Lānaʻi (Hawaiian: [laːˈnɐʔi, naːˈnɐʔi]) anglicized as Lanai (/ləˈnaɪ, lɑːˈnɑːi/, also US: /lɑːˈnaɪ, ləˈnɑːi/, ) is the sixth-largest of the Hawaiian Islands and the smallest publicly accessible inhabited island in the chain. It is colloquially known as the Pineapple Island because of its past as an island-wide pineapple plantation. The island's only settlement of note is the small town of Lānaʻi City. As of 2012, the island was 97% owned by Larry Ellison (Founder and Chairman of Oracle), with the remaining 3% owned by the state of Hawaiʻi and privately owned homes.
Lānaʻi is a roughly apostrophe-shaped island with a width of 18 miles (29 km) in the longest direction. The land area is 140.5 square miles (364 km2), making it the 42nd largest island in the United States. It is separated from the island of Molokaʻi by the Kalohi Channel to the north, and from Maui by the Auʻau Channel to the east. The United States Census Bureau defines Lānaʻi as Census Tract 316 of Maui County. Its total population shrank from 3,193 as of the 2000 census to 3,102 as of 2010. Many of the island's landmarks are accessible only by dirt roads that require a four-wheel drive vehicle.
There is one school, Lanai High and Elementary School, serving the entire island from kindergarten through 12th grade. There is also one hospital, Lanai Community Hospital, with 24 beds, and a community health center providing primary care, dental, behavioral health and selected specialty services in Lānaʻi City. There are no traffic lights on the island.
|Nickname: The Pineapple Isle|
Landsat satellite image of Lānaʻi
Location in the state of Hawaiʻi
|Area||140.5 sq mi (364 km2)|
|Area rank||6th largest Hawaiian Island|
|Highest elevation||3,366 ft (1,026 m)|
|Flower||Kaunaʻoa (Cuscuta sandwichiana)|
|Largest settlement||Lanai City|
|Pop. density||23 /sq mi (8.9 /km2)|
Lānaʻi was under the control of nearby Maui before recorded history. Its first inhabitants may have arrived as late as the 15th century.
The name Lānaʻi is of uncertain origin, but the island has historically been called Lānaʻi o Kauluāʻau, which can be rendered in English as "day of the conquest of Kauluāʻau." This epithet refers to the legend of a Mauian prince who was banished to Lānaʻi for some of his wild pranks at his father's court in Lāhainā. The island was reportedly haunted by Akua-ino, ghosts and goblins. Kauluāʻau chased them away and brought peace and order to the island and regained his father's favor as a consequence.
The first people to migrate here, most likely from Maui and Molokaʻi, probably established fishing villages along the coast initially but later branched out into the interior where they raised taro in the fertile volcanic soil. During most of those times, the Mōʻī of Maui held dominion over Lānaʻi, but generally left the people of Lānaʻi alone. Life on Lānaʻi remained relatively calm until King Kamehameha I or Kalaniʻōpuʻu-a-Kaiamamao took control, slaughtering people across the island. So many were killed that Captain George Vancouver ignored the island in 1792, because of its apparent lack of villages and population. It is mentioned that Lānaʻi was Kamehameha's favorite fishing spot across Hawaiʻi's main eight islands.
Lānaʻi was first seen by Europeans on February 25, 1779, when Captain Charles Clerke sighted the island from aboard James Cook's HMS Resolution. Clerke had taken command of the ship after Cook was killed at Kealakekua Bay on February 14 and was leaving the islands for the North Pacific.
The history of sugar-growing in Hawaiʻi goes back to 1802, when a farmer from China, Wong Tse Chun, produced a small amount on Lānaʻi. He used a crude stone mill that he had brought with him to crush the cane.
In 1854 a group of Mormons were granted a lease in the ahupuaʻa of Pālāwai. In 1862 Walter M. Gibson arrived on Lānaʻi to reorganize the Mormon settlement. A year later he bought the ahupuaʻa of Pālāwai for $3000 with the money of the church but put the title in his own name. When the Mormons found this out they excommunicated him but he still got to retain the land. By the 1870s, Walter M. Gibson, still the leader of the Mormon colony on the island, had acquired most of the land on the island for ranching.
By 1890 the population of Lānaʻi was reduced to 200. In 1899, Gibson's daughter and son-in-law formed Maunalei Sugar Company, headquartered in Keomuku, on the windward (northeast) coast downstream from Maunalei Valley. The company failed in 1901. Between 1899 and 1901, however, nearly 800 laborers, mostly from Japan, had been contracted for the plantations. Many Native Hawaiians continued to live along the less arid windward coast, supporting themselves by ranching and fishing.
In 1921, Charles Gay planted the first pineapple on Lānaʻi. The population had again decreased to 150, most of whom were the descendants of the traditional families of the island. A year later, James Dole, the president of Hawaiian Pineapple Company (later renamed Dole Food Company), bought the island and developed a large portion of it into the world's largest pineapple plantation.
In October 1992 the final harvest of pineapple took place on Lānaʻi.
In June 2012, Larry Ellison, then CEO of Oracle Corporation, purchased Castle & Cooke's 98 percent share of the island for $300 million. The state owns the remaining 2 percent. Ellison, who believes renewable energy must be cost-competitive with fossil fuels in order to be viable, stated intentions to invest as much as $500 million to improve the island's infrastructure and create an environmentally-friendly agricultural industry. As of 2016, Ellison had spent an estimated $450 million to remodel his Four Seasons Resort Lanai at Manele Bay, which reopened in April 2016 after a seven-month shutdown. In Lānaʻi City he built a new water filtration system and a resort-style Olympic-size public pool. He also refurbished the historic movie theater built in the 1920s but mostly shut since the 1970s, turning it into a state-of-the art movie house. His second Four Seasons Resort at Kōʻele in the mountains is currently being renovated. No action has been taken on Ellison's claimed sustainable development plans beyond the announcement in 2018 of a hydroponic farming venture, Sensei, which has not yet begun production.
According to the Hawaiian legends, man-eating spirits occupied the island before that time. For generations, Maui chiefs believed in these man-eating spirits. Differing legends say that either the prophet Lanikāula drove the spirits from the island or the unruly Maui prince Kauluāʻau accomplished that heroic feat. The more popular myth is that the mischievous Kauluāʻau pulled up every breadfruit tree (ʻulu) he could find on Maui. Finally his father, Kakaʻalaneo had to banish him to Lānaʻi, expecting him not to survive in that hostile place. However, Kauluāʻau outwitted the spirits and drove them from the island. The chief looked across the channel from Maui and saw that his son's fire continued to burn nightly on the shore, and he sent a canoe to Lānaʻi to bring the prince back, redeemed by his courage and cleverness. As a reward, Kakaʻalaneo gave Kauluāʻau control of the island and encouraged emigration from other islands. Kauluāʻau had, in the meantime, pulled up all the breadfruit trees on Lānaʻi, accounting for the historic lack of them on that island.
Lānaʻi was traditionally administered in 13 political subdivisions (Ahupuʻa), grouped into two districts (mokuoloko): kona (Leeward) and koʻolau (Windward). The ahupuaʻa are listed below, in clockwise sequence, and with original area figures in acres, starting in the northwest of the island.
Kamoku hosts the largest share of population, because the bigger part of Lānaʻi City falls into it. Parts of Lānaʻi City stretch to Kaa and Paomai. As of 2010, the remaining ahupuaʻa were virtually uninhabited. According to the census of 2000, Lānaʻi City accounts for 99 percent of the island population (3164 of 3193). As a census-designated place, Lānaʻi City is defined solely for statistical purposes, and not by administrative boundaries.
Tourism on Lānaʻi began to be prominent in more recent history as the pineapple and sugarcane industries were phased out in the islands. The number of visitors coming to the island is still relatively small, however, with around 59,000 arrivals forecast for 2016—of all the publicly accessible Hawaiian islands only Molokaʻi attracts fewer visitors.
As of 2016, the two resort hotels on Lānaʻi were managed by Four Seasons Hotels; the Four Seasons Resort Lanai in Manele Bay at Hulupoe Beach, just a few steps from where the ferry from Lāhainā docks, and the Lodge at Kōʻele in the mountains. The Hotel Lānaʻi in Lānaʻi City was built in 1923 by James Dole of the Hawaiian Pineapple Company as a lodge to house the executives overseeing the island’s pineapple production. It was the island’s only hotel until 1990.
Lānaʻi is also home to three golf courses, one at each Four Seasons resort and a third, free course.
Shipwreck Beach on the north shore of the island is so named because of the remains of a wrecked vessel aground a short distance offshore. This is popularly referred to as a WW II Liberty Ship, although it is YOGN 42, one of concrete barges built during the war.
In Lānaʻi City, there are no traffic lights, no shopping malls, and public transportation is supplied by the hotels. For a one-time fee, hotel guests enjoy unlimited rides on small and large buses that go between the hotels and the ferry landing on Manele Bay. Bicycles and off-road vehicles are for rent at the local Gas Station and Dollar Rent a Car. Most attractions outside of the hotels and town can be visited only via dirt roads that require an off-road vehicle.
At a public meeting on Lanai last year, an Ellison representative explained that his boss wasn’t drawn to the island by the potential for profits but by the potential for a great accomplishment — the satisfaction one day of having made the place work. For Ellison, it seemed, Lanai was less like an investment than like a classic car, up on blocks in the middle of the Pacific, that he had become obsessed with restoring. He wants to transform it into a premier tourist destination and what he has called “the first economically viable, 100 percent green community”: an innovative, self-sufficient dreamscape of renewable energy, electric cars and sustainable agriculture.
Four Seasons Resort Lānaʻi is a part of the Toronto-based Four Seasons chain of luxury hotels and resorts, located in Lanai, Hawaii on the island of Lānaʻi, which was once Hawaii's largest pineapple plantation. Four Seasons Resort Lānaʻi, one of four Hawaiian Four Seasons resorts, includes a golf course designed by Jack Nicklaus.Golf clubs and courses in Hawaii
There are 75 golf courses in Hawaii.Hawaiian tropical dry forests
The Hawaiian tropical dry forests are a tropical dry broadleaf forest ecoregion in the Hawaiian Islands. They cover an area of 6,600 km2 (2,500 sq mi) on the leeward side of the main islands and the summits of Niʻihau and Kahoʻolawe. These forests are either seasonal or sclerophyllous. Annual rainfall is less than 127 cm (50 in) and may be as low as 25 cm (9.8 in); the rainy season lasts from November to March. Dominant tree species include koa (Acacia koa), koaiʻa (A. koaia), ʻakoko (Euphorbia spp.), ʻōhiʻa lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha), lonomea (Sapindus oahuensis), māmane (Sophora chrysophylla), loulu (Pritchardia spp.), lama (Diospyros sandwicensis), olopua (Nestegis sandwicensis), wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis), and ʻiliahi (Santalum spp.). Endemic plant species in the dry forests include hau heleʻula (Kokia cookei), uhiuhi (Caesalpinia kavaiensis), and Gouania spp. The palila (Loxioides bailleui), a Hawaiian honeycreeper, is restricted to this type of habitat.Hawaiian tropical rainforests
The Hawaiian tropical rainforests are a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion in the Hawaiian Islands. They cover an area of 6,700 km2 (2,600 sq mi) in the windward lowlands and montane regions of the islands. Coastal mesic forests are found at elevations from sea level to 300 m (980 ft). Mixed mesic forests occur at elevations of 750 to 1,250 m (2,460 to 4,100 ft), while wet forests are found from 1,250 to 1,700 m (4,100 to 5,580 ft). Moist bogs and shrublands exist on montane plateaus and depressions. For the 28 million years of existence of the Hawaiian Islands, they have been isolated from the rest of the world by vast stretches of the Pacific Ocean, and this isolation has resulted in the evolution of an incredible diversity of endemic species, including fungi, mosses, snails, birds, and other wildlife. In the lush, moist forests high in the mountains, trees are draped with vines, orchids, ferns, and mosses. This ecoregion includes one of the world's wettest places, the slopes of Mount Waiʻaleʻale, which average 373 in (9,500 mm) of rainfall per year.Lanai (architecture)
A lanai or lānai is a type of roofed, open-sided veranda, patio or porch originating in Hawaii. Many homes, apartment buildings, hotels and restaurants in Hawaii are built with one or more lānais.Lanai Airport
Lanai Airport (IATA: LNY, ICAO: PHNY, FAA LID: LNY), also written as Lānaʻi Airport, is a state owned, public use airport located three nautical miles or about 3.4 miles (6 km) southwest of the central business district of Lanai City (Lānaʻi City), in Maui County, Hawaii. The airport began regular operations in 1930. It is the only airport serving the island of Lanai (Lānaʻi).
As per Federal Aviation Administration records, the airport had 52,075 passenger boardings (enplanements) in calendar year 2008, 42,594 enplanements in 2009, and 43,922 in 2010. It is included in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2017–2021, in which it is categorized as a non-hub primary commercial service facility.Lanai City, Hawaii
Lanai City is a census-designated place (CDP) on the island of Lanai, in Maui County, Hawaii, United States. The population was 3,102 at the 2010 census. Lanai City is the island's commercial center. Many of the island's restaurants and shops are in the town square that surrounds Dole Park, and the only hospital on the island, Lanai Community Hospital, is located near the park.Lanai City is served by Lanai Airport (LNY).Lanei Chapman
Lanei Chapman (born January 23, 1973) is an American actress. She has appeared primarily in guest appearances on episodes of various television series, and may be best known for the leading role as Lt. Vanessa Damphousse in the single 1995–96 season of the series Space: Above and Beyond.Lani Loa – The Passage
Lani Loa – The Passage is a 1998 film directed by Sherwood Hu, executive produced by Francis Ford Coppola, about a woman murdered on her wedding day in Hawaii who comes back to haunt her murderers. The film stars Angus Macfadyen, Ray Bumatai, Carlotta Chang and Chris Tashima. It was the first film from Coppola's and Wayne Wang's Chrome Dragon Films, a short-lived film company that was to specialize in utilizing Asian talent on American-financed projects. Set in Hawaii, the film was shot in Hilo, Hawaii and in China, in Hainan and Shanghai.
It screened at the San Sebastian Film Festival and the Hawaii International Film Festival (as Lani Loa: The Heavenly Passage) and has been released in Asia on VCD, as Lani-Loa (Hawaiian Ghost Story).List of bird species introduced to the Hawaiian Islands
This list of bird species introduced to the Hawaiian Islands includes only those species known to have established self-sustaining breeding populations as a direct or indirect result of human intervention. A complete list of all non-native species ever imported to the islands, including those that never became established, would be much longer. In the following list, ^ indicates a species indigenous to the Hawaiian Islands but introduced to an area or areas outside its known native range, * indicates a formerly established population that is now extirpated, and parenthetical notes describe the specific islands where each species is known to be established.
Cedar Waxwing (Maui)List of hospitals in Hawaii
This is a list of hospitals in Hawaii (U.S. state), sorted by island and hospital name.Lānaʻi hookbill
The Lānaʻi hookbill (Dysmorodrepanis munroi) is an extinct species of Hawaiian honeycreeper. It was endemic to the island of Lānaʻi in Hawaiʻi, and was last seen in the southwestern part of the island. George C. Munro collected the only known specimen of this species in 1913, which is housed in the Bernice P. Bishop Museum in Honolulu, and saw the species only twice more, once in 1916 and for a final time in 1918. No other sightings have been reported. They inhabited montane dry forests dominated by ʻakoko (Euphorbia species) and ōpuhe (Urera glabra). The Lānaʻi hookbill was monotypic within the genus Dysmorodrepanis and had no known subspecies. Its closest relative is believed to be the ʻōʻū, and some early authors suggested that the Lānaʻi hookbill was merely a deformed ʻōʻū. The Lānaʻi hookbill was a plump, medium-sized bird with greenish olive upperparts and pale whitish yellow underparts. It also had a yellow or white superciliary line and a white chin and throat. The wings also had a distinctive and conspicuous white wing patch. The hookbill's distinguishing characteristic was its heavy, parrotlike bill, which had the mandibles hooking sharply towards each other, leaving a gap between them when the beak was closed.
As the bird became extinct before significant field observations could be made, not much is known about its behavior. The Lānaʻi hookbill is only known to have eaten the fruit of the ōpuhe; however, it is unlikely that its unique bill would have developed to eat fruit, and it may have been a snail specialist. The hookbill has not been seen since 1918, and by 1940 nearly all of Lānaʻi's forests were converted into pineapple fields, destroying the bird’s habitat. The combination of habitat destruction and the introduction of feral cats and rats are thought to have led to the Lānaʻi hookbill’s extinction.Lānaʻi ʻalauahio
The Lānaʻi ʻalauahio (Paroreomyza montana montana) was found on much of the island of Lana'i in the Hawaiian archipelago. It apparently was common until the early 1900s, when there appeared to have been a steep decline in birds on the island. It was similar to the Maui alauahio and this species may have reacted similarly to its existing relative, to which it was considered conspecific. This bird was one of several to vanish from Lana'i, along with others such as the Lanai hookbill.
The extinction of this species was mainly caused by habitat degradation. Apparently the many forest plants of Lana'i had become displaced, rare or even extinct as a result of human activity. With settlers came a host of invasive plants from Europe and other continents. The nail in the coffin for the 'alauahio may have been the destruction of forest associated with the construction of the island’s main city, Lanai City.
Though not much of its natural history is known, its song was recorded to be a simple chip that was sung at an interval of one chip every three seconds. It disappeared in 1937, the same year as the ʻula-ʻai-hawane disappeared on Hawaii.Manele, Hawaii
Manele is a census-designated place (CDP) located in Maui County, Hawaii, United States, on the island of Lanai. As of the 2010 Census, the CDP had a population of 29. Manele is one of only two census-designated places on Lanai, the other being the much larger Lanai City. Manele is the site of Four Seasons Resort Lanai.
It is the least populated city in Hawaii.Molokai
Molokaʻi (Hawaiian: [ˈmoloˈkɐʔi]) anglicized as Molokai (; ), nicknamed “The Friendly Isle”, is the fifth largest island of eight major islands that make up the Hawaiian Islands archipelago in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. It is 38 by 10 miles (61 by 16 km) in size at its extreme length and width with a usable land area of 260 square miles (673.40 km2), making it the fifth-largest of the main Hawaiian Islands and the 27th largest island in the United States. It lies east of Oʻahu across the 25-mile (40 km) wide Kaiwi Channel and north of Lānaʻi, separated from it by the Kalohi Channel.
The island has been known both for developments by Molokaʻi Ranch on much of the island, for pineapple production, cattle ranching and tourism. Residents or visitors to the west end of Molokaʻi can see the lights of Honolulu on Oʻahu at night; they can view nearby Lānaʻi and Maui from anywhere along the south shore of the island. In Kalawao County, on the Kalaupapa Peninsula on the north coast, settlements were established in 1866 for quarantined treatment of persons with leprosy; these operated until 1969. The Kalaupapa National Historical Park now preserves this entire county and area.National Register of Historic Places listings in Hawaii
This is a list of properties and historic districts in Hawaii listed on the National Register of Historic Places. More than 340 listings appear on all but one of Hawaii's main islands (Niihau being the exception) and the Northwestern Islands, and in all of its five counties. Included are houses, schools, archeological sites, ships, shipwrecks and various other types of listings. These properties and districts are listed by island, beginning at the northwestern end of the chain.
This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted October 11, 2019.Olomaʻo
The olomaʻo (Myadestes lanaiensis) is a small, dark solitaire endemic to Maui, Lānaʻi and Molokaʻi in the Hawaiian Islands. It is probably extinct. It grows up to 7 inches in length. The male and female of the species look similar. It is dark brown above and gray below with blackish legs. It is closely related to the other species of Hawaiian thrushes, the puaiohi (M. palmeri), ʻōmaʻo (M. obscurus), and the probably extinct kāmaʻo (M. myadestinus).
Its song consists of a complex melody of flute-like notes, liquid warbles, and gurgling whistles. The call is a catlike rasp, with an alternate high pitched note similar to a police whistle. This bird occurs in densely vegetated gulches, frequenting the understory where it often perches motionless in a hunched posture. Like other native Hawaiian thrushes, it quivers its wings and feeds primarily on fruit and insects.
The olomaʻo is still classified as critically endangered due the possibility that an extremely small population or individuals may still exist. The last definitive sighting occurred on Molokaʻi in 1980 in the Kamakou Preserve, and in 1933 on Lānaʻi. In the late 19th century, it was considered common to abundant on the three islands, but land clearing, including the establishment and subsequent development of Lānaʻi City, and avian malaria brought on by introduced mosquitoes decimated the birds. Introduced animals such as feral pigs (which create pools from their wallows for breeding mosquitoes) also aided in its demise.Porch
A porch (from Old French porche, from Latin porticus "colonnade", from porta "passage") is a term used in architecture to describe a room or gallery located in front of the entrance of a building forming a low front, and placed in front of the facade of the building it commands. It can be defined more simply as a "projecting building that houses the entrance door of a building or as a vestibule,
The porch exists in religious architecture as well as in secular architecture and is found in different forms and structures, built from various materials around the world.The Tempest (2010 film)
The Tempest is a 2010 American film based on the play of the same name by William Shakespeare. In this version, the gender of the main character, Prospero, is changed from male to female; the role was played by Helen Mirren. The film was directed by Julie Taymor and premiered at the Venice Film Festival in September 2010.
Although The Tempest received generally unfavorable reviews from critics, Sandy Powell received her ninth Academy Award nomination for Best Costume Design.
Islands, municipalities, and communities of Maui County, Hawaii, United States
‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties
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