Lambeosaurini

Lambeosaurini, previously known as Corythosaurini, is one of four tribes of hadrosaurid ornithopods from the family Lambeosaurinae. It is defined as all lambeosaurines closer to Lambeosaurus lambei than to Parasaurolophus walkeri, Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus, or Aralosaurus tuberiferus, which define the other three tribes[1]. Members of this tribe possess a distinctive protruding cranial crest. Lambeosaurins walked the earth for a period of around 12 million years in the Late Cretaceous, though they were confined to regions of modern day North America and Asia[2].

Lambeosaurini
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 77.6–66 Ma
Lambeosaurus ROM
Mounted L. lambei skeleton, Royal Ontario Museum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Ornithischia
Suborder: Ornithopoda
Family: Hadrosauridae
Clade: Euhadrosauria
Subfamily: Lambeosaurinae
Tribe: Lambeosaurini
Prieto-Márquez et al., 2013
Type species
Lambeosaurus lambei
Parks, 1923
Genera

History of classification

The term Corythosaurini was first used by Brett-Surman in 1989, who characterized the taxon via reference to the premaxilary expansion into a hollow helmet-like cranial crest, as well as higher neural spines[2]. The clade was formally defined via phylogenetic analysis by Evans and Reisz in 2007[3], and this was confirmed by multiple other analyses[1]. In 2011, Sullivan et al. observed that by the rules of priority set by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the name of the tribe ought to be Lambeosaurini due to its containing the defining type genus (Lambeosaurus) of its superior taxon (Lambeosaurinae)[4].

Anatomy

The current articulation of Lambeosaurin anatomy is given by Prieto-Marquez et al., who characterised the tribe by the following traits:[1]

  • "Vertical groove on lateral process of premaxilla, located rostral to dorsal process of maxilla and extending ventrally from small opening between premaxillary medial and lateral processes"
  • "Vertical groove bounded rostrally by triangular ventral projection of lateral process of the premaxilla"
  • "Nasal articulation surface for frontal shaped into rostroventrally-sloping platform"
  • "Nasal vestibule folded into S-loop in enclosed premaxillary passages rostral to dorsal process of maxilla"
  • "Lateral premaxillary process extending caudodorsal to prefrontal in adults"

Lambeosaurines are classified into Lambeosaurini and Parasaurolophini based on the similarity with these characteristics or those defining Parasaurolophini. Another method of distinguishing the tribes is by the angle of the dural peak. Lambeosaurins possess a dural peak with an angle over 120°, while in parasaurolophins the angle is less than 90°[5]. The anterior semicircular canals are also taller in Parasaurolophins than Lambeosaurins[5].

Phylogeny

Prieto-Marquez' analysis (2013) yielded the following cladogram, which shows the relative positions of the four Lambeosaurine tribes[1].

 Lambeosaurinae 
Aralosaurini

Aralosaurus

Canardia

Jaxartosaurus

Tsintaosaurini

Tsintaosaurus

Pararhabdodon

Parasaurolophini

Charonosaurus

Parasaurolophus

Parasaurolophus cyrtocristatus

Parasaurolophus tubicen

Parasaurolophus walkeri

Lambeosaurini
Lambeosaurus

Lambeosaurus lambei

Lambeosaurus magnicristatus

Corythosaurus

Corythosaurus casuarius

Corythosaurus intermedius

"Hypacrosaurus" stebingeri

Hypacrosaurus

Olorotitan

Arenysaurus

Blasisaurus

Magnapaulia

Velafrons

Amurosaurus

Sahaliyania

Nipponosaurus has historically been considered to be a member of Lambeosaurini, but its position within the tribe is debated. A 2018 analysis by Takasaki et al. disputed this placement, instead placing Nipponosaurus in a clade with Arenysaurus and Blasisaurus as a sister taxa to Lambeosaurini[6].

An alternative phylogenetic analysis by Xing et al. (2017) produced the following cladogram, which similarly places Arenysaurus outside Lambeosaurini[7].

 Lambeosaurinae 

Aralosaurus

Tsintaosaurini

Tsintaosaurus

Pararhabdodon

Jaxartosaurus

Arenysaurus

Parasaurolophini

Parasaurolophus cyrtocristatus

Parasaurolophus walkeri

Charonosaurus

Parasaurolophus tubicen

Lambeosaurini

Olorotitan

Amurosaurus

Lambeosaurus

Lambeosaurus magnicristatus

Lambeosaurus lambei

Velafrons

Hypacrosaurus altispinus

Hypacrosaurus stebingeri

Corythosaurus

Corythosaurus casuarius

Corythosaurus intermedius

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Prieto-Márquez, Albert; Vecchia, Fabio M. Dalla; Gaete, Rodrigo; Galobart, Àngel (2013-07-26). "Diversity, Relationships, and Biogeography of the Lambeosaurine Dinosaurs from the European Archipelago, with Description of the New Aralosaurin Canardia garonnensis". PLOS ONE. 8 (7): e69835. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...869835P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069835. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3724916. PMID 23922815.
  2. ^ a b Brett-Surman, Michael Keith (1989-02-19). A Revision of the Hadrosauridae (Reptilia: Ornithischia) And Their Evolution (PDF) (Thesis).
  3. ^ Evans, David C.; Reisz, Robert R. (2007). "Anatomy and Relationships of Lambeosaurus magnicristatus, a Crested Hadrosaurid Dinosaur (Ornithischia) from the Dinosaur Park Formation, Alberta". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27 (2): 373–393. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2007)27[373:AAROLM]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0272-4634. JSTOR 30126306.
  4. ^ Sullivan, Robert M.; Jasinski, Steven E.; Guenther, Merrilee; Lucas, Spencer G. (2011). "The first lambeosaurin (Dinosauria, Hadrosauridae, Lambeosaurinae) from the Upper Cretaceous Ojo Alamo Formation (Naashoibito Member), San Juan Basin, New Mexico". New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 35: 405–417.
  5. ^ a b Cruzado-Caballero, P.; Fortuny, J.; Llacer, S.; Canudo, J. I. (2015-02-24). "Paleoneuroanatomy of the European lambeosaurine dinosaur Arenysaurus ardevoli". PeerJ. 3: e802. doi:10.7717/peerj.802. ISSN 2167-8359. PMC 4349051. PMID 25755931.
  6. ^ Takasaki, Ryuji; Chiba, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Currie, Philip J.; Fiorillo, Anthony R. (2018-07-04). "Reanalysis of the phylogenetic status of Nipponosaurus sachalinensis (Ornithopoda: Dinosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Southern Sakhalin". Historical Biology. 30 (5): 694–711. doi:10.1080/08912963.2017.1317766. ISSN 0891-2963.
  7. ^ Xing, Hai; Mallon, Jordan C.; Currie, Margaret L. (2017-04-06). "Supplementary cranial description of the types of Edmontosaurus regalis (Ornithischia: Hadrosauridae), with comments on the phylogenetics and biogeography of Hadrosaurinae". PLOS ONE. 12 (4): e0175253. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1275253X. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0175253. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5383305. PMID 28384240.
Aralosaurini

Aralosaurini is a tribe of basal lambeosaurine hadrosaurs endemic to Eurasia. It currently contains Aralosaurus (from the Aral sea of Kazakhstan) and Canardia (from Toulouse, Southern France).

Blasisaurus

Blasisaurus is a genus of lambeosaurine hadrosaurid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous. It is known from a partial skull and skeleton found in late Maastrichtian-age rocks of Spain. The type species is Blasisaurus canudoi, described in 2010 by Penélope Cruzado-Caballero, Xabier Pereda-Suberbiola and José Ignacio Ruiz-Omeñaca, a group of researchers from Spain.

Canardia

Canardia is an extinct genus of aralosaurin lambeosaurine dinosaur known from the Late Cretaceous Marnes d’Auzas Formation (late Maastrichtian stage) of Toulouse, Haute-Garonne Department, southern France. The type species Canardia garonnensis was first described and named by Albert Prieto-Márquez, Fabio M. Dalla Vecchia, Rodrigo Gaete and Àngel Galobart in 2013.

Elasmaria

Elasmaria is a clade of iguanodont ornithopods known from Cretaceous deposits in South America, Antarctica, and Australia.

Hadrosauridae

Hadrosaurids (Greek: ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick"), or duck-billed dinosaurs, are members of the ornithischian family Hadrosauridae. This group is known as the duck-billed dinosaurs for the flat duck-bill appearance of the bones in their snouts. The family, which includes ornithopods such as Edmontosaurus and Parasaurolophus, was a common group of herbivores during the Late Cretaceous Period in what is now Asia, Europe, Antarctica, South America, and North America. Hadrosaurids are descendants of the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous iguanodontian dinosaurs and had a similar body layout.

Like other ornithischians, hadrosaurids had a predentary bone and a pubic bone which was positioned backwards in the pelvis. Hadrosauridae is divided into two principal subfamilies: the lambeosaurines (Lambeosaurinae), which had hollow cranial crests or tubes; and the saurolophines (Saurolophinae), identified as hadrosaurines (Hadrosaurinae) in most pre-2010 works, which lacked hollow cranial crests (solid crests were present in some forms). Saurolophines tended to be bulkier than lambeosaurines. Lambeosaurines included the aralosaurins, tsintaosaurins, lambeosaurins and parasaurolophins, while saurolophines included the brachylophosaurins, kritosaurins, saurolophins and edmontosaurins.

Hadrosaurids were facultative bipeds, with the young of some species walking mostly on two legs and the adults walking mostly on four. Their jaws were evolved for grinding plants, with multiple rows of teeth replacing each other as the teeth wore down.

Huxleysaurus

Huxleysaurus (meaning "Huxley's lizard") is a genus of herbivorous styracosternan ornithopod dinosaur.

Hypacrosaurus

Hypacrosaurus (meaning "near the highest lizard" [Greek υπο-, hypo- = less + ακρος, akros, high], because it was almost but not quite as large as Tyrannosaurus) was a genus of duckbill dinosaur similar in appearance to Corythosaurus. Like Corythosaurus, it had a tall, hollow rounded crest, although not as large and straight. It is known from the remains of two species that spanned 75 to 67 million years ago, in the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada, and Montana, United States, and is the latest hollow-crested duckbill known from good remains in North America. It was an obscure genus until the discovery in the 1990s of nests, eggs, and hatchlings belonging to H. stebingeri.

Jaxartosaurus

Jaxartosaurus is a genus of hadrosaurid dinosaur similar to Corythosaurus which lived during the Late Cretaceous. Its fossils were found in Kazakhstan.

Laiyangosaurus

Laiyangosaurus ("Laiyang lizard") is a genus of saurolophine hadrosaurid from the Late Cretaceous of China. It is known from one species, L.youngi, found in the Laiyang Basin within the province of Shandong.

Lambeosaurinae

Lambeosaurinae is a group of crested hadrosaurid dinosaurs.

Lapampasaurus

Lapampasaurus is an extinct genus of hadrosaurid known from the Late Cretaceous Allen Formation (late Campanian or early Maastrichtian stage) of La Pampa Province, Argentina. It contains a single species, Lapampasaurus cholinoi.The generic name refers to the Argentine province of La Pampa. The specific name honours the late collector José Cholino. The material includes cervical, dorsal, sacral and caudal vertebrae, the forelimb girdle, and the partial hindlimb.

Magnapaulia

Magnapaulia is a genus of herbivorous lambeosaurine hadrosaurid dinosaurs known from the Latest Cretaceous Baja California, of northwestern Mexico. It contains a single species, Magnapaulia laticaudus. Magnapaulia was first described in 1981 as a possible species of Lambeosaurus by William J. Morris, and was given its own genus in 2012 by Prieto-Márquez and colleagues.

Nipponosaurus

Nipponosaurus (meaning "Japanese lizard") is a lambeosaurine hadrosaur from Sinegorsk, Sakhalin Island in Russia, part of Japan at the time of naming. The type and only species is N. sachalinensis, known only from a single juvenile specimen discovered in 1934 and named in 1936, by Takumi Nagao, with further material of the same individual found in 1937. Since then, the taxon has been largely ignored, and its validity has been doubted, with synonymy with other Asian hadrosaurs or status as a nomen dubium being suggested. Redescriptions from 2004 and 2017, however, have supported recognition as a distinct species. Dating the only specimen has been difficult, but based on associated mollusc taxa, the species likely lived sometime in the upper Santonian or lower Campanian, around 80 million years ago.

Olorotitan

Olorotitan was a genus of lambeosaurine duckbilled dinosaur from the middle or latest Maastrichtian-age Late Cretaceous, whose remains were found in the Udurchukan Formation beds of Kundur, Amur Region, Far Eastern Russia. The type, and only species is Olorotitan arharensis.

Plesiohadros

Plesiohadros is an extinct genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur. It is known from a partial skeleton including the skull collected at Alag Teg locality, from the Campanian Djadochta Formation of southern Mongolia. The type species is Plesiohadros djadokhtaensis.

Sahaliyania

Sahaliyania (from "black" in Manchu, a reference to the Amur/Heilongjiang River) is a genus of lambeosaurine hadrosaurid dinosaur (crested duckbilled dinosaur) from the Late Cretaceous of Heilongjiang, China.

Tsintaosaurini

Tsintaosaurini is a tribe of basal lambeosaurine hadrosaurs native to Eurasia. It currently contains only Tsintaosaurus (from China) and Pararhabdodon (from Spain ).Koutalisaurus, also known from late Cretaceous Spain and formerly referred to Pararhabdodon

, may also be a tsintaosaurin because of its association with the latter genus; some recent work also suggests it may indeed be referrable to Pararhabdodon.

Velafrons

Velafrons (meaning "sailed forehead") is a genus of lambeosaurine hadrosaurid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Mexico. It is known from a mostly complete skull and partial skeleton of a juvenile individual, with a bony crest on the forehead. Its fossils were found in the late Campanian-age Cerro del Pueblo Formation (about 72 million years old), near Rincon Colorado, Coahuila, Mexico. The type specimen is CPC-59, and the type species is V. coahuilensis.

Xuwulong

Xuwulong is a genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous period. It lived during the early Cretaceous period (Aptian-Albian age) in what is now Yujingzi Basin in the Jiuquan area, Gansu Province of northwestern China. It is known from the holotype – GSGM F00001, an articulated specimen including a complete cranium, almost complete axial skeleton, and complete left pelvic girdle from Xinminpu Group. Xuwulong was named by You Hailu, Li Daqing and Liu Weichang in 2011 and the type species is Xuwulong yueluni.

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