Land's End

Land's End[1] (Cornish: Penn an Wlas or Pedn an Wlas)[2] is a headland and holiday complex in western Cornwall, England, UK. It is the most westerly point of mainland Cornwall and England, situated within the Penwith peninsula about eight miles (13 km) west-south-west of Penzance at the western end of the A30 road.[3] To the east of it is the English Channel, and to the west the Celtic Sea.

Land's End
  • Cornish: Penn an Wlas / Pedn an Wlas
Lands End UK

Rocky shorelines at Land's End
Land's End is located in Cornwall
Land's End
Land's End
Location within Cornwall
OS grid referenceSW 34177 25339
Unitary authority
Ceremonial county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Dialling code01736
PoliceDevon and Cornwall
FireCornwall
AmbulanceSouth Western
EU ParliamentSouth West England
UK Parliament

Geography

The actual Land’s End or Peal Point, is a modest headland compared with nearby headlands such as Pedn-men-dhu overlooking Sennen Cove and Pordenack, to the south. The present hotel and tourist complex is at Carn Kez, 200 m south of the actual Land’s End.[4] Land's End has a particular resonance because it is often used to suggest distance. Land's End to John o' Groats in Scotland is a distance of 838 miles (1,349 km) by road and this Land's End to John o' Groats distance is often used to define charitable events such as end-to-end walks and races in the UK. Land's End to the northernmost point of England is a distance of 556 miles (895 km) by road.[5]

Land's End is a popular venue for rock climbers.[6]

The Longships, a group of rocky islets are just over 1 mile (1.6 km) offshore, and together with the Seven Stones Reef and the Isles of Scilly which lie about 28 miles (45 km) southwest — are part of the mythical lost land of Lyonesse, referred to in Arthurian literature.

The area around Land's End has been designated part of an Important Plant Area, by the organisation Plantlife, for rare species of flora.[7]

Geology

The cliffs are made of granite, an igneous rock, which means that the cliffs will be more resistant to weathering, and will have steeper cliff faces. There are two varieties of granite represented at Land's End. Adjacent to the hotel the granite is coarse-grained with large phenocrysts of orthoclase, sometimes more than 5 in (13 cm) in length. To the north, at the First and Last House, there is a finer grained granite with fewer and smaller phenocrysts, and the different granites can be seen from a distance by the smoother weathering of the finer variety. The granite dates to 268–275 million years ago of the Permian period.[8] The contact zone between the Land's End granite pluton and the altered ″country rocks″ is nearby and the Longships Lighthouse, offshore, is built on the country rock.[8]

History

In 1769, the antiquarian William Borlase wrote:

Of this time we are to understand what Edward I. says (Sheringham. p. 129.) that Britain, Wales, and Cornwall, were the portion of Belinus, elder son of Dunwallo, and that that part of the Island, afterwards called England, was divided in three shares, viz. Britain, which reached from the Tweed, Westward, as far as the river Ex; Wales inclosed by the rivers Severn, and Dee; and Cornwall from the river Ex to the Land's-End.

Tourists have been visiting Land’s End for over three hundred years. In 1649, an early visitor was the poet John Taylor, who was hoping to find subscribers for his new book Wanderings to see the Wonders of the West.[9] In 1878 people left Penzance by horse-drawn vehicles from outside the Queens and Union hotels and travelled via St Buryan and Treen, to see the Logan Rock. There was a short stop to look at Porthcurno and the Eastern Telegraph Company followed by refreshments at the First and Last Inn in Sennen. They then headed for Land’s End, often on foot or horse, because of the uneven and muddy lanes. Over one hundred people could be at Land's End at any one time.[10] At Carn Kez, the First and Last Inn owned a small house which looked after the horses while visitors roamed the cliffs. The house at Carn Kez developed into the present hotel.[4] The earliest part of the house was damaged by the Luftwaffe when a plane returning from a raid on Cardiff jettisoned its remaining bombs. 53 fisherman were injured or killed. In the build-up to D-Day American troops were billeted in the hotel leaving the building in a bad state.

Lands end map1946
A 1946 map of Land's End

Land's End was owned by a Cornish family until 1982, when it was sold to David Goldstone. In 1987, Peter de Savary outbid the National Trust to purchase Land’s End for almost £7 million from David Goldstone.[11] He had two new buildings erected and much of the present theme park development was instigated by him. He sold both Land's End and John o' Groats to businessman Graham Ferguson Lacey in 1991.[12] The current owners purchased Land's End in 1996 and formed a company named Heritage Great Britain PLC. Attractions at the theme park include children's playgrounds and recorded music. Twice a week in August, Land's End hosts 'Magic in the Skies', a night-time firework spectacular with music by British composer Christopher Bond and narrated by actress Miriam Margolyes. Within the complex is the Land's End Hotel.[13]

In May 2012, Land's End received worldwide publicity as the starting point of the 2012 Summer Olympics torch relay.[14]

End to end

Land's End is either the start or finishing point of end to end journeys with John o'Groats in Scotland. One of the earliest was by Carlisle who left Land's End on 23 September 1879, went to John O'Groats House and arrived back at Land's End on 15 December; taking 72 days (exclusive of Sundays); covering 3,899 miles (6,275 km). To prove his journey, he kept a log book which was stamped at any Post Office he passed.[15] An early end to end on bicycle was completed by Messrs Blackwell and Harman of Canonbury Bicycle Club. Starting at Land's End they covered 900 miles (1,400 km) in thirteen days in July/August 1880.[16] Nearly two years later the Hon I Keith-Falconer travelled 994 miles (1,600 km). from Land's End, in twelve days, 23¼ hours, on a bicycle.[17]

Greeb

On the south side of Carn Kez the land slopes away to a shallow valley containing a small stream and the former Greeb Farm. In 1879 a derrick was used for hauling seaweed from the beach 40 feet below; for use as a soil improver.[18]

Gallery

Land's End, Cornwall, England

Cliffs at Land's End

Lands-End-Village

The tourist centre at Land's End

Lands End Tourist Centre

The tourist centre at Land's End

Lands-End

The Longships lighthouse off Land's End

Land's End (looking south)

Looking south from Land's End

Land's End (looking west)

Looking west from Land's End

Land's End (looking north)

Looking north from Land's End

Signpost at Land's End

Signpost at Land's End

See also

External links

  • "Land's End" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 16 (11th ed.). 1911.

References

  1. ^ "Cornwall Council adds apostrophe to Land's End". BBC News. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  2. ^ An English-Cornish Glossary in the Standard Written Form (gives both Penn an Wlas and Pedn an Wlas)
  3. ^ Ordnance Survey: Landranger map sheet 203 Land's End ISBN 978-0-319-23148-7
  4. ^ a b Neave-Hill, Charles (1975). Land's End My Heritage.
  5. ^ Wood, Royston. "Route Guide". Lands End to John O'Groats On-line Cycling Guide. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  6. ^ "Land's End". UKC. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  7. ^ "Land's End". Plantlife. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
  8. ^ a b Hall, A (1994). Second (ed.). Geologist's Association Guide No. 19. West Cornwall. London:: Geologists' Association. p. 50. ISBN 0 900717 57 2.
  9. ^ "Hospitality Of The Godolphins Two Centuries Ago". The Cornishman (169). 6 October 1881. p. 7.
  10. ^ "Notes in West Cornwall". The Cornishman (10). 19 September 1878. p. 6.
  11. ^ "1987: Millionaire's big plans for English landmark". BBC. 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2011. Land's End in Cornwall has been sold for nearly £7m to the property tycoon, Peter de Savary.
  12. ^ "1987: Millionaire's big plans for English landmark". BBC. 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2011. Peter de Savary sold both Land's End and John o'Groats in 1991 for an undisclosed sum to businessman Graham Ferguson Lacey.
  13. ^ Clegg, David (2005) Cornwall & the Isles of Scilly; 2nd ed. Leicester: Matador; pp. 123–24
  14. ^ "Olympic torch: Flame arrives at Land's End". BBC News. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
  15. ^ "Carlisle Finishes His Pedestrian Tour". The Cornishman (75). 18 December 1879. p. 5.
  16. ^ "Penzance". The Cornishman (108). 5 August 1880. p. 4.
  17. ^ "A Run (Sometimes A Struggle) On A Bicycle From Land's End To John O' Groats House". The Cornishman (207 (197)). 29 June 1882. p. 6.
  18. ^ "Terrible Fall Over Cliffs Near The Land's End And Instant Death". The Cornishman (52). 10 July 1879. p. 5.

'

A30 road

The A30 is a major road in England, running WSW from London to Land's End. It is 284 miles (457 km) long.

The length of the road was a principal axis in Britain from the 17th century to early 19th century, when it was a major coaching route. It used to provide the fastest route from London to the South West by land until a century before roads were numbered; nowadays much of this function is performed by the M3 (including A316) and A303 roads. The road has kept its principal status in the west from Honiton, Devon to Land's End where it is mainly dual carriageway and retains trunk road status.

Bandstand Promenade

The Bandstand Promenade, also known as Bandra Bandstand is a 1.2 kilometer long walkway along the sea on the western coast of Mumbai, India in the neighborhood of Bandra. It is simultaneously a popular hangout spot, a jogging track and a park.Towards the Land's End side of the promenade is an amphitheater. It serves as a venue for the Mumbai Festival, Celebrate Bandra and other events including concerts, classical dance and other performances. The 'Artist's Court' is another performance venue built into the promenade that witnesses public Jam sessions on Sundays.

Isles of Scilly Skybus

Isles of Scilly Skybus is a British airline which operates year-round scheduled services to the Isles of Scilly from Land's End Airport and Newquay Airport in Cornwall, and seasonal scheduled services from Exeter. Their head office is located in the Isles of Scilly Travel Centre in Penzance, Cornwall.Isles of Scilly Skybus Limited holds a United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority Type B Operating Licence; it is permitted to carry passengers, cargo and mail on aircraft with fewer than 20 seats and/or weighing less than 10 tonnes.The airline is owned by the Isles of Scilly Steamship Company. The parent company operates shipping services to the Isles of Scilly in its own name, and also owns Westward Airways.

John o' Groats

John o' Groats (Scottish Gaelic: Taigh Iain Ghròt) is a village 2.5 miles (4 km) NE of the village of Canisbay, Caithness, in the far north of Scotland. John o' Groats lies on Great Britain's northeastern tip, and is popular with tourists as one end of the longest distance between two inhabited British points on the mainland, with Land's End in Cornwall lying 876 miles (1,410 km) to the southwest. It is not the most northerly point on the island of Britain (nearby Dunnet Head is farther north).

John o' Groats is 690 miles (1,110 km) from London, 280 miles (450 km) from Edinburgh, 6 miles (9.7 km) from the Orkney Isles and 2,200 miles (3,500 km) from the North Pole. It is 4.25 miles (6.84 km) from the uninhabited island of Stroma.

A passenger ferry operates from John o' Groats to Burwick on South Ronaldsay in Orkney.

Land's End (TV series)

Land's End is an American crime drama series that aired in broadcast syndication from September 1995 to May 1996. A total of 22 one-hour episodes were produced. The series was created by the series' star Fred Dryer and Victor A. Schiro.

Land's End (album)

Land's End is the fifth album by American singer-songwriter Jimmy Webb, released in 1974 by Asylum Records.

Land's End Airport

Land's End Airport (IATA: LEQ, ICAO: EGHC), situated near St Just in Penwith, 5 NM (9.3 km; 5.8 mi) west of Penzance, in Cornwall, is the most south westerly airport of mainland Britain. The airport is owned by the Isles of Scilly Steamship Company (ISSC). ISSC's subsidiary Land's End Airport Limited operates the airport, and another subsidiary, Isles of Scilly Skybus, operates a regular passenger service to St Mary's in the Isles of Scilly as well as scenic flights around west Penwith.

The airport has a CAA Private Use Aerodrome Licence (Number P568) that allows flights for the public transport of passengers or for flying instruction for daytime use only as authorised by the licensee Lands End Airport Limited.

Land's End Wildlife Management Area

Land's End Wildlife Management Area is a 462-acre (187 ha) Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in southeastern King George County, Virginia. The site is a mixture of open farmland, woodland, and wetland, and comprises two separate tracts: The 50-acre (20 ha) Salem Church Tract, and the 412-acre (167 ha) Land's End Tract. The area is bordered on two sides by the Rappahannock River and on one by Jett's Creek, and is primarily managed as a refuge for migrating waterfowl; Canada geese can often be seen in the winter feeding on fields of corn, milo, and winter wheat in the area, and resting in the nearby Nanzatico Bay. Among the other species often seen on the property are bald eagles, deer, wild turkey, and songbirds.The area was the site of much interaction between the Nanzatico Tribe and English settlers during the seventeenth century. It was established as a WMA by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries in 1966, and was nominated for inclusion in the Virginia Landmarks Register and National Register of Historic Places in 1972.Land's End WMA is open to the public, however as a dedicated refuge, hunting is not permitted. Hiking and wildlife viewing are permitted on the property. Access for persons 17 years of age or older requires a valid hunting or fishing permit, or a WMA access permit.

Land's End to John o' Groats

Land's End to John o' Groats is the traversal of the whole length of the island of Great Britain between two extremities, in the southwest and northeast. The traditional distance by road is 874 miles (1,407 km) and takes most cyclists 10 to 14 days; the record for running the route is nine days. Off-road walkers typically walk about 1,200 miles (1,900 km) and take two or three months for the expedition. Two much-photographed signposts indicate the traditional distance at each end.

Land's End is the traditionally acknowledged extreme southern point of mainland England. It is in western Cornwall at the end of the Penwith peninsula. The O.S. Grid Reference of the road end is SW342250, Post Code TR19 7AA. In fact it, or strictly speaking Dr Syntax's Head, SW341253, a few hundred yards NW of the road end, is mainland England's most westerly point. The most southerly point is Lizard Point, about 9 miles (14 km) further south. Land's End is sometimes reckoned incorrectly as mainland England's most southwesterly point. This accolade belongs to Gwennap Head, SW365215, which is at least 2 miles (3.2 km) further south than Dr Syntax's Head but only about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) less west.

John o' Groats is the traditionally acknowledged extreme northern point of mainland Scotland, in northeastern Caithness, O.S. Grid Reference ND380735, Post Code KW1 4YR. The actual northernmost point is Dunnet Head about 2 miles (3 km) further north. The point that is farthest by road from Land's End is Duncansby Head, about 2 miles (3 km) east of John o' Groats. Duncansby Head is also the most northeasterly point of the Scottish mainland.The straight-line distance from Land's End to John o' Groats is 603 miles (970 km) as determined from O.S. Grid References, but such a route passes over a series of stretches of water in the Irish Sea. Google Earth reports a distance of 602.70 miles between the two iconic marker points.

According to a 1964 road atlas, the shortest route using classified roads was 847 miles (1,363 km) but in a 2008 road atlas, the shortest route using classified roads was 838 miles (1,349 km). An online route planner in 2011 also calculated the quickest route by road as 838 miles (1,349 km), estimating a time of 15 hours 48 minutes for the journey (this uses the A30, M5, M6, A74(M), M74, M73, M80, M9, A9 & A99) but the overall shortest route by road, using minor roads in numerous places and utilising modern bridges, is only about 814 miles (1,310 km). This route is roughly as follows: Land's End, Bodmin, Okehampton, Tiverton, Taunton, Bridgwater, the M5 Avon Bridge, the M48 Severn Bridge, Monmouth, Hereford, Shrewsbury, Tarporley, St Helens, Preston, Carlisle, Beattock, Carstairs, Whitburn, Falkirk, Stirling, Crieff, Kenmore, Dalchalloch, A9, Inverness, Kessock Bridge, Cromarty Bridge, Dornoch Firth Bridge, Latheron, Wick, John o' Groats.

Google Maps, on 2 August 2017, calculated the fastest route by car, from the Land's End Visitor Centre to John o' Groats as being 837 miles and taking 14 hours 40 minutes. It also showed a walking route of 811 miles, which it suggested would take 268 hours, and involve an elevation gain of 30,148 ft and an elevation fall of 30,272 ft.

Lands' End

Lands' End is an American clothing and home decor retailer founded in 1963 and based in Dodgeville, Wisconsin, that specializes in casual clothing, luggage, and home furnishings. The majority of the company's business is conducted through mail order and Internet sales, but the company also has retail stores, primarily in the Upper Midwest, along with international shops in the UK, Germany, Japan, France and Austria. From 2002 to 2014, Lands' End was a subsidiary of Sears Holdings.

MV RMS Mulheim

The RMS Mülheim was a German cargo ship that was built in Romania and launched in May 1999. It was wrecked on 22 March 2003 at Land's End, United Kingdom.

Maen Castle

Maen Castle is an Iron Age promontory fort or 'cliff castle' close to Land's End in Cornwall. It is one of only two fortified sites in Cornwall where Early Iron Age pottery has been found. Excavations took place in 1939 and 1948-9 and about 300 sherds were unearthed.

The defences comprise a stone rampart, ditch and counterscarp bank built across the neck of the headland, with almost sheer cliffs on two sides and a steep slope on the third. There are some indications that the site may have been occupied before these defences were constructed.

Monument Valley (video game)

Monument Valley is an indie puzzle game developed and published by Ustwo Games. The player leads the princess Ida through mazes of optical illusions and impossible objects while manipulating the world around her to reach various platforms. Monument Valley was developed over ten months beginning in early 2013 based on concept drawings by company artist Ken Wong. Its visual style was inspired by Japanese prints, minimalist sculpture, and indie games Windosill, Fez, and Sword & Sworcery, and was compared by critics to M. C. Escher drawings and Echochrome. The art was designed such that each frame would be worthy of public display. After a closed beta test, it was released for iOS on April 3, 2014, and was later ported to Android and Windows Phone. The game received generally favorable reviews. Critics praised its art and sound design, but noted its lack of difficulty and short length. It won a 2014 Apple Design Award, was named Apple's best iPad game of 2014, and sold over two million copies by January 2015; by May 2016, sales of the game exceeded 26 million.

A sequel, Monument Valley 2, was released for both iOS and Android in June and November 2017, respectively.

National Cycle Route 3

National Cycle Route 3 (or NCR 3) is a route of the National Cycle Network, running from Bristol to Land's End.

Penwith

Penwith (; Cornish: Pennwydh) is an area of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom, located on the peninsula of the same name. It is also the name of a former local government district, whose council was based in Penzance. The area is named after one of the ancient administrative hundreds of Cornwall which derives from two Cornish words, penn meaning 'headland' and wydh meaning 'at the end'.

Natural England have designated the peninsula as national character area 156 and named it West Penwith. It is also known as the Land's End Peninsula.

St Mary's Airport, Isles of Scilly

St Mary's Airport or Isles of Scilly Airport (IATA: ISC, ICAO: EGHE) is an airport located 1 nautical mile (1.9 km; 1.2 mi) east of Hugh Town on St Mary's in the Isles of Scilly, to the south west of Cornwall, UK. It is the only airport serving the Isles of Scilly, handling all air traffic to and from the Islands. The airport is owned by the Duchy of Cornwall and currently is operated by the Council of the Isles of Scilly.

Wolf Rock Lighthouse

Wolf Rock Lighthouse is on the Wolf Rock (Cornish: An Welv, meaning the lip), a single rock located 18 nautical miles (33 km; 21 mi) east of St Mary's, Isles of Scilly and 8 nautical miles (15 km; 9.2 mi) southwest of Land's End, in Cornwall, England. The fissures in the rock produce a howling sound in gales, hence the name.The lighthouse is 41 metres (135 ft) in height and is constructed from Cornish granite prepared at Penzance, on the mainland of Cornwall. It took eight years, from 1861 to 1869, to build due to the treacherous weather conditions that can occur between Cornwall and Scilly. The light can be seen from Land's End by day and night, and is almost exactly halfway between the Lizard and the Isles of Scilly. It has a range of 23 nautical miles (43 km; 26 mi) and was automated in 1988. The lighthouse was the first in the world to be fitted with a helipad.

Headlands of Cornwall

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