Land development

Land development is altering the landscape in any number of ways such as:

Spycharka DT 75
Since their invention, heavy equipment such as bulldozers have been useful for earthmoving in land development.

Economic aspects

In an economics context, land development is also sometimes advertised as land improvement or land amelioration. It refers to investments making land more usable by humans. For accounting purposes it refers to any variety of projects that increase the value of the property. Most are depreciable, but some land improvements are not able to be depreciated because a useful life cannot be determined. Home building and containment are two of the most common and the oldest types of development.

In an urban context, land development furthermore includes:

Landowner or developers on any size of project will often want to maximise profits, minimise risk and control cash flow. This "profit enhancement" means identifying and developing the best scheme for the local marketplace, whilst satisfying the local planning process.

Development Analysis puts development prospects and the development process itself under the microscope, identifying where enhancements and improvements can be introduced. These improvements aim to align with best design practice, political sensitivities, and the inevitable social requirements of a project, with the overarching objective of increasing land values and profit margins on behalf of the landowner or developer.[1]

Stonefields Development Still Very Raw I

a

Stonefields Development Still Very Raw III

b

Stonefields Residential Subdivision Akld

c

Development analysis can add significantly to the value of land and development, and as such is a crucial tool for landowners and developers. It is an essential step in Kevin A. Lynch's 1960 book The Image of the City, and is considered to be essential to realizing the value potential of land.[2] The landowner can share in additional planning gain (significant value uplift) via an awareness of the land's development potential. This is done via a residual development appraisal or residual valuation. The residual appraisal calculates the sale value of the end product (the Gross Development Value, or GDV), and hypothetically deducts costs, including planning and construction costs, finance costs and developer's profit. The "residue", or leftover proportion, represents the land value. Therefore, in maximising the GDV (that which one could build on the land), land value is concurrently enhanced.

Land value is highly sensitive to supply and demand (for the end product), build costs, planning and affordable housing contributions, and so on. Understanding the intricacies of the development system and the effect of "value drivers" can result in massive differences in the landowner's sale value.

Conversion of landforms

Land development puts more emphasis on the expected economic development as a result of the process; "land conversion" tries to focus on the general physical and biological aspects of the land use change. "Land improvement" in the economic sense can often lead to land degradation from the ecological perspective. Land development and the change in land value does not usually take into account changes in the ecology of the developed area. While conversion of (rural) land with a vegetation carpet to building land may result in a rise in economic growth and rising land prices, the irreversibility of lost flora and fauna because of habitat destruction, the loss of ecosystem services and resulting decline in environmental value is only considered a priori in environmental full-cost accounting.

Conversion to building land

Motorway construction in Ireland
Motorway construction in Ireland

Conversion to building land is as a rule associated with road building, which in itself already brings topsoil abrasion,[3] soil compaction[4] and modification of the soil's chemical composition through soil stabilization, creation of impervious surfaces and, subsequently, (polluted) surface runoff water.

Varvarin - Building construction (USACE project)
Building construction

Construction activity often effectively seals off a larger part of the soil from rainfall and the nutrient cycle, so that the soil below buildings and roads is effectively "consumed" and made infertile.

With the notable exception of attempts at rooftop gardening and hanging gardens in green buildings (possibly as constituents of green urbanism), vegetative cover of higher plants is lost to concrete and asphalt surfaces, complementary interspersed garden and park areas notwithstanding.

Conversion to farmland

Soy forest
In Argentina and Bolivia, the Chaco thorn forest (A) is being felled at a rate considered among the highest in the world (B), to give way to soybean cultivation (C)

New creation of farmland (or 'agricultural land conversion') will rely on the conversion and development of previous forests, savannas or grassland. Recreation of farmland from wasteland, deserts or previous impervious surfaces is considerably less frequent because of the degraded or missing fertile soil in the latter. Starting from forests, land is made arable by assarting or slash-and-burn. Agricultural development furthermore includes:

Oil palm and rainforest fragment Borneo
Oil palm plantation and rainforest fragment on Borneo

Because the newly created farmland is more prone to erosion than soil stabilized by tree roots, such a conversion may mean irreversible crossing of an ecological threshold.

The resulting deforestation is also not easily compensated for by reforestation or afforestation. This is because plantations of other trees as a means for water conservation and protection against wind erosion (shelterbelts), as a rule, lack the biodiversity of the lost forest, especially when realized as monocultures.[5][6][7][8] Also, soil stabilization and erosion control measures may not be as effective in preserving topsoil as the previous intact vegetation.

Restoration

Massive land conversion without proper consideration of ecological and geological consequences may lead to disastrous results, such as:

While deleterious effects can be particularly visible when land is developed for industrial or mining usage, agro-industrial and settlement use can also have a massive and sometimes irreversible impact on the affected ecosystem.

Examples of land restoration/land rehabilitation counted as land development in the strict sense are still rare. However, renaturation, reforestation, stream restoration may all contribute to a healthier environment and quality of life, especially in densely populated regions. The same is true for planned vegetation like parks and gardens, but restoration plays a particular role, because it reverses previous conversions to built and agricultural areas.

See also

References

  1. ^ Johnson, David E. (2008). "4. Marketing Studies and Market Considerations". Fundamentals of Land Development. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780471778936.
  2. ^ Lynch, Kevin (1960). The Image of the City. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. OL 5795447M.
  3. ^ Top soil is removed from the new road bed (Video). Dayton, TN: Bryan College. 2009-09-03.
  4. ^ Urban Soil Compaction (PDF) (Report). Soil Quality – Urban Technical Note No. 2. Auburn, AL: U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service, Soil Quality Instsitute. March 2000.
  5. ^ Wilson, Sarah Jane (2014-08-14). "Not All Forests Are Created Equal: Reforesting the Tropics for People, Biodiversity, and Carbon". The Equation (Blog). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Union of Concerned Scientists.
  6. ^ Boucher, Doug (June 2011). The Root of the Problem: What's Driving tropical Deforestation today? (PDF) (Report). Tropical Forest and Climate Initiative. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Union of Concerned Scientists. p. 85.
  7. ^ "Monocultures". Barcelona, Spain: Carbon Trade Watch. Retrieved 2016-08-28.
  8. ^ Brockerhoff, E.G.; Jactel, H.; Parrotta, J.; Quine, C.P.; Sayer, J. (2008-04-09). "Plantation forests and biodiversity: oxymoron or opportunity?". Biodiversity and Conservation. 17 (5): 925–951. doi:10.1007/s10531-008-9380-x.
  • R.J. Oosterbaan, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, Wageningen, The Netherlands. "Improvement of waterlogged and saline soils." Free downloads of software and articles on land drainage.
  • Kone, D. Linda (2006). Land Development (10th ed.). Washington, D.C.: National Association of Home Builders. ISBN 9780867186093.
  • Dewberry & Davis (2008). Land Development Handbook (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 9780071640930.
Bandar Tun Razak, Jengka

Bandar Tun Razak, Jengka formerly known as Bandar Pusat Jengka or Jengka Town Centre is a main town in Maran District, Pahang, Malaysia.

Bandar Tun Razak is the centre of the Jengka Triangle which is known as FELDA Jengka. The Jengka Triangle (Malay: Segitiga Jengka), which is the largest FELDA settlement in Malaysia, is one of the successful Malaysian government's project to eradicate poverty among its citizen.

FELDA Lok Heng

FELDA Lok Heng is a settlement town in Kota Tinggi District, Johor, Malaysia.

FELDA Soeharto

FELDA Soeharto or Kampung Soeharto is a small town and major FELDA settlement in Hulu Selangor, Selangor, Malaysia. It was named in honor of the former Indonesian president Soeharto, who visited this village in 1977, twelve years after the 1962-1966 Malaysian-Indonesian Confrontation.

FELDA Taib Andak

FELDA Taib Andak or Kampung Taib Andak is a settlement in Kulai District, Johor, Malaysia. It is the earliest FELDA settlement in Johor, opened in 1960. This small town is located about 6 km from Kulai town. FELDA Taib Andak is easily accessible via Jalan Kulai-Kota Tinggi.

The FELDA settlement was named after the name of the second chairman of FELDA, Tan Sri Taib Andak.

The chief leader of this village is YBhg Tuan Haji Mohd Hanafiah bin Haji Hussain since 2001.

FELDA Waha

FELDA Waha is a settlement town in Kota Tinggi District, Johor, Malaysia.

Federal Land Development Authority

The Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA; Malay: Lembaga Kemajuan Tanah Persekutuan) is a Malaysian government agency that was founded to handle the resettlement of rural poor into newly developed areas and to organise smallholder farms growing cash crops. Since the 1990s, it has not established new settlements, but has engaged in a diversified range of economic development and business activities.

FELDA has launched a number of private corporate entities. The largest of these, FGV Holdings Berhad, is considered to be the world's largest plantation operator, with 811,140 hectares (2,004,400 acres) of oil palms, mainly across Peninsular Malaysia, but also including other parts of Malaysia and the world.

Henderson Land Development

Henderson Land Development Co. Ltd. (Chinese: 恒基兆業地產有限公司) is a listed property company based in Hong Kong and a constituent of the Hang Seng Index. The company's principal activities are property development and investment, project management, construction, hotel operation, department store operation, finance, investment holding and infrastructure. It is the third largest Hong Kong real estate developer by market capitalisation. The company is controlled by Dr Lee Shau Kee, who speaks for approximately 70.17% of the share capital as at June 2015.

Jalan FELDA Besout

Jalan FELDA Besout, Federal Route 1154, is a Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) road in Perak, Malaysia. The Kilometre Zero is located at Terolak.

At most sections, the Federal Route 1154 was built under the JKR R5 road standard, allowing maximum speed limit of up to 90 km/h.

Jalan FELDA Gedangsa

Federal Route 1207, or Jalan FELDA Gedangsa, is a Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) federal road in Selangor, Malaysia.

The Kilometre Zero is located at Jalan Sabak Bernam-Hulu Selangor.

At most sections, the Federal Route 1207 was built under the JKR R5 road standard, allowing maximum speed limit of up to 90 km/h.

Kolour Tsuen Wan

KOLOUR‧Tsuen Wan (Chinese: 荃灣千色匯) is a private housing estate and shopping mall in Tsuen Wan Town, New Territories, Hong Kong. Its phase 1 (Previous named as Tsuen Wan City Landmark I, Chinese: 荃灣城市中心I, opened in 1996) and phase 2 (Previous named as Tsuen Wan City Landmark II Chinese: 荃灣城市中心II or Tsuen Wan Town Square Chinese: 荃灣城市廣場, opened in 1989) are located at Chung On Street and Castle Peak Road respectively, and they were developed by Henderson Land Development.The shopping mall in phase 1 and 2 covers the total area of 330,000 square feet (31,000 m2). Two phases are connected by air-conditioned pedestrian footbridge. The largest tenant of the shopping mall is Citistore Tsuen Wan Branch, which has been regarded as one of the landmarks in Tsuen Wan Town Centre. Citistore is also the subsidiary of Henderson Land Development.

Malaysia Federal Route 1409

Federal Route 1409, or Jalan FELDA Waha, is a Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) federal road in Johor, Malaysia.

Kilometre Zero is located at the Jalan Sedili (Federal Route 99) junction.

At most sections, Federal Route 1409 was built under the JKR R5 road standard, allowing maximum speed limit of up to 90 km/h (56 mph).

Metro Harbour View

Metro Harbour View (Chinese: 港灣豪庭; Jyutping: gong2 waan1 hou4 ting4) is a private housing estate at the intersection of Tai Kok Tsui Road (Chinese: 大角咀道) and Fuk Lee Street (Chinese: 福利街) in Tai Kok Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong, within walking distance to the MTR Olympic Station.Formerly the Yaumati Ferry shipyard and HYFCO Industrial Building in Tai Kok Tsui, it was jointly developed by Henderson Land Development and Hong Kong Ferry (Holdings) Company Limited in 2003. The development consists of 10 blocks of residential buildings into 2 phases, divided into 3,520 residential units, plus a 2-storey commercial arcade and about 1,100 car parking spaces.

Ministry of Lands and Parliamentary Reforms

The Ministry of Lands and Parliamentary Reforms is the central government ministry of Sri Lanka responsible for land and parliamentary reforms. The ministry is responsible for formulating and implementing national policy on lands and other subjects which come under its purview. The current Minister of Lands and Parliamentary Reforms and State Minister of Lands are Gayantha Karunatileka and T. B. Ekanayake respectively. The ministry's secretary is I. H. K. Mahanama.

Rail Land Development Authority

The Rail Land Development Authority {हिन्दी: रेल भूमि विकास प्राधिकरण} (RLDA) is an Indian government authority for the development of unused railway land. The Indian Planning Commission has estimated a requirement of Rs 2,0272 billion (US$494 billion) as investment in infrastructure during the Eleventh Plan period. Of this, the requirement for Railways is anticipated as Rs 2800 billion (including Rs 300 billion only for the Dedicated Freight Corridor). As much as Rs 2324 billion (83%) of this requirement is expected to be met by investment from the public sector. RLDA has a 49% equity share in Indian Railway Stations Development Corporation.

The need for considerable increase in internal generation of resources for such investment had been realised by the Indian Railways for some time. However, focused efforts in this direction commenced in 2001 when the idea of setting up a special purpose vehicle to generate non-tariff revenues through commercial exploitation of railway land took shape. The efforts culminated in the setting up of the Rail Land Development Authority on 1 November 2006.

Real estate development

Real estate development, or property development, is a business process, encompassing activities that range from the renovation and re-lease of existing buildings to the purchase of raw land and the sale of developed land or parcels to others. Real estate developers are the people and companies who coordinate all of these activities, converting ideas from paper to real property. Real estate development is different from construction, although many developers also manage the construction process.

Developers buy land, finance real estate deals, build or have builders build projects, create, imagine, control, and orchestrate the process of development from the beginning to end. Developers usually take the greatest risk in the creation or renovation of real estate—and receive the greatest rewards. Typically, developers purchase a tract of land, determine the marketing of the property, develop the building program and design, obtain the necessary public approval and financing, build the structures, and rent out, manage, and ultimately sell it.Sometimes property developers will only undertake part of the process. For example, some developers source a property and get the plans and permits approved before selling the property with the plans and permits to a builder at a premium price. Alternatively, a developer that is also a builder may purchase a property with the plans and permits in place so that they do not have the risk of failing to obtain planning approval and can start construction on the development immediately.

Developers work with many different counterparts along each step of this process, including architects, city planners, engineers, surveyors, inspectors, contractors, lawyers, leasing agents, etc. In the Town and Country Planning context in the United Kingdom, 'development' is defined in the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 s55.

Shatin Centre

Shatin Centre (Chinese: 沙田中心) is one of the main private housing estates in Sha Tin Town Centre, Sha Tin District, New Territories, Hong Kong, which is near New Town Plaza Phase I, Lucky Plaza and Sha Tin Plaza. It comprises 8 high-rise buildings and a shopping arcade, developed by Henderson Land Development in 1981. The address for Sha Tin Centre is 2-16 Wang Pok Street.

Shatin Plaza

Shatin Plaza (Chinese: 沙田廣場) is one of the main private housing estates in Sha Tin Town Centre, Sha Tin District, New Territories, Hong Kong, which is near New Town Plaza Phase I, Lucky Plaza and Sha Tin Centre. Formerly Sha Tin Hui Bus Terminus (Chinese: 沙田墟巴士總站), it comprises 4 high-rise buildings and a shopping arcade, developed by Henderson Land Development in 1988. Shatin MTR station is the main station to interchange from Shatin Plaza (New Town Plaza)

Skyline Plaza (Hong Kong)

Skyline Plaza (Chinese: 灣景廣場) is a private housing estate and shopping mall in Tsuen Wan, New Territories, Hong Kong. It is close to the Tsuen Wan Town Hall, Tsuen Wan Ferry Pier, Nina Tower and MTR Tsuen Wan West Station. It was developed by the Henderson Land Development in 1995.

Urban Renewal Authority

The Urban Renewal Authority (URA) is a quasi-governmental, profit-making statutory body in Hong Kong responsible for accelerating urban redevelopment.

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