The Landing Craft, Support (Large) were two distinct classes of amphibious warfare vessels were used by the United States Navy in Pacific and the Royal Navy in World War II. The USN versions which were later reclassified Landing Ship Support, Large also performed radar picket duty and fire fighting.
Ex-LCS(L)-102 (HTMS Nakha)
|Builders:||George Lawley & Son, Commercial Iron Works and Albina Engine Works|
|Displacement:||250 long tons (250 t)|
|Length:||158 ft 6 in (48.31 m)|
|Beam:||23 ft 3 in (7.09 m)|
|Draft:||5 ft 10 in (1.78 m) (aft, loaded)|
|Speed:||16.5 knots (30.6 km/h)|
|Range:||5,500 nmi (10,200 km)|
|Complement:||3–6 officers, 55–68 men|
|Armor:||10-lb. STS splinter shields|
The original designation for the ships was LCS(L)(3), which stood for "Landing Craft Support (Large) Mark 3". In 1949 the class was reclassified to "Landing Ship Support, Large" (LSSL). The United States Navy had to have the designation LCS(L) because there was also a smaller class named LCL, that were built mainly for rescue and smoke laying during amphibious operation.
A total of 130 were made. Three different ship building yards did the construction: George Lawley & Son (Neponset, Massachusetts); Commercial Iron Works (Portland, Oregon); and Albina Engine Works (Portland, Oregon).
The hull was the same as the Landing Craft Infantry ships. They were 158 ft 6 in (48.31 m) long, displaced 250 long tons (250 t), 23 ft 3 in (7.09 m) wide and drew 5 ft 10 in (1.78 m) when fully loaded. The flat bottom and skegs between and on either side of the twin screws allowed the ships to safely beach. The anchor is at the stern of the ship so it can be used to help pull the ship off the beach if necessary.
The twin variable pitch screws were each driven by a bank of four Grey Marine (later General Motors) diesel engines, with a total power for all eight engines of 1,600 horsepower (1,200 kW). These engines gave a maximum speed of 16.5 knots (30.6 km/h), but normally the ships sailed at 12 knots (22 km/h). The ships had a range of 5,500 nautical miles (10,200 km).
Armour for the gun mounts, pilot house and conning tower was provided by 10-lb. STS splinter shields.
LCS(L) vessels could be produced in as little as 10 days, and final fitting out would take a further few weeks.
The ships had a smoke generator which was used to obscure landing craft approaching the beach.
The ships also made very good fire fighting ships. A fire fighting manifold was fitted in front of the bow gun and two monitors with pumps fitted just forward of the aft gun.
The LCS(L)(3) ships provided more firepower per ton than any ship ever built for the U.S. Navy. Three guns and 10 rocket launchers were the main armaments. The bow gun was a 3"/50 caliber gun, a single 40 mm gun or a twin 40 mm gun. The forward and aft deck guns were twin 40 mm gun. The 10 mark 7 rocket launchers were situated behind the bow gun and forward deck house. Four 20 mm cannons were also mounted and other arms stowed inside. The rifle locker held 4 M1 carbines, 4 Thompson sub machine guns, and 1911A1 45cal semi auto pistols.
The Battle of Tarawa showed a gap in Navy resources for close in support of landing troops. The time interval between the end of shelling from the large ships and the arrival of the landing craft on the beach allowed the defenders to regroup. The Landing Craft Support was designed to fill this void.
After providing close in support during the landings at Okinawa, many Landing Craft Support ships were placed on the radar picket stations as anti-aircraft platforms. When not on a picket stations, the ship would create smoke to hide the fleet at anchor and perform "skunk patrol" screening for suicide boats.
During World War II, five LCS(L)(3)s were sunk in combat (see below) and 21 were damaged. Three of these small warships received Presidential Unit Citations, while six were awarded Navy Unit citations. Importantly, LT Richard M. McCool, skipper of the USS LCS(L)(3) 122, was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
USS LCS(L)(3)-7 sunk by Suicide boat off Mariveles, Corregidor Channel, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 16 February 1945.
USS LCS(L)(3)-15 sunk by kamikaze aircraft off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 22 April 1945.
USS LCS(L)(3)-26 sunk by Suicide boat off Mariveles, Corregidor Channel, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 16 February 1945.
USS LCS(L)(3)-33 sunk by shore batteries off Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 19 February 1945.
USS LCS(L)(3)-49 sunk by suicide boat off Mariveles, Corregidor Channel, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 16 February 1945.
At the end of the war, surviving ships returned to the United States. Some were restored to action for the Korean War. Many were transferred to Japan, France (and on to South Vietnam), Cambodia, Thailand, Greece, and other nations.
Only two ships are known to still exist. One has been highly modified as a fishing boat. The second was in Thailand and was kept in very similar configuration to its original (HTMS Nakha, formerly USS LCS(L)-102). The National Association of USS LCS(L) 1–130 was successful in having the HTMS Nakha transferred to the association for public display in the United States. She was officially released from the Royal Thai Navy on November 10, 2007 after being returned to the USA in September of that year. As of May 2017 the USS LCS(L)-102 is under restoration and upkeep. It is open to the public on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays or by special arrangements, and tours at the former Naval Ship yard, Mare Island, in Vallejo, California.
1 Assault Group Royal Marines (1AGRM) provides the Royal Marines expertise and training in small boat operations, both amphibious and riverine. In addition, it trains and parents the Assault Squadrons of the Royal Marines (ASRM) and their landing craft detachments. It is based at RM Tamar in HMNB Devonport, Plymouth.Amenities ship
An amenities ship is a ship outfitted with recreational facilities as part of a mobile naval base. Amenities ships included movie theaters and canteens staffed by mercantile crews of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary service. These ships were intended to provide a place where British Pacific Fleet personnel could relax between operations.Amphibious warfare ship
An amphibious warfare ship (or amphib) is an amphibious vehicle warship employed to land and support ground forces, such as marines, on enemy territory during an amphibious assault. The largest fleet of these types is operated by the United States Navy.
Specialized shipping can be divided into two types, most crudely described as ships and craft. In general, the ships carry the troops from the port of embarkation to the drop point for the assault and the craft carry the troops from the ship to the shore. Amphibious assaults taking place over short distances can also involve the shore-to-shore technique, where landing craft go directly from the port of embarkation to the assault point. Some tank landing ships may also be able to land troops and equipment directly onto shore after travelling long distances, such as the Ivan Rogov-class landing ship.Coastal minesweeper
Coastal minesweeper is a term used by the United States Navy to indicate a minesweeper intended for coastal use as opposed to participating in fleet operations at sea.
Because of its small size—usually less than 100 feet in length—and construction—wood as opposed to steel—and slow speed—usually about 9 or 10 knots—the coastal minesweeper was considered too fragile and slow to operate on the high seas with the fleet.
Minesweeping, in conjunction with fleet activities, was usually relegated to the diesel-driven steel-hulled AM-type minesweepers, later to be replaced by the wood-hulled MSO-type minesweeper with aluminum engines.Coastal submarine
A coastal submarine or littoral submarine is a small, maneuverable submarine with shallow draft well suited to navigation of coastal channels and harbors. Although size is not precisely defined, coastal submarines are larger than midget submarines, but smaller than sea-going submarines designed for longer patrols on the open ocean. Space limitations aboard coastal submarines restrict fuel availability for distant travel, food availability for extended patrol duration, and number of weapons carried. Within those limitations, however, coastal submarines may be able to reach areas inaccessible to larger submarines, and be more difficult to detect.Fairmile H landing craft
The Fairmile H Landing Craft were British landing craft of the Second World War. Initially designed for commando type raids from a base in Britain as a way of probing enemy defenses and tying down additional troops, some were converted into fire support vessels.
Two variants were developed:
The Fairmile H LCI (S)This was the Landing Craft Infantry (Small) "LCI(S)" boat.
The Fairmile H LCS (L)This was a Landing Craft Support (LCS) boat fitted with extra weapons to give fire support to landing craft particularly in being able to provide some anti-tank capability. This was achieved by the simple expediency of mounting a tank turret complete with its gun on the forward deck.
The usual Fairmile construction techniques were used with all items prefabricated and supplied in kit form to boatyards for assembly and fitting out.General stores issue ship
General stores issue ship is a type of ship used by the United States Navy during World War II and for some time afterwards.
The task of the general stores issue ship was to sail into non-combat, or rear, areas and disburse general stores, such as canned goods, toilet paper, office supplies, etc., to ships and stations.Guard ship
A guard ship is a warship assigned as a stationary guard in a port or harbour, as opposed to a coastal patrol boat which serves its protective role at sea.Landing craft
Landing craft are small and medium seagoing watercraft, such as boats and barges, used to convey a landing force (infantry and vehicles) from the sea to the shore during an amphibious assault. The term excludes landing ships, which are larger. Production of landing craft peaked during World War II, with a significant number of different designs produced in large quantities by the United Kingdom and United States.
Because of the need to run up onto a suitable beach, World War II landing craft were flat-bottomed, and many designs had a flat front, often with a lowerable ramp, rather than a normal bow. This made them difficult to control and very uncomfortable in rough seas. The control point (too rudimentary to call a bridge on LCA and similar craft) was normally at the extreme rear of the vessel, as were the engines. In all cases, they were known by an abbreviation derived from the official name rather than by the full title.Light aircraft carrier
A light aircraft carrier, or light fleet carrier, is an aircraft carrier that is smaller than the standard carriers of a navy. The precise definition of the type varies by country; light carriers typically have a complement of aircraft only one-half to two-thirds the size of a full-sized fleet carrier. A light carrier was similar in concept to an escort carrier in most respects, however light carriers were intended for higher speeds to be deployed alongside fleet carriers, while escort carriers usually defended convoys and provided air support during amphibious operations.List of United States Navy amphibious warfare ships
This is a list of United States Navy amphibious warfare ships. This type of ship has been in use with the US Navy since World War I. Ship status is indicated as either currently active [A], inactive [I], or precommissioning [P]. Ships in the inactive category include all that have been decommissioned. Ships in the precommissioning category include ships under construction or on order.Mine countermeasures vessel
A mine countermeasures vessel or MCMV is a type of naval ship designed for the location of and destruction of naval mines which combines the role of a minesweeper and minehunter in one hull. The term MCMV is also applied collectively to minehunters and minesweepers.Minehunter
A minehunter is a naval vessel that seeks, detects, and destroys individual naval mines. Minesweepers, on the other hand, clear mined areas as a whole, without prior detection of mines. A vessel that combines both of these roles is known as a mine countermeasures vessel (MCMV).National Register of Historic Places listings in Solano County, California
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Solano County, California.
This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Solano County, California, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register properties and districts; these locations may be seen together in an online map.There are 30 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, including 1 National Historic Landmark.
This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted August 9, 2019.Ocean boarding vessel
Ocean boarding vessels (OBVs) were merchant ships taken over by the Royal Navy for the purpose of enforcing wartime blockades by intercepting and boarding foreign vessels.Repair ship
A repair ship is a naval auxiliary ship designed to provide maintenance support to warships. Repair ships provide similar services to destroyer, submarine and seaplane tenders or depot ships, but may offer a broader range of repair capability including equipment and personnel for repair of more significant machinery failures or battle damage.Shin'yō-class suicide motorboat
The Shinyo (震洋, Shin'yō, "Sea Quake") were Japanese suicide motorboats developed during World War II. They were part of the wider Japanese Special Attack Units program.Submarine tender
A submarine tender is a type of depot ship that supplies and supports submarines.USS LCS(L)(3)-102
USS LCS(L)(3)-102 is an LCS(L)(3)-1 Class Landing Craft Support ship built for the United States Navy during World War II. The vessel was completed near the end of the war and saw brief service during the Battle of Okinawa. After the war, LCS(L)(3)-102 served in China before being decommissioned in 1946 and then transferred to Japan in mid-1953. Serving under the name JDS Himawari, the vessel remained in Japan until mid-1966 when she was transferred to Thailand, becoming the HTMS Nakha. In 2007, after being retired, the ship was returned to the United States to become a museum ship.
Now the sole remaining vessel of her class, she remains docked at the site of the former Mare Island Naval Shipyard, in Vallejo, CA.
|Fast attack craft|
|Command and support|