Landing at Anzac Cove

Coordinates: 40°14′46″N 26°16′40″E / 40.24611°N 26.27778°E

The landing at Anzac Cove on Sunday, 25 April 1915, also known as the landing at Gaba Tepe, and to the Turks as the Arıburnu Battle, was part of the amphibious invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula by the forces of the British Empire, which began the land phase of the Gallipoli Campaign of the First World War.

The assault troops, mostly from the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC), landed at night on the western (Aegean Sea) side of the peninsula. They were put ashore one mile (1.6 km) north of their intended landing beach. In the darkness, the assault formations became mixed up, but the troops gradually made their way inland, under increasing opposition from the Ottoman Turkish defenders.[nb 1] Not long after coming ashore the ANZAC plans were discarded, and the companies and battalions were thrown into battle piece-meal, and received mixed orders. Some advanced to their designated objectives while others were diverted to other areas, then ordered to dig in along defensive ridge lines.

Although they failed to achieve their objectives, by nightfall the ANZACs had formed a beachhead, albeit much smaller than intended. In places they were clinging onto cliff faces with no organised defence system. Their precarious position convinced both divisional commanders to ask for an evacuation, but after taking advice from the Royal Navy about how practicable that would be, the army commander decided they would stay. The exact number of the day's casualties is not known. The ANZACs had landed two divisions but over two thousand of their men had been killed or wounded, together with at least a similar number of Turkish casualties.

Since 1916 the anniversary of the landings on 25 April has been commemorated as Anzac Day, becoming one of the most important national celebrations in Australia and New Zealand. The anniversary is also commemorated in Turkey and the United Kingdom.


The Ottoman Turkish Empire entered the First World War on the side of the Central Powers on 31 October 1914.[2] The stalemate of trench warfare on the Western Front convinced the British Imperial War Cabinet that an attack on the Central Powers elsewhere, particularly Turkey, could be the best way of winning the war. From February 1915 this took the form of naval operations aimed at forcing a passage through the Dardanelles, but after several setbacks it was decided that a land campaign was also necessary. To that end, the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force was formed under the command of General Ian Hamilton. Three amphibious landings were planned to secure the Gallipoli Peninsula, which would allow the navy to attack the Turkish capital Constantinople, in the hope that would convince the Turks to ask for an armistice.[3]


Lieutenant-General William Birdwood, commanding the inexperienced Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC), comprising the Australian Division and two brigades of the New Zealand and Australian Division, was ordered to conduct an amphibious assault on the western side of the Gallipoli Peninsula.[4][5] The New Zealand and Australian Division normally also had two mounted brigades assigned to it, but these had been left in Egypt, as it was believed there would be no requirement or opportunities to use mounted troops on the peninsula.[6] To bring the division up to strength, Hamilton had tried unsuccessfully to get a brigade of Gurkhas attached to them.[7] In total ANZAC strength was 30,638 men.[8]

The location chosen for the operation was between the headland of Gaba Tepe and the Fisherman's Hut, three miles (4.8 km) to the north.[9] Landing at dawn after a naval gunfire bombardment, the first troops were to seize the lower crests and southern spurs of Hill 971. The second wave would pass them to capture the spur of Hill 971, especially Mal Tepe. There they would be positioned to cut the enemy's lines of communications to the Kilid Bahr Plateau, thus preventing the Turks from bringing reinforcements from the north to the Kilid Bahr Plateau during the attack by the British 29th Division which would advance from a separate beachhead further south-west. The capture of Mal Tepe was "more vital and valuable than the capture of the Kilid Bahr Plateau itself."[4][10][11]

Anzac landing plan April 25 1915
Initial objectives for the landing shown in red; the dotted green line is what was actually achieved. Darker tones indicate higher ground.

Birdwood planned to arrive off the peninsula after the moon had set, with the first troops landing at 03:30, an hour before dawn. He declined the offer of an old merchant ship, loaded with troops, being deliberately grounded at Gaba Tepe. Instead, the troops were to travel in naval and merchant ships, transferring to rowing boats towed by small steamboats to make the assault.[12]

First ashore would be the Australian Division, commanded by Major-General William Bridges.[13] The 3rd Australian Brigade, known as the covering force,[13] were to capture the third ridge from Battleship Hill south along the Sari Bair mountain range to Gaba Tepe. The 2nd Australian Brigade, landing next, were to capture all the Sari Bar range up to Hill 971 on the left. The 26th Jacob's Mountain Battery[nb 2] from the British Indian Army would land next and then the 1st Australian Brigade, the division's reserve; all were to be ashore by 08:30.[4][15] The New Zealand and Australian Division, commanded by Major-General Alexander Godley, followed them;[16] the 1st New Zealand Brigade then the 4th Australian Brigade. Only after the second division had landed would the advance to Mal Tepe begin.[4] The planners had come to the conclusion that the area was sparsely, if at all, defended, and that they should be able to achieve their objectives with no problems; Turkish opposition had not been considered.[17]

Turkish forces

The First World War Ottoman Turkish Army was modelled after the German Imperial Army, with most of its members being conscripted for two years (infantry) or three years (artillery); they then served in the reserve for the next twenty-three years. The pre-war army had 208,000 men in thirty-six divisions, formed into army corps and field armies. On mobilisation each division had three infantry and one artillery regiment[18] for a total of around ten thousand men, or about half the size of the equivalent British formation.[19][20] Unlike the largely inexperienced ANZACs, all the Turkish Army commanders, down to company commander level, were very experienced, being veterans of the Italo-Turkish and Balkan Wars.[21]

Map of Turkish forces at Gallipoli April 1915 (Kemals-HQ)
Turkish dispositions before the landings

The British preparations could not be made in secret, and by March 1915, the Turks were aware that a force of fifty thousand British and thirty thousand French troops was gathering at Lemnos.[22] They considered there were only four likely places for them to land: Cape Helles, Gaba Tepe, Bulair, or on the Asiatic (eastern) coast of the Dardanelles.[23]

On 24 March, the Turks formed the Fifth Army, a force of over 100,000 men, in two corps of six divisions and a cavalry brigade, commanded by the German general Otto Liman von Sanders.[24] The Fifth Army deployed the III Corps at Gallipoli and the XV Corps on the Asiatic coast. The 5th Division and a cavalry brigade were on the European mainland, positioned to support the III Corps if required.[25] The III Corps had the 9th Division (25th, 26th and 27th Infantry Regiments), the 19th Division (57th, 72nd and 77th Infantry Regiments) and the 7th Division (19th, 20th and 21st Infantry Regiments).[25][26] The 9th Division provided coastal defence from Cape Helles north to Bulair, where the 7th Division took over, while the 19th Division at Maidos was the corps reserve. The area around Gaba Tepe, where the ANZAC landings would take place, was defended by a battalion of the 27th Infantry Regiment.[27]

Anzac Cove

Anzac covering force landing April 25 1915
First wave landings. The dotted lines from the red ships indicate the first six companies of the first wave. Those from the orange ships are the second six companies. The solid red lines show the routes taken once ashore.

On 19 April orders were issued for the ANZACs to stop training, and for all ships and small boats to take on coal and stores, in preparation for a landing originally scheduled to occur on 23 April. Weather conditions delayed their departure from Lemnos until dawn on 24 April.[28] The Royal Navy battleships Queen, Triumph, Prince of Wales, London, and Majestic, the cruiser Bacchante, seven destroyers and four transport ships led the way carrying the 3rd Brigade. They were followed by the rest of the force who were embarked in their own transport ships.[29]

First six companies

At 01:00 on 25 April the British ships stopped at sea, and thirty-six rowing boats towed by twelve steamers embarked the first six companies, two each from the 9th, 10th and 11th Battalions.[17] At 02:00 a Turkish sentry reported seeing ships moving at sea, and at 02:30 the report was sent to 9th Division's headquarters.[30] At 02:53 the ships headed towards the peninsula, continuing until 03:30 when the larger ships stopped. With 50 yards (46 m) to go, the rowing boats continued using only their oars.[31][32]

Around 04:30[nb 3] Turkish sentries opened fire on the boats, but the first ANZAC troops were already ashore at Beach Z, called Ari Burnu at the time, but later known as Anzac Cove. (It was formally renamed Anzac Cove by the Turkish government in 1985.)[33][34][35][36] They were one mile (1.6 km) further north than intended, and instead of an open beach they were faced with steep cliffs and ridges[11][37] up to around three hundred feet (91 m) in height.[38] However, the mistake had put them ashore at a relatively undefended area; at Gaba Tepe further south where they had planned to land, there was a strong-point, with an artillery battery close by equipped with two 15 cm and two 12 cm guns, and the 5th Company, 27th Infantry Regiment was positioned to counter-attack any landing at that more southern point.[39][40] The hills surrounding the cove where the ANZACs landed made the beach safe from direct fire Turkish artillery.[41] Fifteen minutes after the landing, the Royal Navy began firing at targets in the hills.[42]

New Zealand troops first setting foot at Gallipoli taken by Joseph McBride
New Zealand troops landing at Gallipoli

On their way in, the rowing boats had become mixed up. The 11th Battalion grounded to the north of Ari Burnu point, while the 9th Battalion hit the point or just south of it, together with most of the 10th Battalion. The plan was for them to cross the open ground and assault the first ridge line, but they were faced with a hill that came down almost to the water line, and there was confusion while the officers tried to work out their location, under small arms fire from the 4th Company, 2nd Battalion, 27th Infantry Regiment,[17][43] who had a platoon of between eighty and ninety men at Anzac Cove and a second platoon in the north around the Fisherman's Hut. The third platoon was in a reserve position on the second ridge. They also manned the Gaba Tepe strong-point, equipped with two obsolescent multi-barrelled Nordenfelt machine-guns, and several smaller posts in the south.[44]

Australian troops on Plugge's Plateau
Australian troops crossing Plugge's Plateau under fire

Men from the 9th and 10th Battalions started up the Ari Burnu slope, grabbing the gorse branches or digging their bayonets into the soil to provide leverage.[45] At the peak they found an abandoned trench, the Turks having withdrawn inland.[46][47] Soon the Australians reached Plugge's Plateau,[48] the edge of which was defended by a trench, but the Turks had withdrawn to the next summit two hundred yards (180 m) inland, from where they fired at the Australians coming onto the plateau. As they arrived, Major Edmund Brockman of the 11th Battalion started sorting out the mess, sending the 9th Battalion's men to the right flank, the 11th Battalion's to the left, and keeping the 10th Battalion in the centre.[48][49]

Second six companies

The second six companies landed while it was still dark, the destroyers coming to within five hundred yards (460 m) to disembark the troops, under fire. They also landed at Anzac Cove, but now as planned the 11th were in the north, 10th in the centre and the 9th in the south. The 12th Battalion landed all along the beach. This extended the beachhead 500 yards (460 m) to the north of Ari Burnu, and 1.5 miles (2.4 km) to the south.[50][51] Landing under fire, some of the assaulting troops were killed in their boats, and others as they reached the beach. Once ashore they headed inland.[52] In the south, the first men from the 9th and 12th Battalions reached the bottom of 400 Plateau.[53]

In the north, the first men from the 11th and 12th Battalions started up Walker's Ridge, under fire from a nearby Turkish trench. Around the same time Turkish artillery started bombarding the beachhead, destroying at least six boats.[40][53] The Australians fought their way forward and reached Russell's Top;[54] the Turks withdrew through The Nek to Baby 700, 350 yards (320 m) away. Coming under fire again the Australians went to ground, having advanced only around one thousand yards (910 m) inland.[55] Some also dug in at The Nek, a twenty yards (18 m) piece of high ground between Malone's Gully to the north and Monash Valley to the south. Around this time Colonel Ewen Sinclair-Maclagan, commanding the 3rd Brigade, decided to change the corps plan. Concerned about a possible counter-attack from the south, he decided to hold the Second Ridge instead of pushing forward to the Third or Gun Ridge.[56][57] This hesitation suited the Turkish defence plans, which required the forward troops to gain time for the reserves to coordinate a counter-attack.[58]

Turkish reaction

Turkish trenches at Gallipoli
Lieutenant-Colonel Mustafa Kemal (left), whose actions as commander of the Turkish 19th Division won him lasting fame.

At 05:45, Lieutenant-Colonel Mehmet Sefik of the Turkish 27th Infantry Regiment received orders to move his 1st and 3rd Battalions to the west and support the 2nd Battalion around Gaba Tepe.[59] The two battalions were already assembled, having spent that night carrying out military exercises.[58] They could not be sent to Ari Burnu as it was not marked on the Turkish maps.[60] Colonel Halil Sami, commanding the 9th Division, also ordered the division's machine-gun company and an artillery battery to move in support of the 27th Infantry Regiment, followed soon after by an 77 mm artillery battery.[61] At 08:00 Lieutenant-Colonel Mustafa Kemal, commanding the 19th Division, was ordered to send a battalion to support them. Kemal instead decided to go himself with the 57th Infantry Regiment and an artillery battery towards Chunuk Bair,[62] which he realised was the key point in the defence; whoever held those heights would dominate the battlefield.[63] By chance, the 57th Infantry were supposed to have been on an exercise that morning around Hill 971 and had been prepared since 05:30, waiting for orders.[64]

At 09:00 Sefik and his two battalions were approaching Kavak Tepe, and made contact with his 2nd Battalion that had conducted a fighting withdrawal, and an hour and a half later the regiment was deployed to stop the ANZACs advancing any further.[65] Around 10:00 Kemal arrived at Scrubby Knoll and steadied some retreating troops, pushing them back into a defensive position. As they arrived, the 57th Infantry Regiment were given their orders and prepared to counter-attack.[66] Scrubby Knoll, known to the Turks as Kemalyeri (Kemal's Place), now became the site of the Turkish headquarters for the remainder of the campaign.[67]

Baby 700

Baby 700 is a hill in the Sari Bair range, next to Battleship Hill or Big 700. It was named after its supposed height above sea level, though its actual height is only 590 feet (180 m).[68]

Maclagen sent the 11th Battalion, Captain Joseph Lalor's company of the 12th Battalion and Major James Robertson's of the 9th, towards Baby 700. Brockman divided his own company, sending half up the right fork of Rest Gully, and half up the left, while Brockman and a reserve platoon headed up Monash Valley.[69] As they moved forward, Turkish artillery targeted them with air burst shrapnel shells, which dispersed the companies. This, coupled with senior officers diverting men to other areas instead of towards Baby 700, meant only fragments of the units eventually reached Baby 700.[70]

Anzac plateaus and ridges
Ridges and plateaus at Anzac Cove

Arriving at Baby 700, Captain Eric Tulloch, 11th Battalion, decided to take his remaining sixty men towards Battleship Hill, leaving Lalor's company to dig in and defend The Nek.[71] Tulloch moved around to the right before advancing towards the summit. The 11th Battalion crossed the first rise unopposed, but at the second, Turkish defenders around four hundred yards (370 m) away opened fire on them. Going to ground, the Australians returned fire. When the Turkish fire slackened the remaining fifty men resumed their advance, reaching the now evacuated Turkish position, behind which was a large depression, with Battleship Hill beyond that.[72] Still under fire they moved forward again, then around seven hundred yards (640 m) from the summit The Turks opened fire on them from a trench. The Australians held out for thirty minutes, but increasing Turkish fire and mounting casualties convinced Tulloch to withdraw. No other ANZAC unit would advance as far inland that day.[73][74]

At 08:30 Robertson and Lalor decided to take their companies up Baby 700. Instead of going round to the right like Tulloch, they went straight up the centre, crossed over the summit onto the northern slope and went to ground. A spur on their left, leading to Suvla Bay, was defended by a Turkish trench system.[75] At 09:15 Turkish troops started moving down Battleship Hill, and for the next hour they exchanged fire.[76] Where the spur joined Baby 700, a group of Australians from the 9th, 11th, and 12th Battalions crossed Malone's Gully and charged the Turkish trench. A Turkish machine-gun on Baby 700 opened fire on them, forcing them back, followed by a general withdrawal of Australian troops. The Turks had secured Battleship Hill and were now driving the Australians off Baby 700. From his headquarters at the head of Monash Valley, Maclagen could see the Turks attacking, and started sending all available men towards Baby 700.[74][77]

Second wave

The 2nd Brigade landed between 05:30 and 07:00, and the reserve 1st Brigade landed between 09:00 and 12:00, already putting the timetable behind schedule.[78] The 2nd Brigade, which was supposed to be heading for Baby 700 on the left, were instead sent to the right to counter a Turkish attack building up there.[79] At 07:20 Bridges and his staff landed; finding no senior officers on the beach to brief them, they set out to locate the 3rd Brigade headquarters.[13][80]

The 1st Brigade was on the opposite flank to the 3rd Brigade and already getting involved in battles of its own, when its commander, Colonel Percy Owen, received a request from Maclagen for reinforcements. Owen sent two companies from the 3rd Battalion and one from the 1st Battalion (Swannell's) to support the 3rd Brigade.[58][81]

Soon after, Lalor's company had been forced back to The Nek and the Turks were threatening to recapture Russell's Top, and at 10:15 Maclagen reported to Bridges his doubts over being able to hold out.[82] In response Bridges sent part of his reserve, two companies from the 2nd Battalion (Gordon's and Richardson's), to reinforce the 3rd Brigade.[83]

Troops disembark on the beach, 25 April 1915
Men of the second wave coming ashore

At 11:00 Swannell's company arrived at the foot of Baby 700, joining the seventy survivors of Robertson's and Lalor's companies. They immediately charged and chased the Turks back over the summit of Baby 700, then stopped and dug in. The two 2nd Battalion companies arrived alongside them, but all the companies had taken casualties,[84] among the dead being Swannell and Robertson.[85][86]

By this time most of the 3rd Brigade men had been killed or wounded, and the line was held by the five depleted companies from the 1st Brigade.[87] On the left, Gordon's company 2nd Battalion, with the 11th and 12th Battalion's survivors, charged five times and captured the summit of Baby 700, but were driven back by Turkish counter-attacks; Gordon was among the casualties.[88][89] For the second time Maclagen requested reinforcements for Baby 700, but the only reserves Bridges had available were two 2nd Battalion companies and the 4th Battalion. It was now 10:45 and the advance companies of the 1st New Zealand Brigade were disembarking, so it was decided they would go to Baby 700.[90]

Third wave

The New Zealand Brigade commander had been taken ill, so Birdwood appointed Brigadier-General Harold Walker, a staff officer already ashore, as commander.[91] The Auckland Battalion had landed by 12:00, and were being sent north along the beach to Walker's Ridge on their way to Russell's Top.[92] Seeing that the only way along the ridge was in single file along a goat track, Walker ordered them to take the route over Plugge's Plateau. As each New Zealand unit landed they were directed the same way to Baby 700. However, in trying to avoid Turkish fire, they became split up in Monash Valley and Rest Gully, and it was after midday that two of the Auckland companies reached Baby 700.[93][94]

At 12:30 two companies of the Canterbury Battalion landed and were sent to support the Aucklands, who had now been ordered back to Plugge's Plateau, and were forming on the left of the 3rd Brigade. The Canterbury companies moved into the line on the Aucklands' left, waiting for the rest of their brigade to land.[92] However, between 12:30 and 16:00 not one infantry or artillery formation came ashore. The ships carrying the New Zealanders were in the bay, but the steamers and rowing boats were being used to take the large numbers of wounded to the hospital ship. The transports with the 4th Australian Brigade on board were still well out at sea and not due to land until that evening.[95] The landings recommenced around 16:30 when the Wellington Battalion came ashore,[96] followed by the Otago Battalion around 17:00, who were put into the line beside the Aucklanders. Next to land were the two other Canterbury companies, who were sent north to Walker's Ridge to extend the corps left flank.[97] Events ashore now forced a change in the disembarkation schedule, and at 17:50 orders were issued for the 4th Australian Brigade to start landing to boost the defence.[98] It would take until the next day for the complete brigade to come ashore.[99] The transports carrying both divisions' artillery batteries had been forced further out to sea by Turkish artillery fire, and were unable to land.[100]

MacLaurin's Hill

MacLaurin's Hill is a 1,000 yard (910m) long section of the Second Ridge that connects Baby 700 to 400 Plateau, with a steep slope on the ANZAC side down to Monash Valley. In the coming days Quinn's, Steel's and Courtney's Posts would be built on the slope. The first ANZAC troops to reach the hill, from the 11th Battalion, found that the Turkish defenders had already withdrawn. As the Australians crested the hill they came under fire from Baby 700, but to their front was a short, shallow slope into Mule Valley.[101] When Major James Denton's company of the 11th Battalion arrived at the hill they started digging in, and soon after received orders from MacLagen to hold the position at all costs.[102] At 10:00 Turkish troops, advancing from Scrubby Knoll, got to within three hundred yards (270 m) of the Australians on the hill, opening fire at them. Altogether there were two and a half companies from the 11th Battalion between Courtney's Post, Steele's Post, and Wire Gully. They had not been there long before the 3rd Battalion arrived to reinforce them.[103]

400 Plateau

The 400 Plateau, named for its height above sea level, was a wide and level plateau on the second ridge line, about six hundred by six hundred yards (550 by 550 m) wide and around one thousand yards (910 m) from Gun Ridge. The northern half of the plateau became known as Johnston's Jolly, and the southern half as Lone Pine, with Owen's Gully between them.[104]

3rd Brigade

If the landings had gone to plan, the 11th Battalion was supposed to be crossing the plateau heading north. The 10th Battalion, south of the plateau, was to capture a Turkish trench and artillery battery behind Gun Ridge. The 9th Battalion, furthest south, was to attack the artillery battery at Gaba Tepe, and the 12th Battalion was the reserve, with 26th Jacob's Mountain Battery to establish their gun line on the plateau.[105] Unknown to the ANZACs, the Turks had an artillery battery sited on 400 Plateau.[50]

Map of 400 Plateau Anzac landing
The ANZAC positions on 400 Plateau on 25 April (red) and 26 April (black)

After landing, some of the 9th and 10th Battalion's men headed for 400 Plateau.[106] The first 10th Battalion platoon to arrive was commanded by Lieutenant Noel Loutit, and accompanied by the Brigade-Major, Charles Brand. They discovered the Turkish battery in the Lone Pine sector, which was preparing to move. As the Australians opened fire the battery withdrew down Owen's Gully. Brand remained on the plateau and ordered Loutit to continue after the Turkish battery.[107] However, the guns had been hidden at the head of the gully and Loutit's platoon moved beyond them. Around the same time, Lieutenant Eric Smith and his 10th Battalion scouts and Lieutenant G. Thomas with his platoon from the 9th Battalion arrived on the plateau, looking for the guns. As they crossed the plateau Turkish machine-guns opened fire on them from the Lone Pine area.[108] One of Thomas's sections located the battery, which had started firing from the gully. They opened fire, charged the gun crews, and captured the guns. The Turks did manage to remove the breech blocks, making the guns inoperable, so the Australians damaged the sights and internal screw mechanisms to put them out of action.[109] By now the majority of the 9th and 10th Battalions, along with brigade commander Maclagen, had arrived on the plateau, and he ordered them to dig in on the plateau instead of advancing to Gun Ridge.[110] Unfortunately the units that had already passed beyond there were obeying their orders to "go as fast as you can, at all costs keep going".[111]

Loutit, Lieutenant J. Haig of the 10th, and thirty-two men from the 9th, 10th, and 11th Battalions crossed Legge Valley and climbed a spur of Gun Ridge, just to the south of Scrubby Knoll. As they reached the top, about four hundred yards (370 m) further inland was Gun Ridge, defended by a large number of Turkish troops.[112][113] Loutit and two men carried out a reconnaissance of Scrubby Knoll, from the top of which they could see the Dardanelles, around three miles (4.8 km) to the east.[114] When one of the men was wounded they returned to the rest of their group, which was being engaged by Turkish machine-gun and rifle fire. Around 08:00, Loutit sent a man back for reinforcements; he located Captain J. Ryder of the 9th Battalion, with half a company of men at Lone Pine. Ryder had not received the order to dig in, so he advanced and formed a line on Loutit's right.[115] Soon after, they came under fire from Scrubby Knoll and were in danger of being cut off; Ryder sent a message back for more reinforcements. The messenger located Captain John Peck, the 11th Battalion's adjutant, who collected all the men around him and went forward to reinforce Ryder. It was now 09:30 and the men on the spur, outflanked by the Turks, had started to withdraw. At 10:00 the Turks set up a machine-gun on the spur and opened fire on the withdrawing Australians. Pursued by the Turks, only eleven survivors, including Loutit and Haig, reached Johnston's Jolly and took cover.[116] Further back, two companies of the 9th and the 10th Battalions had started digging a trench line.[117]

2nd Brigade

8th Australian Battalion Bolton's Ridge
Men of the Australian 8th Battalion in an abandoned Turkish position on Bolton's Ridge

As part of the second wave, the 2nd Brigade had been landing since 05:30; the 5th, 6th and 8th Battalions were supposed to cross 400 Plateau and head to Hill 971, while the 7th Battalion on the left were to climb Plugge's Plateau then make for Hill 971.[118] One 7th Battalion company, Jackson's, landed beside the Fisherman's Hut in the north and was almost wiped out; only forty men survived the landing.[119] At 06:00 Major Ivie Blezard's 7th Battalion company, and part of another, were sent onto 400 Plateau by Maclagen to strengthen the defence.[120] When the 7th Battalion commander Lieutenant-Colonel Harold Elliott landed he realised events were not going to plan, and he headed to the 3rd Brigade headquarters to find out what was happening. Maclagen ordered him to gather his battalion at the south of the beachhead, as the 2nd Brigade would now form the division's right flank, not left.[80] When the 2nd Brigade commander Colonel James McCay arrived Maclagen convinced him to move his brigade to the south, swapping responsibility with the 3rd Brigade. Eventually agreeing, he established his headquarters on the seaward slope of 400 Plateau (McCay's Hill).[80] Heading onto the plateau, McCay realised the ridge to his right, Bolton's Ridge, would be a key point in their defence. He located the Brigade-Major, Walter Cass, and ordered him to gather what men he could to defend the ridge. Looking around, he saw the 8th Battalion, commanded by Colonel William Bolton, moving forward, so Cass directed them to Bolton's Ridge.[121] As such, it was the only ANZAC battalion that remained together during the day.[122] Eventually, around 07:00, the rest of the brigade started arriving. As each company and battalion appeared they were pushed forward into the front line, but with no defined orders other than to support the 3rd Brigade.[123] At 10:30 the six guns of the 26th Jacobs Mountain Battery arrived, positioning three guns each side of White's Valley. At noon they opened fire on the Turks on Gun Ridge.[124][125]

Within two hours half the Australian Division was involved in the battle of 400 Plateau. However, most of the officers had misunderstood their orders. Believing the intention was to occupy Gun Ridge and not hold their present position, they still tried to advance.[126] The 9th and 10th Battalions had started forming a defence line, but there was a gap between them that the 7th Battalion was sent to fill.[127] Seeing the 2nd Brigade coming forward, units of the 3rd Brigade started to advance to Gun Ridge.[128] The advancing Australians did not then know that the counter-attacking Turkish forces had reached the Scrubby Knoll area around 08:00 and were prepared for them.[112] As the Australians reached the Lone Pine section of the plateau, Turkish machine-guns and rifles opened fire, decimating the Australians. To the north other troops, advancing beyond Johnstone's Jolly and Owen's Gully, were caught by the same small arms fire. Soon afterwards a Turkish artillery battery also started firing at them.[129] This was followed by a Turkish counter-attack from Gun Ridge.[130] Such was the situation they now found themselves in that at 15:30 McCay, now giving up all pretence of advancing to Gun Ridge, ordered his brigade to dig in from Owen's Gully to Bolton's Ridge.[131]

Pine Ridge

Pine Ridge is part of the 400 Plateau, and stretches, in a curve towards the sea, for around one mile (1.6 km). Beyond Pine Ridge is Legge Valley and Gun Ridge and, like the rest of the terrain, it was covered in a thick gorse scrub, but also had stunted pine trees around eleven feet (3.4 m) tall growing on it.[132]

Australian trench Anzac Cove 25 April 1915
Small Australian trench in the gorse

Several groups of men eventually made their way to Pine Ridge. Among the first was Lieutenant Eric Plant's platoon from the 9th Battalion. Captain John Whitham's company of the 12th Battalion moved forward from Bolton's Ridge when they saw the 6th Battalion moving up behind them. As the 6th Battalion reached the ridge, the companies carried on towards Gun Ridge, while Lieutenant-Colonel Walter McNicoll established the battalion headquarters below Bolton's Ridge.[132] As the 6th Battalion moved forward they were engaged by Turkish small arms and artillery fire, causing heavy casualties.[133] At 10:00 brigade headquarters received a message from the 6th Battalion asking for reinforcement, and McCay sent half the 5th Battalion to assist. At the same time the 8th Battalion were digging in on Bolton's, except for two companies which moved forward to attack a group of Turks that had come up from the south behind the 6th Battalion.[134] By noon the 8th Battalion was dug in on the ridge; in front of them were scattered remnants of the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 9th Battalions, mostly out of view of each other in the scrub. Shortly after, McCay was informed that if he wanted the 6th Battalion to hold its position, it must be reinforced. So McCay sent his last reserves, a company of the 1st Battalion, and ordered the 8th to leave one company on the ridge and advance on the right of the 6th Battalion.[135] The scattered formations managed to hold their positions for the remainder of the afternoon, then at 17:00 saw large numbers of Turkish troops coming over the southern section of Gun Ridge.[136]

Turkish counter-attack

Baby 700 afternoon April 25 1915
Turkish counter-attack (blue) against ANZAC forces (red); the trench system is shown in black

Around 10:00 Kemal and the 1st Battalion, 57th Infantry were the first to arrive in the area between Scrubby Knoll and Chunuk Bair. From the knoll Kemal was able to observe the landings. He ordered the artillery battery to set up on the knoll, and the 1st Battalion to attack Baby 700 and Mortar Ridge from the North-East, while the 2nd Battalion would simultaneously circle around and attack Baby 700 from the West. The 3rd Battalion would for the moment be held in reserve. At 10:30 Kemal informed II Corps he was attacking.[137][138]

At 11:30 Sefik told Kemal that the ANZACs had a beachhead of around 2,200 yards (2,000 m), and that he would attack towards Ari Burnu, in conjunction with the 19th Division.[65] Around midday Kemal was appraised that the 9th Division was fully involved with the British landings at Cape Helles, and could not support his attack, so at 12:30 he ordered two battalions of the 77th Infantry Regiment (the third battalion was guarding Suvla Bay) to move forward between the 57th and 27th Infantry Regiments. At the same time he ordered his reserve 72nd Infantry Regiment to move further west.[137] Within the next half-hour the 27th and 57th Infantry Regiments started the counter-attack, supported by three batteries of artillery.[139] At 13:00 Kemal met with his corps commander Esat Pasha and convinced him of the need to react in strength to the ANZAC landings. Esat agreed and released the 72nd and 27th Infantry Regiments to Kemal's command. Kemal deployed the four regiments from north to south; 72nd, 57th, 27th and 77th.[139][140] In total, Turkish strength opposing the landing numbered between ten thousand and twelve thousand men.[141]


At 15:15 Lalor left the defence of The Nek to a platoon that had arrived as reinforcements, and moved his company to Baby 700. There he joined a group from the 2nd Battalion, commanded by Lieutenant Leslie Morshead. Lalor was killed soon afterwards.[142][143] The left flank of Baby 700 was now held by sixty men, the remnants of several units, commanded by a corporal. They had survived five charges by the Turks between 07:30 and 15:00; after the last charge the Australians were ordered to withdraw through The Nek.[144] There, a company from the Canterbury Battalion had just arrived, with their commanding officer Lieutenant-Colonel Douglas Stewart. By 16:00 the New Zealand companies had formed a defence line on Russell's Top. On Baby 700, there was on the left Morsehead's and Lalor's men, and at the top of Malone's Gulley were the survivors of the 2nd Battalion and some men from the 3rd Brigade. On the right were the men left from the Auckland companies, and a mixed group from the 1st, 2nd, 11th and 12th Battalions. Once Stewart's men were secure, he ordered Morsehead to withdraw. During a Turkish artillery bombardment of The Nek, Stewart was killed. The artillery heralded the start of a Turkish counter-attack; columns of troops appeared over the top of Battleship Hill and on the flanks and attacked the ANZAC lines.[145][146]

Assault of Ottoman soldiers
Turkish troops leaving their trench in an attack

At 16:30 the three battalions from the 72nd Infantry Regiment arrived and attacked from the north.[139] At the same time the Australians and New Zealanders holding on at Baby 700 broke and ran back to an improvised line, from Walker's Ridge in the north to Pope's Hill in the south.[147] The defence line at The Nek was now defended by nine New Zealanders, under the command of a sergeant; they had three machine-guns but the crews had all been killed or wounded. As the survivors arrived from Baby 700 their numbers rose to around sixty.[148] Bridges in his divisional headquarters starting receiving messages from the front; just after 17:00 Lieutenant-Colonel George Braund on Walker's Ridge advised he was holding his position and "if reinforced could advance". At 17:37 Maclagen reported they were being "heavily attacked", at 18:15 the 3rd Battalion signalled, "3rd Brigade being driven back". At 19:15 from Maclagen again "4th Brigade urgently required". Bridges sent two hundred stragglers, from several different battalions, to reinforce Braund and promised two extra battalions from the New Zealand and Australian Division which was now coming ashore.[149]

Dusk was at 19:00 and the Turkish attack had now reached Malone's Gulley and The Nek. The New Zealanders waited until the Turks came close, then opened fire in the darkness, stopping their advance. Seriously outnumbered, they asked for reinforcements. Instead, the supporting troops to their rear were withdrawn and the Turks managed to get behind them. So, taking the machine-guns with them, they withdrew off Russell's Top into Rest Gully. This left the defenders at Walker's Ridge isolated from the rest of the force.[150]


The Australians on 400 Plateau had for some time been subjected to sniping and artillery fire and could see Turkish troops digging in on Gun Ridge. Around 13:00 a column of Turkish reinforcements from the 27th Infantry Regiment, in at least battalion strength, were observed moving along the ridge-line from the south. The Turks then turned towards 400 Plateau and advanced in extended order. The Turkish counter-attack soon forced the advanced Australian troops to withdraw, and their machine-gun fire caused them heavy casualties.[130] It was not long before the attack had forced a wedge between the Australians on Baby 700 and those on 400 Plateau.[151] The heavy Turkish fire onto Lone Pine forced the survivors to withdraw back to the western slope of 400 Plateau.[152] At 14:25 Turkish artillery and small arms fire was so heavy that the Indian artillerymen were forced to push their guns back off the plateau by hand, and they reformed on the beach.[153]

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S29571, Türkei, Dardanellen, MG-Stellung
Turkish machine-gunners at Gallipoli

Although in places there was a mixture of different companies and platoons dug in together, the Australians were deployed with the 8th Battalion in the south still centred on Bolton's Ridge. North of them, covering the southern sector of 400 Plateau, were the mixed together 6th and 7th Battalions, both now commanded by Colonel Walter McNicoll of the 6th. North of them was the 5th Battalion, and the 10th Battalion covered the northern sector of 400 Plateau at Johnston's Jolly. But by now they were battalions in name only, having all taken heavy casualties; the commanders had little accurate knowledge of where their men were located.[154]

At 15:30 the two battalions of the Turkish 77th Infantry Regiment were in position, and with the 27th Infantry they counter-attacked again.[139] At 15:30 and at 16:45 McCay, now under severe pressure, requested reinforcements. The second time he was informed there was only one uninvolved battalion left, the 4th, and Bridges was keeping them in reserve until more troops from the New Zealand and Australian Division had been landed. McCay then spoke to Bridges direct and informed him the situation was desperate and if not reinforced the Turks would get behind him. At 17:00 Bridges released the 4th Battalion to McCay who sent them to the south forming on the left of the 8th Battalion along Bolton's Ridge. They arrived just in time to help counter Turkish probing attacks, by the 27th Infantry Regiment, from the south.[155]

At 17:20 McCay signalled Bridges that large numbers of unwounded men were leaving the battlefield and heading for the beaches. This was followed by Maclagan asking for urgent artillery fire support, onto Gun Ridge, as his left was under a heavy attack and at 18:16 Owen reported the left flank was "rapidly" being forced to retire. At dusk Maclagan made his way to Bridges headquarters and when asked for his opinion replied "It's touch and go. If the Turks come on in mass formation ... I don't think anything can stop them."[156] As it got dark the Turkish artillery ceased firing, and although small arms fire continued on both sides, the effects were limited when firing blind. Darkness also provided the opportunity to start digging more substantial trenches and to resupply the troops with water and ammunition.[157]

The last significant action of the day was at 22:00 south of Lone Pine, when the Turks charged towards Bolton's Ridge. By now the 8th Battalion had positioned two machine-guns to cover their front, which caused devastation amongst the attackers, and to their left the 4th Battalion also became involved. When the Turks got to within fifty yards (46 m) the 8th Battalion counter-attacked in a bayonet charge and the Turks withdrew. The ANZAC defence was aided by Royal Navy searchlights providing illumination.[158] Both sides now waited for the next attack, but the day's events had shattered both formations and they were no longer in any condition to conduct offensive operations.[159]


By nightfall, around sixteen thousand men had been landed, and the ANZACs had formed a beachhead, although with several undefended sections. It stretched along Bolton's Ridge in the south, across 400 Plateau, to Monash Valley. After a short gap it resumed at Pope's Hill, then at the top of Walker's Ridge.[34][160] It was not a large beachhead; it was under two miles (3.2 km) in length, with a depth around 790 yards (720 m),[161][162] and in places only a few yards separated the two sides.[163] That evening Birdwood had been ashore to check on the situation, and, satisfied, returned to HMS Queen. Around 21:15 he was asked to return to the beachhead.[164] There he met with his senior officers, who asked him to arrange an evacuation.[165] Unwilling to make that decision on his own he signalled Hamilton;

William Birdwood on battleship
Lieutenant-General William Birdwood, commander of the ANZAC force, aboard ship. Birdwood suggested an evacuation by sea rather than remaining in the cramped and limited beachhead, but was rebuffed.

Both my divisional generals and brigadiers have represented to me that they fear their men are thoroughly demoralised by shrapnel fire to which they have been subjected all day after exhaustion and gallant work in morning. Numbers have dribbled back from the firing line and cannot be collected in this difficult country. Even New Zealand Brigade which has only recently been engaged lost heavily and is to some extent demoralised. If troops are subjected to shellfire again tomorrow morning there is likely to be a fiasco, as I have no fresh troops with which to replace those in firing line. I know my representation is most serious, but if we are to re-embark it must be at once.[165]

Hamilton conferred with his naval commanders, who convinced him an evacuation would be almost impossible, and responded; "dig yourselves right in and stick it out ... dig, dig, dig until you are safe".[166] The survivors had to fight on alone until 28 April when four battalions of the Royal Naval Division were attached to the corps.[167]

On the Turkish side, by that night the 2nd Battalion 57th Infantry were on Baby 700, the 3rd Battalion, reduced to only ninety men, were at The Nek, and the 1st Battalion on Mortar Ridge. Just south of them was the 77th Infantry, next was the 27th Infantry opposite 400 Plateau. The last regiment, the 72nd Infantry, were on Battleship Hill.[168][169] As for manpower, the Turks were in a similar situation to the ANZACs. Of the two regiments most heavily involved, the 57th had been destroyed, and the 27th were exhausted with heavy casualties. Large numbers of the 77th had deserted, and the regiment was in no condition to fight. The 72nd was largely intact, but they were a poorly trained force of Arab conscripts. The III Corps, having to deal with both landings, could not assist as they had no reserves available.[140][170] It was not until 27 April that the 33rd and 64th Infantry Regiments arrived to reinforce the Turkish forces.[171] The ANZACs, however, had been unable to achieve their objectives, and therefore dug in. Gallipoli, like the Western Front, turned into a war of attrition.[172] The German commander, Liman von Saunders, was clear about the reasons for the outcome. He wrote that, "on the Turkish side the situation was saved by the immediate and independent action of the 19th Division."[171] The division commander, Kemal, became noted as "the most imaginative, most successful officer to fight on either side" during the campaign.[173] As a commander he was able to get the most out of his troops, typified by his order to the 57th Infantry Regiment; "Men, I am not ordering you to attack. I am ordering you to die. In the time that it takes us to die, other forces and commanders can come and take our place."[174]

In the following days there were several failed attacks and counter-attacks by both sides. The Turks were the first to try during the Second attack on Anzac Cove on 27 April, followed by the ANZACs who tried to advance overnight 1/2 May.[175] The Turkish Third attack on Anzac Cove on 19 May was the worst defeat of them all, with around ten thousand casualties,[176] including three thousand dead.[177][nb 4] The next four months consisted of only local or diversionary attacks, until 6 August when the ANZACs, in connection with the Landing at Suvla Bay, attacked Chunuk Bair with only limited success.[175] The Turks never succeeded in driving the Australians and New Zealanders back into the sea. Similarly, the ANZACs never broke out of their beachhead. Instead, in December 1915, after eight months of fighting, they evacuated the peninsula.[179]


The full extent of casualties on that first day is not known. Birdwood, who did not come ashore until late in the day, estimated between three and four hundred dead on the beaches.[180] The New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage claims one in five of the three thousand New Zealanders involved became a casualty.[181] The Australian War Memorial has 860 Australian dead between 25–30 April,[182] and the Australian Government estimates 2,000 wounded left Anzac Cove on 25 April, but more wounded were still waiting on the battlefields to be evacuated.[183] The Commonwealth War Graves Commission documents that 754 Australian and 147 New Zealand soldiers died on 25 April 1915.[184] A higher than normal proportion of the ANZAC casualties were from the officer ranks. One theory was that they kept exposing themselves to fire, trying to find out where they were or to locate their troops.[185] Four men were taken prisoner by the Turks.[186]

It is estimated that the Turkish 27th and 57th Infantry Regiments lost around 2,000 men, or fifty per cent of their combined strength.[141] The full number of Turkish casualties for the day has not been recorded. During the campaign, 8,708 Australians and 2,721 New Zealanders were killed. The exact number of Turkish dead is not known but has been estimated around 87,000.[187]

Dawn service gnangarra 03
Anzac Day dawn service at the State war memorial, Kings Park, in Western Australia

Anzac Day

The anniversary of the landings, 25 April, has since 1916 been recognised in Australia and New Zealand as Anzac Day, now one of their most important national occasions. It does not celebrate a military victory, but instead commemorates all the Australians and New Zealanders "who served and died in all wars, conflicts, and peacekeeping operations" and "the contribution and suffering of all those who have served."[188][189] Around the country, dawn services are held at war memorials to commemorate those involved. In Australia, at 10:15, another service is held at the Australian War Memorial, which the prime minister and governor general normally attend.[190][191] The first official dawn services were held in Australia in 1927 and in New Zealand in 1939.[192] Lower-key services are also held in the United Kingdom. In Turkey, large groups of Australians and New Zealanders have begun to gather at Anzac Cove, where in 2005 an estimated 20,000 people attended the service to commemorate the landings.[187][193][194] Attendance figures rose to 38,000 in 2012 and 50,000 in 2013.[195]

See also


  1. ^ At the time of the First World War, the modern Turkish state did not exist, and instead it was part of the Ottoman Turkish Empire. While the terms have distinct historical meanings, within many English-language sources the terms "Turkey" and "Ottoman Empire" are used synonymously, although sources differ in their approaches.[1] The sources used in this article predominantly use the term "Turkey".
  2. ^ Mountain artillery guns had a high angle of fire and were light and easily dismantled, intended to be carried by man or animal.[14]
  3. ^ The exact time of the landing is not clear, and sources differ. The 12th Battalion war diary has the earliest time at 04:10, the Royal Navy has 04:20, while corps headquarters has 04:32.
  4. ^ Moorhead in 1997 claimed there were 5,000 dead.[178]



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  2. ^ Carver 2004, pp.14–15
  3. ^ "WWI, Gallipoli". Australian Army. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d Hart 2011, p.78
  5. ^ Waite 1919, p.70
  6. ^ Powles 1928, p.22
  7. ^ Hamilton 1930, p.55
  8. ^ Carlyon 2001, p.87.
  9. ^ Waite 1919, p.74
  10. ^ Bean 1941, pp.220–221
  11. ^ a b "Anzac Cove, The Landings". New Zealand Government. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  12. ^ Bean 1941, pp.223–225
  13. ^ a b c Hart 2011, p.47
  14. ^ Bailey 2004, p.113
  15. ^ Bean 1941, p.228
  16. ^ Hart 2011, p.48
  17. ^ a b c Hart 2011, p.79
  18. ^ Gawrych 1995, p.88
  19. ^ Hart 2011, pp.58–59
  20. ^ "Gallipoli Magazine" (PDF). Australian Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  21. ^ Erickson 2007, p.26
  22. ^ Bean 1941, p.235
  23. ^ Hart 2011, pp.59–60
  24. ^ Gawrych 1995, p.87
  25. ^ a b Hart 2011, p.58
  26. ^ "Order of Battle". Gallipoli Association. Archived from the original on 3 March 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  27. ^ Hart 2011, p.60
  28. ^ Bean 1941, pp.242–243
  29. ^ Bean 1941, p.244
  30. ^ Hart 2011, p.83
  31. ^ Hart 2011, p.81
  32. ^ Bean 1941, pp.248–250
  33. ^ "Dardenelles (sic) Commission report:conclusions". National Archives. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
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  36. ^ Fewster, Basarin, Basarin 2003, p.12
  37. ^ Storey 2014, p. 84
  38. ^ Scott 1989, p.551
  39. ^ Carlyon 2001, p.189
  40. ^ a b Erickson 2007, p.29
  41. ^ Carlyon 2001, p,178
  42. ^ Bean 1941, p.278
  43. ^ Bean 1941, p.255
  44. ^ "Turkish machine-guns at the landing". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  45. ^ Bean 1941, pp.256–257
  46. ^ Hart 2011, p.86
  47. ^ Bean 1941, p.258
  48. ^ a b Hart 2011, p.87
  49. ^ Bean 1941, pp.260–262
  50. ^ a b Hart 2011, p.85
  51. ^ Bean 1941, p.263
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  53. ^ a b Bean 1941, p.268
  54. ^ Bean 1941, p.271
  55. ^ Bean 1941, p.273
  56. ^ Hart 2011, p.88
  57. ^ Erickson 2007, p.33
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  61. ^ Erickson 2007, pp.29–30
  62. ^ Hart 2011, p.95
  63. ^ Moorehead 1997, p.116
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  65. ^ a b Erickson 2007, p.30
  66. ^ Hart 2011, p.96
  67. ^ Carlyon 2001, p.196
  68. ^ "Baby 700". Gallipoli Association. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  69. ^ Bean 1941, pp.282–283
  70. ^ Bean 1941, p.287
  71. ^ Carlyon 2001, p.174
  72. ^ Bean 1941, pp.287–288
  73. ^ "Baby 700". Australian Government. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
  74. ^ a b Hart 2011, p.99
  75. ^ Bean 1941, pp.291–292
  76. ^ Bean 1941, p.293
  77. ^ Carlyon 2001, pp.181–182
  78. ^ Butler 1938, p.133
  79. ^ Carlyon 2001, p.197
  80. ^ a b c Bean 1941, p.365
  81. ^ Bean 1941, p.295
  82. ^ Bean 1941, pp.295–296
  83. ^ Bean 1941, p.296
  84. ^ Bean 1941, pp.296–27
  85. ^ "Swannell Blair Inskip". Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  86. ^ "Robertson Sydney Beresford". Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  87. ^ Bean 1941, p.298
  88. ^ Bean 1941, p.299
  89. ^ "Gordon, Charles George". Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  90. ^ Bean 1941, p.300
  91. ^ "Gallipoli Placenames, Walker's Ridge". New Zealand Government. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
  92. ^ a b Waite 1919, p.80
  93. ^ Bean 1941, p.302
  94. ^ Hart 2011, p.100
  95. ^ Bean 1941, pp.314–315
  96. ^ Carlyon 2001, p.204
  97. ^ Waite 1919, pp.80–81
  98. ^ Hart 2007, p.106
  99. ^ Butler 1938, p.134
  100. ^ Waite 1919, p.81
  101. ^ Bean 1941, pp.425–426
  102. ^ Bean 1941, p.428
  103. ^ Bean 1941, pp.429–430
  104. ^ Bean 1941, pp.336–339
  105. ^ Bean 1941, pp.336–337
  106. ^ Bean 1941, pp.337–338
  107. ^ Bean 1941, pp.338–339
  108. ^ Bean 1941, pp.340–341
  109. ^ Bean 1941, p.342
  110. ^ Bean 1941, pp.343–344
  111. ^ Bean 1941, p.344
  112. ^ a b Carlyon 2001, p.181
  113. ^ Bean 1941, pp.345–346
  114. ^ Moorhead 1997, p.115
  115. ^ Bean 1941, pp.346–347
  116. ^ Bean 1941, p.349
  117. ^ Bean 1941, p.353
  118. ^ Bean 1941, p.362
  119. ^ Carlyon 2001, p.201
  120. ^ Bean 1941, p.371
  121. ^ Bean 1941, p.366
  122. ^ Butler 1938, p.136
  123. ^ Bean 1941, pp.368–369
  124. ^ Hart 2007, p.102
  125. ^ Bean 1941, pp.393–394
  126. ^ Bean 1941, pp.369–371
  127. ^ Bean 1941, p.372
  128. ^ Bean 1941, p.373
  129. ^ Bean 1941, pp.374–375
  130. ^ a b Bean 1941, pp.376–377
  131. ^ Carlyon 2001, p.203
  132. ^ a b Bean 1941, pp.406–407
  133. ^ Bean 1941, p.411
  134. ^ Bean 1941, pp.412–413
  135. ^ Bean 1941, pp.415–416
  136. ^ Bean 1941, p.419
  137. ^ a b Gawrych 1995, p.89
  138. ^ Bean 1941, 448–449
  139. ^ a b c d Erickson 2007, p.32
  140. ^ a b Gawrych 1995, p.90
  141. ^ a b Bean 1941, p.477
  142. ^ Carlyon 2001, p.207
  143. ^ "Lalor Joseph Peter". Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
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  145. ^ Bean 1941, p.313
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  148. ^ Bean 1941, p.317
  149. ^ Bean 1941, p.318
  150. ^ Bean 1941, p.320
  151. ^ Bean 1941, p.380
  152. ^ Bean 1941, p.381
  153. ^ Bean 1941, p.395
  154. ^ Bean 1941, pp.398–399
  155. ^ Bean 1941, pp.399–400
  156. ^ Bean 1941, p.454
  157. ^ Bean 1941, pp.464–465
  158. ^ Bean 1941, p.475
  159. ^ Hart 2011, p.110
  160. ^ Hart 2011, p.180
  161. ^ Waite 1919, p.136
  162. ^ Powles 1928, p.27
  163. ^ Moorehead 1997, pp.146–147
  164. ^ Moorehead 1997, p.128
  165. ^ a b Hart 2011, p.108
  166. ^ Hart 2011, p.109
  167. ^ Hart 2007, p.181
  168. ^ Carlyon 2001, p.222
  169. ^ Bean 1941, p.452
  170. ^ Moorehead 1997, p.117
  171. ^ a b Gawrych 1995, p.91
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  177. ^ "No. 29303". The London Gazette (Supplement). 20 September 1915. p. 1.
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  • Fewster, Kevin; Basarin, Vecihi; Basarin, Hatice Hurmuz (2003). Gallipoli: The Turkish Story. Crows Nest, New South Wales: Allen and Unwin. ISBN 1-74114-045-5.
  • Gawrych, George; Faculty of Combat Studies Institute (1995). Studies in Battle Command. Darby Pennsylvania: DIANE Publishing. ISBN 1-4289-1465-X.
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  • Klees, Emerson (2002). The Will to Stay with It: Role Models of Determination. The Role Models of Human Values. Volume 5. Worksop: Cameo Press. ISBN 1-891046-01-2.
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  • Storey, William Kelleher. William Kelleher Storey. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780742541450.
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External links

11th Battalion (Australia)

The 11th Battalion was an Australian Army battalion that was among the first infantry units raised during World War I for the First Australian Imperial Force. It was the first battalion recruited in Western Australia, and following a brief training period in Perth, the battalion sailed to Egypt where it undertook four months of intensive training. In April 1915 it took part in the invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula, landing at Anzac Cove. In August 1915 the battalion was in action in the Battle of Lone Pine. Following the withdrawal from Gallipoli, the battalion returned to Egypt where it was split to help form the 51st Battalion. In March 1916, the battalion was deployed to the Western Front in France and Belgium where it took part in trench warfare until the end of the war in November 1918.

The battalion was disbanded in 1919, but since 1921 has been re-activated and merged several times as a reserve unit, initially as the 11th Battalion (City of Perth Regiment), which fought a brief campaign against the Japanese on New Britain during World War II. Other units that have maintained the traditions of the original 11th Battalion include the 11th/44th Battalion (City of Perth Regiment), 'A' (City of Perth) Company, 1st Battalion, Royal Western Australia Regiment and the current 11th/28th Battalion, Royal Western Australia Regiment.

3rd Battalion (Australia)

The 3rd Battalion was an infantry battalion of the Australian Army. Originally raised as part of the First Australian Imperial Force for service during World War I, the battalion formed part of the 1st Brigade, attached to the 1st Division. It was formed shortly after the war broke out and was among the first Australian units to be sent overseas, arriving in Egypt in December 1914. In April 1915 the battalion participated in the Landing at Anzac Cove, coming ashore in the second and third waves. In December 1915 the 3rd Battalion was evacuated from the Gallipoli peninsula and withdrawn to Egypt again, where it took part in the defence of the Suez Canal before being sent to France to fight on the Western Front in March 1916. For the next two and a half years the unit would serve in the trenches in France and Belgium and would take part in many of the major battles fought during that time. In May 1919, following the end of the war, the battalion was disbanded and its personnel repatriated back to Australia.

In 1921, the AIF was officially disbanded and the previously-existing militia units of the Australian Military Forces were reorganised in order to perpetuate the designations and battle honours of their associated AIF units. As a result, the 3rd Battalion (The Werriwa Regiment), was raised around the area to the west of Sydney. Between 1921 and 1939 the battalion underwent a number of reorganisations and merges due to the economic pressures brought about by the Great Depression and subsequently in 1930 the battalion was merged with the 4th Battalion (Australian Rifles), before being delinked in 1937, when it was amalgamated with the 53rd Battalion (West Sydney Regiment).

Following the outbreak of World War II, many members of the battalion volunteered for service with the Second Australian Imperial Force and were allocated to the 2/3rd Battalion, with whom they served in North Africa, Syria, Greece, Crete and then later in New Guinea. In 1942, following the entry of Japan into the war, the 3rd Battalion (The Werriwa Regiment) was mobilised and brought up to its full wartime establishment with national servicemen. In May 1942 the battalion was sent to Port Moresby, where it joined the rest of the 30th Brigade, to undertake garrison duties. In July the Japanese landed around Gona and as reinforcements were brought up from Australia, elements of the 30th Brigade began a number of delaying actions around Kokoda. In September 1942, the 3rd Battalion was sent up the Kokoda Trail, where it had the distinction of being one of only two militia units to fight alongside its associated AIF unit. Over the next couple of months it assisted in the recapturing of Kokoda, before participating in the fighting around Buna and Gona. In 1943, the battalion was withdrawn to Australia along with the rest of the 30th Brigade, where it was subsequently disbanded in July and its personnel absorbed into its associated AIF unit, the 2/3rd Battalion.

In 1948, the battalion was re-raised as part of the Citizens Military Force, based around Canberra. In 1960, when the Australian Army was reorganised along Pentropic lines, the battalion was reduced to a company-sized unit and formed 'C' Company, 3rd Battalion, Royal New South Wales Regiment (3 RNSWR). In 1965, this company was expanded to become a full battalion again when the Pentropic divisional structure was abandoned; however, in 1987, 3 RNSWR was amalgamated with 4 RNSWR to form the 4th/3rd Battalion, Royal New South Wales Regiment.

57th Infantry Regiment (Ottoman Empire)

The 57th Infantry Regiment (Turkish: 57 nci Piyade Alayı or Elli Yedinci Piyade Alayı) or simply 57th Regiment (Turkish: 57 nci Alay or Elli Yedinci Alay) was a regiment of the Ottoman Army during World War I.

Established on February 1, 1915, in Tekirdağ (Rodosto) and received its regimental colours (sancak) on February 22, 1915. The regiment's command was given to Yarbay Hüseyin Avni Bey (Arıburnu) on February 23, and the regiment went to Çanakkale and arrived at Eceabat (Maydos) on February 25. After relocating the Bigali Village on March 26, 1915, they trained until April 24.

On April 25 Australian and New Zealand forces carried out the landing at Anzac Cove. The 57th, being nearest, counterattacked, slowed the invasion, and were wiped out. The 57th Infantry Regiment Memorial commemorates their sacrifice.

57th Infantry Regiment Memorial

The 57th Infantry Regiment Memorial is a Turkish war memorial commemorating the men of the Turkish 57th Infantry Regiment who died during the Battle of Gallipoli.

The battles at Gallipoli were an eight-month campaign fought by British Empire and French forces against the Ottoman Empire in an attempt to force Turkey out of the war and to open a supply route to Russia through the Dardanelles and the Black Sea.

The Turkish 57th Infantry Regiment was the first defending unit to go into action following the Landing at Anzac Cove on 25 April 1915. On the first day, the 19 Division commander, Staff Lieutenant-Colonel Mustafa Kemal famously ordered the regiment, "I am not ordering you to attack. I am ordering you to die. During the time before we die other forces and commanders will take our place."There is a largely symbolic cemetery containing the names of many servicemen randomly selected to be inscribed on headstones or plaques on the walls. The complex contains a three-storey tower, the cemetery, a memorial panel, an outdoor mosque and a large statue of a Turkish soldier. According to a sign at the site, the names of 1,817 soldiers who lost their lives there, including 25 officers, have been identified.

The memorial was constructed in 1992 on top of a position called the Chessboard. In 1994 a statue of the last Turkish Gallipoli survivor, Hüseyin Kaçmaz, and his granddaughter, were added following his death.

5th Battalion (Australia)

The 5th Battalion was an infantry battalion of the Australian Army. Raised in Victoria as part of the First Australian Imperial Force for service during World War I, the battalion formed part of the 2nd Brigade, attached to the 1st Division. It participated in the landing at Anzac Cove on 25 April 1915, coming ashore in the second wave, before taking part in the fighting at Krithia and then at Lone Pine. In December 1915 the battalion was withdrawn from the peninsula and returned to Egypt where it was involved in defending the Suez Canal until being transferred to the Western Front in France in early 1916. After that, over the course of the next two and a half years the 5th Battalion was rotated in and out of the front line and took part in a number of significant battles including at Pozieres, Ypres, Amiens and the Hindenburg Line. Following the end of the war, the battalion was disbanded and its personnel returned to Australia. The battalion was re-raised during the inter-war years as a part-time unit and was later mobilised during World War II, but did not serve overseas. During the post war period, the battalion has existed at various times before being subsumed into the 5th/6th Battalion, Royal Victoria Regiment.


Anzac Cove (Turkish: Anzak Koyu) is a small cove on the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey. It became famous as the site of World War I landing of the ANZACs (Australian and New Zealand Army Corps) on 25 April 1915. The cove is 600 metres (2,000 ft) long, bounded by the headlands of Arıburnu to the north and Little Arıburnu, known as Hell Spit, to the south. Following the landing at Anzac Cove, the beach became the main base for the Australian and New Zealand troops for the eight months of the Gallipoli campaign.

Anzac spirit

The Anzac spirit or Anzac legend is a concept which suggests that Australian and New Zealand soldiers possess shared characteristics, specifically the qualities those soldiers allegedly exemplified on the battlefields of World War I. These perceived qualities include endurance, courage, ingenuity, good humour, larrikinism, and mateship. According to this concept, the soldiers are perceived to have been innocent and fit, stoical and laconic, irreverent in the face of authority, naturally egalitarian and disdainful of British class differences.The Anzac spirit also tends to capture the idea of an Australian and New Zealand "national character", with the Gallipoli Campaign sometimes described as the moment of birth of the nationhood both of Australia and of New Zealand. It was first expressed in the reporting of the landing at Anzac Cove by Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett; as well as later on and much more extensively by Charles Bean. It is regarded as an Australian legend, although its critics refer to it as the Anzac myth.

Battle for Baby 700

The Battle for Baby 700 (2/3 May 1915), was an engagement fought during the Gallipoli Campaign of the First World War. Between the forces of the British Empire and the Ottoman Turkish Empire.On 25 April 1915, the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC), conducted an amphibious landing on the Gallipoli Peninsula. The landing at Anzac Cove was supposed to capture Baby 700, on the third ridge from the Aegean coast on the first day, but Turkish opposition being stronger than expected foiled their plans and they were forced to form a defensive perimeter on the second ridge. Having successfully defended against a Turkish counter-attack on 27 April, they realised it would strengthen their position if they captured Baby 700. The operation was given to the New Zealand and Australian Division, their then strongest formation, supported by the 1st Royal Naval Brigade.

The failure did not stop the ANZACs from trying again. In August 1915, in conjunction with the Landing at Suvla, they attacked again. This time with some limited success, but the deception raids notably at The Nek and Lone Pine, resulted in severe casualties.

Blair Swannell

Blair Inskip Swannell (20 August 1875 – 25 April 1915) was an English-born international rugby union forward who played club rugby for Northampton, and internationally for the British Isles and later Australia. He was invited to tour with the British Isles on their 1899 tour of Australia and then their 1904 tour of Australia and New Zealand. He played a total of seven Test matches on these tours, and scored one Test try – against Australia during the 1904 tour. After settling in Australia, Swannell played a single game for his new home when they faced New Zealand. He was viewed as a violent player, and this made his unpopular with other players. Former Australian captain Herbert Moran said of him that "... his conception of rugby was one of trained violence".During the Second Boer War, Swannell served in the British Army in South Africa, rising to the rank of lieutenant.

During the First World War he transferred from the Australian Army to the Australian Imperial Force in September 1914; and, retaining his rank of captain, he served with the 1st Battalion. Promoted to major on 1 January 1915, he was killed on 25 April 1915 while taking part in the Landing at Anzac Cove, during the first day of the Gallipoli Campaign.

Claude Crowl

Claude Terrell Crowl (26 December 1892 – 25 April 1915) was an Australian rules footballer who played with St Kilda in the Victorian Football League.He was a member of the First AIF, and was killed in action during the landing at Anzac Cove, Gallipoli, in Turkey on 25 April 1915.

Fen McDonald

Fenley John "Fen" McDonald (25 May 1891 – 25 April 1915) was an Australian rules footballer who played with Carlton and Melbourne in the Victorian Football League (VFL).

He was a member of the First AIF, and was killed in action during the landing at Anzac Cove, Gallipoli, in Turkey on 25 April 1915.

HMS Bacchante (1901)

HMS Bacchante was a Cressy-class armoured cruiser built for the Royal Navy around 1900. Upon completion she was assigned to the Mediterranean Fleet as flagship of the fleet's cruiser squadron. She was reduced to reserve upon her return home in 1905 before returning to the Mediterranean in 1906. Six years later she returned home and was again placed in reserve. Recommissioned at the start of World War I, Bacchante became flagship of the 7th Cruiser Squadron. She was present at the Battle of Heligoland Bight a few weeks after the war began, but saw no combat.

She was transferred to convoy escort duties in the Bay of Biscay in late 1914 before being sent to Egypt in early 1915. Bacchante was then assigned to support Anzac troops during the Gallipoli Campaign by providing naval gunfire. She covered the landing at Anzac Cove in April as well as several subsequent operations. Returning home in late 1916, she became the flagship of the 9th Cruiser Squadron on convoy escort duties off the African coast in mid-1917. Bacchante remained there for the rest of the war and was reduced to reserve in 1919 before being sold for scrap in 1920.

James Whiteside McCay

Lieutenant General Sir James Whiteside McCay, (21 December 1864 – 1 October 1930), who often spelt his surname M’Cay, was an Australian general and politician.

A graduate of the University of Melbourne, where he earned Master of Arts and Master of Laws degrees, McCay established a successful legal practice, McCay & Thwaites. He was a member of the Victorian Parliament for Castlemaine from 1895 to 1899, where he was a champion of women's suffrage and federation. He lost his seat in 1899 but became a member of the first Australian Federal Parliament in 1901. He was Minister for Defence from 1904 to 1905, during which he implemented long-lasting reforms, including the creation of the Military Board.

As a soldier, McCay commanded the 2nd Infantry Brigade in the landing at Anzac Cove on 25 April 1915, during the Gallipoli Campaign of the Great War. He was later wounded in the Second Battle of Krithia and invalided to Australia, but returned to command the 5th Division, which he led in the Battle of Fromelles in 1916, dubbed "the worst 24 hours in Australia's entire history." His failures in difficult military operations made him a controversial figure who earned the disfavour of his superiors, while his efforts to succeed in the face of insurmountable obstacles earned him the odium of troops under his command, who blamed him for high casualties. In the latter part of the war he commanded the AIF Depots in the United Kingdom.

After the war, McCay resumed his old job as Deputy Chairman of the State Bank of Victoria and also served on a panel that deliberated on the future structure of the Army. He was chairman of the Fair Profits Commission, the War Service Homes Scheme of the Repatriation Commission, and the Repatriation Commission's Disposals Board. He commanded the Special Constabulary Force during the 1923 Victorian Police strike.

John Simpson Kirkpatrick

John (Jack) Simpson Kirkpatrick (6 July 1892 – 19 May 1915), who served under the name John Simpson, was a stretcher bearer with the 1st Australian Division during the Gallipoli Campaign in World War I. After landing at Anzac Cove on 25 April 1915, Simpson began to use donkeys to provide first aid and carry wounded soldiers to the beach, for evacuation. Simpson and the donkeys continued this work for three and a half weeks, often under fire, until he was killed, during the Third attack on Anzac Cove. "Simpson and his Donkey" are a part of the "Anzac legend".

List of Australian military personnel killed at Anzac Cove on 25 April 1915

This is a list of notable people who were killed in action during the landing at Anzac Cove, Gallipoli, in Turkey on Sunday, 25 April 1915 while serving with Australian armed forces during World War I. The list is ordered by family name.

According to the historians at the Australian War Memorial, it is generally accepted that the total number of Australian casualties, killed and wounded at Anzac Cove, on 25 April 1915 is something of the order of 2,000 men; and, although no-one can be certain of the precise number, it is generally accepted that something like 650 Australian servicemen were killed in action at Anzac Cove on 25 April 1915—and, according to Stanley (2014), the "first wave to land at dawn on 25 April 1915 … came from just six companies of the 9th, 10th and 11th Battalions [of the Australian Imperial Force]" and, of those who landed in that first wave, 101 were killed in action.

The last surviving individual who had served in any capacity for any of the combatants during the Gallipoli campaign was Alec Campbell (2731). Born in Tasmania on 26 February 1899, Campbell saw action at Gallipoli aged 16 (having given his age at the recruiting office as 18 years 4 months). He died in Tasmania on 16 May 2002, aged 103 years.

London-class battleship

The London class was a group of five predreadnought battleships built for the British Royal Navy in the late 1890s and early 1900s. The class comprised London, Bulwark, Venerable, Queen, and Prince of Wales. The ships of the London class were very similar to the preceding Formidable class, with the main differences being their armour layout. They were armed with a battery of four 12-inch (305 mm) guns and they had top speed of 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph). They are sometimes referred to as being part of the Formidable class due to their similarity, or as being a class of three ships, with the last two forming their own Queen class. The five ships were built between 1898 and 1904 at the Portsmouth, Devonport, and Chatham Dockyards.

All five ships of the class served with the Mediterranean Fleet at the start of their careers; their peacetime years were uneventful, apart from accidental collisions with other ships. Starting in 1907, the Royal Navy began transferring the ships back to home waters, where they served at various times with the Home Fleet, Channel Fleet, and Atlantic Fleet. In 1912–1913, London was used to test the use of ramp-launched airplanes from ships. By 1912, all five members of the class had been transferred to the 5th Battle Squadron, Home Fleet, where they remained through the outbreak of the First World War in July 1914. After Britain's entry into the war in August, the ships escorted the British Expeditionary Force to France. Venerable shelled German troops in October and Bulwark was destroyed in an accidental magazine explosion in November.

Beginning in March 1915, the London-class ships began to be transferred to the Mediterranean Sea to participate in the Dardanelles Campaign; London, Queen, and Prince of Wales supported the Landing at Anzac Cove in April, but they were withdrawn in May to reinforce the Italian fleet blockading the main fleet of the Austro-Hungarian Navy in the Adriatic Sea. At the same time, Venerable was transferred to the Dardanelles, where she supported Allied troops ashore in August before also being sent to the Adriatic at the end of the year. Queen was converted into a depot ship in late 1916 and London and Venerable were withdrawn to Britain, where they were decommissioned and later converted into a minelayer and depot ship, respectively. Prince of Wales became a barracks ship in 1917. All four ships were ultimately sold for scrap in 1920 and broken up between 1920 and 1922.

New Zealand and Australian Division

The New Zealand and Australian Division was a composite army division raised for service in the First World War under the command of Major General Alexander Godley. Consisting of several mounted and standard infantry brigades from both New Zealand and Australia, it served in the Gallipoli Campaign between April and December 1915.

At Gallipoli, the division landed at Anzac Cove on 25 April 1915, coming ashore as follow-on troops to the initial assault force that had made it ashore earlier in the day, and later occupied the northern areas of the Allied lodgement. After the initial Allied assault at Anzac Cove, elements of the division were sent to Cape Helles in early May, where they participated in the Second Battle of Krithia, launching an unsuccessful attack towards the Achi Baba peak. The division's mounted units were sent to Gallipoli in mid-May without their horses, to serve as dismounted infantry, making up for previous losses. Later that month, the division helped repel an Ottoman counter-attack at Anzac Cove, after which it occupied the line until August, when the Allies launched an offensive designed to break the deadlock. During this period, the division attacked Chunuk Bair and Hill 971, and then later Hill 60. These efforts failed, and as winter set in on the peninsula, the division was evacuated from Gallipoli in mid-December 1915 as part of a general Allied withdrawal.

Returning to Egypt, the division was disbanded in early 1916 following a reorganisation of the Australian and New Zealand forces. The division's constituent infantry brigades were then used to form the Australian 4th Division and the New Zealand Division. These two formations would then be sent to the Western Front where they would take part in further fighting throughout 1916–1918, while the division's former mounted elements went on to serve in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign as part of the Anzac Mounted Division.

Rupert Balfe

(Joseph) Rupert Balfe (9 March 1890 – 25 April 1915) was an Australian rules footballer and soldier who was killed during the landing at Anzac Cove.

Stanley Price Weir

Brigadier General Stanley Price Weir, (23 April 1866 – 14 November 1944) was a public servant and Australian Army officer. During World War I, he commanded the 10th Battalion of the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) during the landing at Anzac Cove and the subsequent Gallipoli Campaign, and during the Battles of Pozières and Mouquet Farm in France.

Weir returned to Australia at his own request in late 1916 at the age of 50, and in 1917 he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order and was mentioned in dispatches for his performance at Pozières and Mouquet Farm. He went on to become the first South Australian Public Service Commissioner. He was given an honorary promotion to brigadier general on his retirement from the Australian Military Forces in 1921. Weir was retired as public service commissioner in 1931. In retirement he contributed to various benevolent and charitable organisations, and died in 1944.

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