Lancia

Lancia (Italian: [ˈlantʃa]) is an Italian automobile manufacturer founded in 1906 by Vincenzo Lancia as Lancia & C.. It became part of the Fiat Group in 1969; the current company, Lancia Automobiles, was established in 2007.

The company has a strong rally heritage and is noted for using letters of the Greek alphabet for its model names.

Lancia vehicles are no longer sold outside Italy and comprise only the Ypsilon supermini range, as the late Fiat CEO Sergio Marchionne foreshadowed in January 2014 until his death in 2018.[1]

Lancia Automobiles
Formerly
Lancia & C. Fabbrica Automobili
Società per azioni
IndustryAutomotive
Founded29 November 1906
FounderVincenzo Lancia
HeadquartersTurin, Italy
Key people
John Elkann (President)
Saad Chehab (CEO of Lancia and Chrysler brand)
Antonella Bruno (CEO of Lancia since 23 April 2013)
ProductsCars, Electric vehicles
Production output
Decrease 60,620 (2017)
OwnerFiat Chrysler Automobiles
ParentFCA Italy
Websitelancia.com
Grattacielo uffici Lancia
Lancia ex skyscraper

History

2006 SAG - Lancia Beta Torpedo 1520 HP 1909 -03
Lancia Beta Torpedo (1909)
Lancia production
1990–2017[2]
Year Cars
1990 300,087
1991 265,172
1992 223,127
1993 163,636
1994 163,535
1995 162,416
1996 159,251
1997 176,211
1998 175,215
1999 161,019
2000 170,348
2001 134,812
2002 110,529
2003 108,989
2004 118,201
2005 115,543
2006 122,956
2007 118,036
2008 113,307
2009 113,810
2010 97,757
2011 100,007
2012 98,733
2013 71,223
2014 69,835
2015 61,652
2016 67,059
2017 60,620

Foundation and early years

Lancia & C. Fabbrica Automobili was founded on 29 November 1906 in Turin by Fiat racing drivers, Vincenzo Lancia (1881-1937) and his friend, Claudio Fogolin (1872-1945). The first car manufactured by Lancia was the "Tipo 51" or "12 HP" (later called "Alfa"), which remained in production from 1907 to 1908. It had a small four-cylinder engine with a power output of 28 PS (21 kW; 28 hp).[3]

In 1910, Lancia components were exported to the United States where they were assembled and sold as SGVs by the SGV Company.[4] In 1915, Lancia also manufactured its first truck, the Jota that continued as a dedicated series. In 1937, Vincenzo died of a heart attack and both his wife, Adele Miglietti Lancia, and his son, Gianni Lancia, took over control of the company. They persuaded Vittorio Jano to join as an engineer. Jano had already made a name for himself by designing various Alfa Romeo models, including some of its most successful race cars ever such as the 6C, P2 and P3.

LanciaBorgoSanPaolo009
The former Lancia Borgo San Paolo Plant in Turin, where Lancia automobiles were first produced

Lancia is renowned in the automotive world for introducing cars with numerous innovations. These include the Theta of 1913, which was the first European production car to feature a complete electrical system as standard equipment.[5] Lancia's first car adopting a monocoque chassis – the Lambda produced from 1922 to 1931 - featured 'Sliding Pillar' independent front suspension that incorporated the spring and hydraulic damper into a single unit (a feature that would be employed in subsequent Lancia's, up to the Appia that was replaced in 1963). 1948 saw the first 5 speed gearbox to be fitted to a production car (Series 3 Ardea). Lancia premiered the first full-production V6 engine, in the 1950 Aurelia,[6] after earlier industry-leading experiments with V8 and V12 engine configurations. It was also the first manufacturer to produce a V4 engine. Other innovations involved the use of independent suspension in production cars (in an era where live axles were common practice for both the front and rear axles of a car) and rear transaxles, which were first fitted to the Aurelia and Flaminia range. This drive for innovation, constant quest for excellence, fixation of quality, complex construction processes and antiqued production machinery meant that all cars essentially had to be hand-made. With little commonality between the various models, the cost of production continued to increase extensively, while no increase in demand eventually affecting Lancia's viability.

Gianni Lancia, a graduate engineer, was president of Lancia from 1947 to 1955. In 1956 the Pesenti family took over control of Lancia with Carlo Pesenti (1907–1984) in charge of the company.[7]

1969 to present

LanciaBorgoSanPaolo0001
Entrance of the former Lancia Borgo San Paolo Plant in Turin, repurposed as a civic center

Fiat launched a take-over bid in October 1969 which was accepted by Lancia as the company was losing significant sums of money, with losses in 1969 being GB£20m.[8] This was not the end of the distinctive Lancia marque, and new models in the 1970s such as the Stratos, Gamma and Beta served to prove that Fiat wished to preserve the image of the brand it had acquired.

During the 1970s and 1980s, Lancia had great success in rallying, winning many World Rally Championships.

During the 1980s, the company cooperated with Saab Automobile, with the Lancia Delta being sold as the Saab 600 in Sweden. The 1985 Lancia Thema also shared a platform with the Saab 9000, Fiat Croma and the Alfa Romeo 164. During the 1990s, all models were closely related to other Fiat models.

Starting from 1 February 2007, Fiat's automotive operations were reorganised.[9] Fiat Auto became Fiat Group Automobiles S.p.A., Fiat S.p.A.'s branch handling mainstream automotive production. Simultaneously the current company, Lancia Automobiles S.p.A., was created from the pre-existing brand, and controlled 100% by FGA.[9] In 2011, Lancia moved in a new direction and added new models manufactured by Chrysler and sold under the Lancia badge in many European markets. Conversely, Lancia built models began to be sold in right-hand drive markets under the Chrysler badge. In 2015 Lancia's parent company Fiat Group Automobiles S.p.A. became FCA Italy S.p.A., reflecting the earlier incorporation of Fiat S.p.A. into Fiat Chrysler Automobiles.

LogoLancia1907
1907 Lancia radiator script
Hood Ornament, Kemble Air Show 2009 (3643975857)
1929–1957 Lancia logo
LogoLancia1974
1974–2000 Lancia logo
1907

From 1907 to 1910 Lancia cars didn't bear a true badge, but rather a brass plaque identifying the manufacturer (Lancia & C.) and chassis code; although some models did have a brass Lancia script on the grille.[10]

1911

The original Lancia logo was designed by Count Carlo Biscaretti di Ruffia. In 1910 Vincenzo Lancia asked Biscaretti di Ruffia to design a badge for the company; the Count submitted six watercolour proposal sketches. Vincenzo Lancia chose a round one, composed by a blue lance and flag bearing a Lancia script ("Lancia" means "lance" in Italian) in gold, over a four-spoke steering wheel, with a hand throttle detail on the right spoke.[10] The first car to bear the Lancia logo was the Gamma 20 HP in 1911.[10]

1929

In 1929 the logo acquired its final layout: the previous round badge was superimposed on a blue shield in the shape of a Reuleaux triangle (as found in one of Biscaretti di Ruffia's six original proposals).[10] Though first applied on the 1929 Dikappa, this badge was only used consintently starting with the 1936 Aprilia.[10]

1957

Beginning with the 1957 Flaminia, Lancia cars switched from the traditional vertical split grille to an horizontal, full-width one. The logo was therefore moved inside the grille opening, and changed to a more stylized chromed metal open-work design; shield and steering wheel became chrome frames, the only remaining enameled surface being the blue field of the flag. This new metal logo was used on most models with some exceptions, namely Zagato-bodied Lancia Fulvias and Flavias, the Lancia 2000 Berlina (which reprised the traditional upright grille and the round enameled badge) and the Stratos HF (whose ornaments lacked the triangular shield).

1974

In 1974 the badge was redesigned on Gianni Agnelli's request;[10] it went back to a modernised silver, white and blue version of the 1929 design. Flag and lance were unified in a single shape and dispensed with the earlier minute detailing, the Lancia letters became all of the same size, and the steering wheel became also outlined in blue and lost the hand throttle detail. This logo debuted on the 1979 Lancia Delta,[10] and made its way on the other models as they adopted the split grille introduced by the Delta. Though lightly revised in 2000 with the addition of a chrome shield surround, the 1974 logo was used through four decades, up to 2006.

2007

The current logo, designed by Robilant Associati, was presented at the 2007 Geneva Motor Show—a couple of months after the creation of Lancia Automobiles.[10] While the traditional chrome-framed blue shield has been retained and made three-dimensional, for the first time since 1911 lance and flag are absent; the steering wheel has been stylized into a chromed circle, from which two spikes converge towards the modern Lancia logotype in the centre.

Lancia family

VittorioJano-GianniLancia
Vittorio Jano and Gianni Lancia

Cavalier Giuseppe Lancia (1860 (Cuneo) - 1919 (Bordighera)) was an Italian businessman and father of Vincenzo Lancia. When he was sixteen he started a business with food in Italy. Later, for a few years, he made relationships with South America and he created a food industry in Argentina. His efforts and innovations made his company a great success. His company was one of the first food companies in the country and showed new methods in this sector. When he made a fortune he returned to Italy. By his education Giuseppe is a translator. In 1875, he married Marianna Orazzi. In 1876, their first son Giovanni was born. In 1879 their daughter Margherita was born. Unfortunately, she died in 1894. In 1881 their third child Vincenzo Lancia was born. Their second daughter, Anna Maria (later Anna-Maria-Giacobinni), was born in 1884. The Lancia family at that time was important for Turin. The members of the family liked to go on opera and theatre. In their free time. the Lancias spend their time at a villa near Turin.

Vincenzo Lancia was born on 24 of August 1881 in Fobello near Turin. His father wanted Vincenzo to be a lawyer, but didn't have much interest in the humanities. He met the Battista brothers as well as Giovanni Ceirano and became interested in science and technology, especially automobiles. He saw his first cars in Turin and Milan. One of his friends Carlo Bishareti di Ruffia had a Benz and that was the first important automobile in his life. When FIAT was founded in 1899 Vincenzo was very active in the company and later became one of the most famous test drivers of Italian automobile brands. In 1922, Vincenzo married his secretary - Adele Miglietti. Vincenzo and Adele had three children Gianni, Eleonora and Maria. He died on February 15, 1937.

Gianni Lancia was born on 24 November 1924 in Turin. He finished his education with his sisters at the Technical University of Pisa. From the time he was a little boy Gianni loved sports, but his greatest passion was motor racing. This led him to become a driver for the Lancia team. Gianni became the boss of Lancia in 1950. Unfortunately, he invested a lot of money in expensive prototypes and other unprofitable ventures that led him to sell a big part of the company to Carlo Pesenti in 1957. After that he started a business in the food industry. For a few years he lived in Brazil. He had two sons, Mariele and Vincenzo from his first marriage and had one son (Lorenzo Lancia) from his marriage to Jacqueline Sassard. He died on 30 June 2014.

Automotive

Current car models

Lancia Ypsilon

The Ypsilon is a premium 5-door supermini car produced since 2011. It is based on an updated Fiat 500 platform. Available for sale in various European markets, for the United Kingdom and Ireland it was only sold as the Chrysler Ypsilon.[11]

Past car models

Other models

The Lancia Aurelia introduced the front engine rear transmission configuration later used by Ferrari, Alfa Romeo, Porsche, GM, and Maserati, as well as the V6 engine, which is now common. It also had inboard rear brakes, an important way of reducing un-sprung weight.

The Lancia Stratos was a successful rally car during the 1970s and helped the company to improve its sporting credentials.

The Lancia Thema executive car was a re-branded second generation Chrysler 300 unveiled in 2011 to replace the Thesis. It re–used the name of the Italian made 1984–94 Thema saloon. Previously available in various European markets, for the United Kingdom and Ireland it was only sold as the Chrysler 300C. It has since been discontinued in 2015.

The Lancia Voyager was a large MPV unveiled in 2011, which was based on the Chrysler Town & Country. It was marketed in various European markets, but for the United Kingdom and Ireland it was only sold as the Chrysler Grand Voyager. It has since been discontinued in 2015.

Concept cars

Lancia has shown several concept cars to the public including the Flaminia Loratmo (1958), Stratos Zero (1970), the Megagamma by Italdesign Giugiaro and Sibilo by Bertone in 1978, Hit (1988) by Pininfarina, the Bertone designed Kayak (1995), the Dialogos (1998) and Nea in 2000.[12] More recently the company has shown the Granturismo Stilnovo and Fulvia.[13] concepts in 2003.

Special cars

In the end of 1957, Lancia made their first limousine for the President of Italy, called the Lancia Florida.
In 1989, Lancia made a limousine version of the Thema.
In 1999, Lancia made a limousine version of the Kappa and at the 2004 Geneva Motor Show, Stola showed a limousine version of the Thesis.

Export markets

In January 2014, in an interview with La Repubblica, Fiat CEO Sergio Marchionne foreshadowed that Lancia would become an Italy–only brand, and focus only on the Ypsilon supermini range.[1]

United States

While some models had been imported on a small scale during the 1950s to the 1960s, Lancias were officially sold in the United States from 1975. Sales were comparatively slow, and the range was withdrawn at the same time as Fiat in 1982.

In 2009, following Fiat's acquisition of a stake in United States-based Chrysler and part of Chrysler's restructuring plans, it was stated that Fiat plans for the Chrysler brand and Lancia to co–develop products, with some vehicles being shared. Olivier Francois, Lancia's CEO, took over as CEO of the Chrysler division in October 2009. Fiat has also announced that, depending on the market, some Chrysler cars would be sold as Lancias and vice versa.

Francois' plans to re establish the Chrysler brand as an upscale brand were somewhat muddied by the discontinuance of the Plymouth brand.[14] At the 2010 Detroit Auto Show, a Chrysler badged Lancia Delta was on display,[15] but this did not result in sales in the United States, with proposals to instead modify an Alfa Romeo for sale by 2013.[16]

United Kingdom

Lancia's reputation was significantly undermined in 1980, when defective Lancia Beta models, suffering from significant suspension sub-frame corrosion problems, were purchased back from owners by the company in a highly publicised campaign. These cars were subsequently crushed.[17] The brand never recovered from the damage inflicted during the Beta recall and, combined with a range of related factors (including poor residual values, which made their range uncompetitive), decided to withdraw from the right hand drive market in February 1994.[18] The last model be sold in the United Kingdom was the Delta, boosted by its rallying reputation, withdrawn from sale in 1995.

After 1995, there were continuous rumours suggesting Lancia's return to the United Kingdom. In November 2005, What Car? reported rumours over the alleged return, to rival "affordable" premium makes, such as Saab and Volvo.[19] In September 2006, What Car? reported that Lancia were officially returning to the United Kingdom.[20] The relaunch date was set for August 2008. In April 2008, Car reported that Lancia had postponed the relaunch.[21] In June 2009, Autocar reported that the relaunch of Lancia was now “very unlikely”.[22]

These were credible since Lancia models, by that time, shared common parts with Fiat and Alfa Romeo models that were imported, sold and maintained by an existing dealership network. The cost to reestablish the brand were therefore minimal. In December 2008, however, Fiat cancelled relaunch plans, due to financial concerns coinciding with the global financial crisis, and the recession.[23]

In 2011, Lancia Ypsilon and Delta models were eventually re introduced to the United Kingdom, but were re branded as Chrysler. In January 2014, the Delta model was dropped from this line up. In March 2015, Fiat Group announced that the Chrysler brand would be discontinued in the United Kingdom in 2017, citing a desire to focus largely on the Jeep brand instead.[24]

Japan

A small number of Lancia models were previously sold in Japan, such as Fulvia, Stratos and Delta. More recently, some models have been sold under the Chrysler brand, such as the Ypsilon.

Lancia in motorsport

Formula One

After Vincenzo Lancia's son Gianni became director of the firm, it started to take part more frequently in motorsport, eventually deciding to build a Grand Prix car. Vittorio Jano was the new designer for Lancia and his Lancia D50 was entered into the 1954 Spanish Grand Prix, where Alberto Ascari took the pole position and drove the fastest lap. In the 1955 Monaco Grand Prix Ascari crashed into the harbour after missing a chicane. One week later Ascari was killed in an accident driving a Ferrari sports car at Monza. With Ascari's death and Lancia's financial problems the company withdrew from Grand Prix racing.[25] Altogether Lancia took two victories and ten podiums in Formula One.[26]

Remnants of the Lancia team were transferred to Scuderia Ferrari,[27] where Juan Manuel Fangio won the 1956 championship with a Lancia-Ferrari car.

Rallying

Lancia has been very successful in motorsport over the years, and mostly in the arena of rallying. Prior to the forming of the World Rally Championship, Lancia took the final International Championship for Manufacturers title with the Fulvia in 1972. In the WRC, they remain the most statistically successful marque (despite having withdrawn at the end of the 1993 season), winning constructors' titles with the Stratos (1974, 1975 and 1976), the 037 (1983) and the Delta (six consecutive wins from 1987 to 1992). The Delta is also the most successful individual model designation ever to compete in rallying. All this gave Lancia a total of 11 Championships over the years.

Juha Kankkunen and Miki Biasion both won two drivers' titles with the Delta. Among other drivers to take several World Rally Championship wins with Lancia were Markku Alén, Didier Auriol, Sandro Munari, Bernard Darniche, Walter Röhrl, Björn Waldegård and Henri Toivonen. The history of the brand in rallying is also tainted with tragedy, with deaths of Italian driver Attilio Bettega at the 1985 Tour de Corse in a Lancia 037 and then Finnish championship favourite Toivonen in a Lancia Delta S4 at the same rally exactly a year later. These deaths would eventually lead to the end of Group B rallying.

Mille miglia

Lancia Aurelia B20GT came second in the 1951. The car was driven by Thornley Kelham.[28].

Sports car racing

In 1953, Lancia introduced the D24 sports racer, which was an evolution of D23 model, but rebodied as a spider by Pininfarina. Its most significant victories were: the 1953 Carrera Panamericana, the 1954 Mille Miglia and the 1954 Targa Florio.

2006FOS 1982LanciaLC1Martini
A Lancia LC1 Group 6 sports car

During Lancia's dominance of rallying, the company also expanded into sports cars in the late 1970s until the mid-1980s. Originally running the Stratos HF in Group 4, as well as a brief interlude with a rare Group 5 version, the car was replaced with the successful Beta Montecarlo Turbo winning the FIA's 1980 World Championship for Makes and 1981 World Endurance Championship for Makes and the 1980 Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft.

Lancia LC2 Front
A Lancia LC2 sports car

In 1982 the team moved up to Group 6 with the LC1 Spyder, followed by the Group C LC2 coupé which featured a Ferrari powerplant in 1983. The LC2 was a match for the standard-setting Porsche 956 in terms of raw speed, securing 13 pole positions over its lifetime, however its results were hampered by poor reliability and fuel economy and it only managed to win three European and World Endurance Championship races. The team's inability to compete against the dominant Porsche 956 and 962 sports cars led it to drop out of sportscar racing at the end of 1986 in order to concentrate on rallying, although private teams continued to enter LC2s with declining results until the early 1990s.

Titles

Commercial vehicles

Lancia produced a wide range of vans, trucks, buses and military vehicles from the beginning, forming Lancia Veicoli Industriali in 1912. Lancia slowly withdrew from the commercial sectors during the late 1960s and production of commercial vehicles ended in the early 1970s, shortly after Fiat's takeover of the company, with some models transferred to Iveco.

Light commercial vehicles

Heavy commercial vehicles

Lancia Triota 1921
Lancia Triota 1921
Lancia Esadelta C
Lancia Esadelta C
Lancia Esagamma E front3
Lancia Esagamma E
Athens-trolley-1981
Lancia trolleybus in Athens
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-105-13A, Ungarn, deutscher Rückzug
Lancia 3RO military truck

Buses

Trolleybuses

Military vehicles

An Italian 90-53 gun on a truck mounting joining the rows of derelict Axis vehicles and equipment jettisoned by Rommel's army
  • 1912 Lancia 1Z (light truck)
  • 1912 Lancia 1ZM (armoured car)
  • 1938 Lancia 3Ro (truck)
  • 1942 Lancia Esaro (truck)
  • 1942 Lancia Lince (armoured car)
  • 1948 Lancia Esatau 6RoM (truck)
  • 1951 Lancia CL51 (Z 20) (troop transporter)
  • 1954 Lancia TL51 (Z 30) (truck)
  • 1960 Lancia 506 (truck)
  • 1975 Lancia ACL 75 (6611 M) (truck)
  • 1990 Lancia ACL 90 (truck, later Iveco) (truck)

Tractor

  • 1947 Lancia 3Ro (based on Fiat)

Other

Engines

Lancia Flavia Flat four (Boxer) engine (26097832230)
Lancia Flavia Flat four

The company has previously made a number of industrial engines.

Media and sponsorship

Lancia Stratos HF 01
Two Lancia Stratos side by side

In 2009, the British motoring television show Top Gear suggested that Lancia had more 'great' models than any other car company.[29] The presenters went on to test the Gamma Coupé, Fulvia Coupé, Aprilia, Montecarlo, Beta Coupé, HPE, Stratos, 037, Delta Integrale Evo II and Thema 8.32. They also stated during their review that Lancia made the best looking cars, even though they are unreliable.

Lancia sponsored the Venice Film Festival for five years, ending in 2012, with the Lancia Thema used to transport stars to the festival.[30] Lancia was sponsor of ninth and eleventh World Summit of Nobel Peace Prize Laureates.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Marchionne: "Ecco il futuro della Fiat"". La Repubblica (in Italian). 9 January 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  2. ^ "Lancia production between 1990–2009". oica.net. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  3. ^ Vorgers, Marc. "Lancia history". classicargarage.com. Archived from the original on 5 September 2008. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
  4. ^ "Car here negotiating with leading dealers". The Washington Times. October 25, 1910. p. 13. Retrieved June 12, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  5. ^ "Innovation The First Models". lancia.com. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
  6. ^ 1980; page 2 of: www.ritzsite.nl/Lancia/02_LanciaCC.htm, accessdate: 14. June 2016
  7. ^ Tatra87. "Automotive History: Italian Deadly Sins (Part 3) – The Many Sins Of Lancia". www.curbsideclassic.com. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  8. ^ "Lancia loss was £20m". The Times. 30 April 1970. p. 24.
  9. ^ a b "Fiat auto cambia nome - Sarà "Automobiles group"". lastampa.it. 24 January 2007. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h "Un nuovo marchio per le sfide del futuro". lanciapress.com (in Italian). Lancia Automobiles S.p.A. 6 March 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  11. ^ "Chrysler UK website". Chrysler.co.uk. Archived from the original on 19 October 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  12. ^ "Lancia Nea". Car and Driver. September 2000. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
  13. ^ "Lancia Fulvia is coming". Autocar. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
  14. ^ "Lancia, Chrysler to share products". leftlanenews.com. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
  15. ^ Gall, Jared (January 2010). "Chrysler Delta Concept - Auto Shows". Car and Driver. Archived from the original on 15 January 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
  16. ^ "Caught Testing: 2013 Chrysler 100 - Spy Shots". Road & Track. 6 February 2012. Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
  17. ^ Hunston, Hugh (10 April 1980). "Lancia buy back rust-hit Betas". The Glasgow Herald. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  18. ^ English, Andrew (28 Jun 2011). "Chrysler Ypsilon review". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  19. ^ "Lancia tipped for return to UK". What Car?. 29 November 2005. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  20. ^ "Lancia to re-enter UK in 2008". What Car?. 5 September 2006. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  21. ^ Foxall, James (11 April 2008). "Lancia postpones UK launch". carmagazine.co.uk. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  22. ^ "Lancia UK launch 'very unlikely'". autocar.co.uk. 29 June 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
  23. ^ "Fiat cancels Lancia's UK return". What Car?. 8 December 2008. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
  24. ^ "Chrysler brand to be axed in the UK in 2017". What Car?. 17 March 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  25. ^ "Formula One timeline". atlasf1.autosport.com. Retrieved 27 June 2007.
  26. ^ "Lancia Formula 1 Team". 4mula1.ro. Retrieved 27 June 2007.
  27. ^ "Lancia D50". ddavid.com. Retrieved 27 June 2007.
  28. ^ "1951 ex-Mille Miglia, ex-Le Mans, Lancia Aurelia B20GT » Thornley Kelham". www.thornleykelham.com. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  29. ^ "Top Gear Loves Lancia part 1". topgear.com. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  30. ^ "Maserati to take over role of Lancia at Film Festival of Venice". Auto Edizione. 29 July 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.

External links

Chrysler 300

The Chrysler 300 is a rear-wheel-drive, front-engine, full-sized luxury car manufactured and marketed by FCA US (and its predecessor companies) as a four-door sedan and station wagon in its first generation (model years 2005–2010) and solely as a four-door sedan in its second and current generation (model years 2011–present). The second generation 300 was marketed as the Chrysler 300C in the United Kingdom and Ireland and as the Lancia Thema in the remainder of Europe.

European Rally Championship

The European Rally Championship (officially FIA European Rally Championship) is an automobile rally competition held annually on the European continent and organized by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).

The championship has been organized since 1953 and have disputed in different European countries, alternating between rallies on asphalt and gravel. It was the first supranational rally championship that was organized in the world and therefore the oldest one. In 2012 it had 60 editions and in 2013 its was renewed with the merger with the Intercontinental Rally Challenge.

Eurovans

The Eurovans are a family of large MPVs from the Citroën, Peugeot, Fiat and Lancia marques that were produced at the jointly owned Sevel Nord factory in France. The term Eurovan was not used by the brands themselves in sales literature, but rather by the motoring press to refer to the vans collectively. It was launched in March 1994, and production ceased in November 2010 for the Fiat and Lancia models, and in June 2014 for the Citroën and Peugeot siblings.The Eurovans differ little technically and visually, being a prime example of badge engineering. They share mechanicals and body structure with the Sevel Nord light commercial vans, the Citroën Jumpy (Dispatch), Fiat Scudo and Peugeot Expert.The first generation Eurovans were marketed as the Citroën Evasion, Fiat Ulysse, Lancia Zeta and Peugeot 806. The second generation models were all renamed, except the Fiat Ulysse, with the nameplates now Citroën C8, Lancia Phedra and Peugeot 807.

Jolly Club

Jolly Club was an Italian racing team, which competed in the World Rally Championship and Formula One, it was mainly connected to brands like Lancia and Alfa Romeo. It was created in 1957 in Milan by idea of Mario Angiolini,

the team won several championships. The team's main sponsor was Totip so the cars used orange and green colors on their livery until the World Rally Championship 1996.

Gianfranco Cunico won the Italian Rally Championship driving escort cosworths in 94,95,96,the 95&96 cars were built by Malcolm Wilson Motorsport to be run by Jolly Club and sponsored by Martini, one of the most famous teams in the world with one of the most famous sponsors ensured victory

Lancia Beta

The Lancia Beta (Type 828) was an entry-level luxury car produced by Italian car manufacturer Lancia from 1972 to 1984. It was the first new model introduced by Lancia after it had been taken over by Fiat in 1969.

The Beta was made in several body styles, namely 4-door fastback saloon (Beta berlina), 4-door three-box, notchback saloon (Beta Trevi), 2-door coupé (Beta Coupé), 2-door targa (Beta Spider), 3-door estate (Beta HPE); a mid-engined sports car was also sold under the Beta name, the Lancia Beta Montecarlo.

Lancia D50

The Lancia D50 was a Formula One racing car designed by Vittorio Jano for Lancia in 1954. The car's design made use of many innovative features, such as the use of the engine as a stressed chassis member, the off-centre positioning of the engine to allow a lower overall height, and pannier fuel cells for better weight distribution and aerodynamics. Six of the cars were built, and two of them are displayed in Italian museums.

Lancia Delta

The Lancia Delta is a small family car produced by Italian automobile manufacturer Lancia in three generations. The first generation produced between 1979 and 1994, the second generation from 1993 to 1999, and the third generation from 2008 to 2014.

The Delta was first shown at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 1979. The Delta dominated the World Rally Championship during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The homologation requirements of Group A regulations meant marketing road-going versions of these competition cars — the Lancia Delta HF 4WD and HF Integrale. A total of 44,296 Integrales were produced.

Lancia Delta S4

The Lancia Delta S4 is a Group B rally car manufactured by the Italian car company Lancia. The Delta S4 competed in the World Rally Championship in 1985 and 1986, until Group B class was disbanded and the cars were eventually banned from competition completely by European sanctioning body FIA. The car replaced, and was an evolution of the 037. The S4 took full advantage of the Group B regulations, and featured a midship-mounted engine and all-wheel drive for superior traction on loose surfaces.

Lancia Fulvia

The Lancia Fulvia (Tipo 818) is an automobile produced by Lancia between 1963 and 1976. Named after Via Fulvia, the Roman road leading from Tortona to Torino, it was introduced at the Geneva Motor Show in 1963 and manufactured in three variants: Berlina 4-door saloon, 2-door Coupé, and Sport, an alternative fastback coupé designed and built by Zagato on the Coupé floorpan.

Fulvias are notable for their role in motorsport history, including winning the International Rally Championship in 1972. On testing a Fulvia in 1967, Road & Track summed it up as "a precision motorcar, an engineering tour de force".

Lancia LC2

The Lancia LC2 (sometimes referred to as the Lancia-Ferrari) was a series of racing cars built by Italian automobile manufacturer Lancia and powered by engines built by their sister company Ferrari. They were part of Lancia's official factory-backed effort in the World Sportscar Championship from 1983 to 1986, although they continued to be used by privateer teams until 1991. They were also the company's first car meeting the FIA's new Group C regulations for sports prototypes.More powerful than their primary competition, the Porsche 956s, the LC2s were able to secure multiple pole positions during their three and a half seasons with the factory Martini Racing squad. However, deficiencies in reliability and fuel consumption hampered the LC2s' efforts for race wins against the Porsches. LC2s earned three race victories over their lifetimes in the hands of Italian drivers Teo Fabi, Riccardo Patrese, Alessandro Nannini, and Mauro Baldi, as well as German Hans Heyer and Frenchman Bob Wollek.

Lancia Montecarlo

The Lancia Montecarlo (Type 137) is a Pininfarina-designed mid-engined sports car which was produced by Lancia in Italy from 1975 to 1981.

Cars from the first series, which were produced from 1975 to 1978, were known as Lancia Beta Montecarlos and those from the second series, produced from 1980 to 1981, simply as Lancia Montecarlos. In both cases Montecarlo was spelled as one word, unlike Monte Carlo in the Principality of Monaco. Both series were offered in Coupé and Spider versions, the latter featuring a unique roll-back manually operated targa style convertible top. The Spider was sold in the United States as the Lancia Scorpion during 1976 and 1977.

Total production numbers come to 7,798 units, with production spanning from 1974 until 1982 with an interruption in 1979. 3,558 first series and 817 second series targas were built; 2,080 first series and 1,123 second series coupés. There were also 220 competition models built (Lancia 037).

Lancia Rally 037

The Lancia Rally (Tipo 151, also known as the Lancia Rally 037, Lancia 037 or Lancia-Abarth #037 from its Abarth project code SE037) was a mid-engine sports car and rally car built by Lancia in the early 1980s to compete in the FIA Group B World Rally Championship. Driven by Markku Alén, Attilio Bettega, and Walter Röhrl, the car won Lancia the manufacturers' world championship in the 1983 season. It was the last rear-wheel drive car to win the WRC.

Lancia Stratos

The Lancia Stratos HF (Tipo 829), widely and more simply known as Lancia Stratos, is a sports car and rally car made by Italian car manufacturer Lancia. The HF stands for High Fidelity. It was a very successful rally car, winning the World Rally Championship in 1974, 1975 and 1976.

Lancia Thema

The Lancia Thema (Type 834) is an executive car produced by the Italian automaker Lancia between 1984 and 1994, and one of four cars to share the Type Four platform alongside the Alfa Romeo 164, Fiat Croma and Saab 9000. The Thema was first shown in Turin Motor Show in 1984.

In February 2011, it was reported that the second generation of the Chrysler 300C, due for launch later that year, would be marketed as Lancia Thema in all European markets, except the UK and Ireland, which would retain the 300C nameplate.

Lancia Ypsilon

The Lancia Ypsilon is a supermini manufactured by Italian automaker Lancia now in its third generation and as of 2014 is the marque's only vehicle offered for sale. The Ypsilon was released in 1995. It is the replacement of the Y10 and is larger and more expensive. Between 1995 and 2005 Lancia produced more than 870,000 Ypsilons in the Melfi plant in the Potenza region.The third generation Ypsilon, sharing its platform with the Fiat 500, was marketed also as the Chrysler Ypsilon in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Japan. Fiat Group discontinued Chrysler in 2017, having marketed 2,000 units in 2014. It is also no longer sold in Japan. With the discontinuation of both the Lancia Voyager and Lancia Thema branding on Chrysler-built vehicles in 2015, the Ypsilon is the sole vehicle offered by Lancia, and it is available primarily in the domestic Italian market.

Martini Racing

Martini Racing is the name under which various motor racing teams race when sponsored by the Italian company Martini & Rossi, a distillery that produces Martini vermouth in Turin. Martini's sponsorship program began in 1958 as Martini International Club, founded by Count Metello Rossi di Montelera of Martini & Rossi. The race cars are marked with the distinctive dark blue, light blue and red stripes on white, red or silver background body cars. The car model which has won the most titles for Martini Racing is the Lancia Delta HF Integrale.

Monte Carlo Rally

The Monte Carlo Rally or Rallye Monte Carlo (officially Rallye Automobile de Monte-Carlo) is a rallying event organised each year by the Automobile Club de Monaco which also organises the Formula One Monaco Grand Prix and the Rallye Monte-Carlo Historique. The rally now takes place along the French Riviera in the Principality of Monaco and southeast France. Previously, competitors would set off from all four corners of Europe and ‘rally’, in other words, meet, in Monaco to celebrate the end of a unique event. From its inception in 1911 by Prince Albert I it was an important means of demonstrating improvements and innovations to automobiles.

Pininfarina

Pininfarina S.p.A. (short for Carrozzeria Pininfarina) is an Italian car design firm and coachbuilder, with headquarters in Cambiano, (Metropolitan City of Turin), Italy. It was founded by Battista "Pinin" Farina in 1930. On 14 December 2015, Mahindra Group acquired Pininfarina S.p.A. for about €168 million.Pininfarina is employed by a wide variety of automobile manufacturers to design vehicles. These firms have included long-established customers such as Ferrari, Alfa Romeo, Peugeot, Fiat, GM, Lancia, and Maserati, to emerging companies in the Asian market with Chinese manufactures like AviChina, Chery, Changfeng, Brilliance, and JAC and VinFast in Vietnam and Korean manufacturers Daewoo and Hyundai.

Since the 1980s Pininfarina has also designed high-speed trains, buses, trams, rolling stocks, automated light rail cars, people movers, yachts, airplanes, and private jets. With the 1986 creation of "Pininfarina Extra" it has consulted on industrial design, interior design, architecture, and graphic design.

Pininfarina was run by Battista's son Sergio Pininfarina until 2001, then his grandson Andrea Pininfarina until his death in 2008. After Andrea's death, his younger brother Paolo Pininfarina was appointed as CEO.At its height in 2006 the Pininfarina Group employed 2,768 with subsidiary company offices throughout Europe, as well as in Morocco and the United States. As of 2012 with the end of series automotive production, employment has shrunk to 821. Pininfarina is registered and publicly traded on the Borsa Italiana (Milan Stock Exchange).

World Rally Championship

The World Rally Championship (WRC) is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver, co-driver and manufacturer. The driver's world championship and manufacturer's world championship are separate championships, but based on the same point system. The series currently consists of 14 three-day events driven on surfaces ranging from gravel and tarmac to snow and ice. Each rally is split into 15–25 special stages which are run against the clock on closed roads.The WRC was formed from well-known and popular international rallies, most of which had previously been part of the European Rally Championship or the International Championship for Manufacturers, and the series was first contested in 1973. The World Rally Car is the current car specification in the series. It evolved from Group A cars which replaced the banned Group B supercars. World Rally Cars are built on production 1.6-litre four-cylinder cars, but feature turbochargers, anti-lag systems, four-wheel-drive, sequential gearboxes, aerodynamic parts and other enhancements bringing the price of a WRC car to around US$1 million (€700,000 / £500,000).The WRC features three support championships, the Junior World Rally Championship (JWRC, formerly the WRC Academy), the World Rally Championship-2 (WRC 2, formerly the Super 2000 World Rally Championship), and the World Rally Championship-3 (WRC-3, formerly the Production World Rally Championship) which are contested on the same events and stages as the WRC, but with different regulations. The WRC-2, WRC-3 and junior entrants race through the stages after the WRC drivers.

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