of noise, pollution, surface water runoff etc.

University of Adelaide

The University of Adelaide (informally Adelaide University) is a public university located in Adelaide, South Australia. Established in 1874, it is the third-oldest university in Australia. The university's main campus is located on North Terrace in the Adelaide city centre, adjacent to the Art Gallery of South Australia, the South Australian Museum and the State Library of South Australia.

The university has five campuses throughout the state; North Terrace; Roseworthy College at Roseworthy; The Waite Institute at Urrbrae; Thebarton; and the National Wine Centre in the Adelaide Park Lands. It has a sixth campus, the Ngee Ann – Adelaide Education Centre (NAAEC), in Singapore. The university operates several associated and independent research institutes and groups. These include the South Australian Centre for Economic Studies, the Hanson Institute for Medical Research, and the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI).

The University of Adelaide is composed of five faculties, with each containing constituent schools. These include the Faculty of Engineering, Computer, and Mathematical Sciences (ECMS), the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, the Faculty of Arts, the Faculty of the Professions, and the Faculty of Sciences. It is a member of the Group of Eight and the Association of Commonwealth Universities. The university is also a member of the Sandstone universities, which mostly consist of colonial-era universities within Australia.

The university is associated with five Nobel laureates, constituting one-third of Australia's total Nobel laureates, and 109 Rhodes scholars. The university has had a considerable impact on the public life of South Australia, having educated many of the state's leading businesspeople, lawyers, medical professionals and politicians. The university has been associated with many notable achievements and discoveries, such as the discovery and development of penicillin, the development of space exploration, sunscreen, the military tank, Wi-Fi, polymer banknotes and X-ray crystallography, and the study of viticulture and oenology.

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