Lakshadweep

Lakshadweep (/ləkˈʃɑːdwiːp/; ISO: Lakṣadvīp ), formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Aminidivi Islands (/ˌlækədaɪv ˌmɪnɪkɔɪ ... ˌæmɪnˈdiːvi/),[2] is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, 200 to 440 km (120 to 270 mi) off the southwestern coast of India. The archipelago is a Union Territory and is governed by the Union Government of India. They were also known as Laccadive Islands, although geographically this is only the name of the central subgroup of the group. Lakshadweep means "one hundred thousand islands" in Sanskrit and Malayalam.[3] The islands form the smallest Union Territory of India and their total surface area is just 32 km2 (12 sq mi). The lagoon area covers about 4,200 km2 (1,600 sq mi), the territorial waters area 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi) and the exclusive economic zone area 400,000 km2 (150,000 sq mi). The region forms a single Indian district with 10 subdivisions. Kavaratti serves as the capital of the Union Territory and the region comes under the jurisdiction of Kerala High Court. The islands are the northernmost of the Lakshadweep-Maldives-Chagos group of islands, which are the tops of a vast undersea mountain range, the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge.[4]

As the islands have no aboriginal inhabitants, scholars have suggested different histories for the settlement of these islands. Archaeological evidence supports the existence of human settlement in the region around 1500 BC. The islands have long been known to sailors, as indicated by an anonymous reference from the first century AD to the region in Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. The islands were also mentioned in the Buddhist Jataka stories of the sixth century BC. Islam was established in the region when Muslim missionaries arrived around the seventh century. During the medieval period, the region was ruled by the Chola dynasty and Kingdom of Cannanore. The Catholic Portuguese arrived around 1498 but were expelled by 1545. The region was then ruled by the Muslim house of Arakkal, followed by Tipu Sultan. On his death in 1799, most of the region passed on to the British and with their departure, the Union Territory was formed in 1956.

Ten of the islands are inhabited. At the 2011 Indian census, the population of the Union Territory was 64,473. The majority of the indigenous population is Muslim and most of them belong to the Shafi school of the Sunni sect. The islanders are ethnically similar to the Malayali people of the nearest Indian state of Kerala. Most of the population speaks Malayalam with Mahi (or Mahl) being the most spoken language in Minicoy island. The islands are served by an airport on Agatti Island. The main occupation of the people is fishing and coconut cultivation, with tuna being the main item of export.

Lakshadweep
Viringili, an island in Southeastern Lakshadweep
Viringili, an island in Southeastern Lakshadweep
Official seal of Lakshadweep

Seal
Location of Lakshadweep
Coordinates: 10°36′N 72°36′E / 10.6°N 72.6°ECoordinates: 10°36′N 72°36′E / 10.6°N 72.6°E
Country India
Formation1 November 1956
CapitalKavaratti
Government
 • AdministratorFarooq Khan IPS (Retd.)
 • MPMohammed Faizal P. P. (Nationalist Congress Party)
Area
 • Total32.69 km2 (12.62 sq mi)
Area rank36th
Population
 (2018 Census)
 • Total78,568
 • Density2,400/km2 (6,200/sq mi)
Languages[1]
 • Official LanguagesMalayalam, English
 • SpokenJeseri, Dhivehi Language (Mahl)
Ethnicity
 • Ethnic groups≈83% Malayali
≈17% Mahls
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-LD
Vehicle registrationLD, LH
No. of districts1
Largest cityAndrott
HDIIncrease
0.796
HDI Year2005
HDI Categoryhigh
Literacy91.85%
Websitewww.lakshadweep.gov.in

History

One of the earliest references to the region is by an anonymous author in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.[5] There are references to the control of the islands by the Cheras in the Sangam Patiṟṟuppattu. Local traditions and legends attribute the first settlement on these islands to the period of Cheraman Perumal, the last Chera king of Kerala.[6] The oldest inhabited islands in the group are Amini, Kalpeni Andrott, Kavaratti, and Agatti. Archaeological evidence suggests that Buddhism prevailed in the region during the fifth and sixth centuries AD.[5] According to popular tradition, Islam was brought to Lakshadweep by an Arab named Ubaidulla in AD 661. His grave is located on the island of Andrott.[7] During the 11th century, the islands came under the rule of the Late Cholas[5] and subsequently the Kingdom of Cannanore.[8]

In the 16th century, the Portuguese ruled the seas between Ormuz and the Malabar Coast and south to Ceylon. As early as 1498, they took control of the archipelago (called Laquedivas by them), later on to exploit coir production, until the islanders expelled them in 1545. In the 17th century, the islands came under the rule of Ali Rajahs/Arakkal Bheevi of Kannur, who received them as a gift from the Kolathiris. The islands are also mentioned in great detail in the stories of the Arab traveller Ibn Batuta.[9]

The Aminidivi group of islands (Androth, Amini, Kadmat, Kiltan, Chetlath, and Bitra) came under the rule of Tipu Sultan in 1787. They passed to British control after the Third Anglo-Mysore War and were attached to South Canara. The rest of the islands came under the suzerainty of the Arakkal family of Cannanore in return for a payment of annual tribute. The British took over the administration of those islands for nonpayment of arrears. These islands were attached to the Malabar district of the Madras Presidency during the British Raj.[10]

Independent India

On 1 November 1956, during the reorganization of Indian states, the Lakshadweep islands were separated from Madras and organized into a separate union territory for administrative purposes. The new territory was called Laccadive, Minicoy, and Amindivi Islands before adopting the Lakshadweep name on 1 November 1973.[11]

To safeguard India's vital shipping lanes to the Middle East, and the growing relevance of the islands in security considerations, an Indian Navy base, INS Dweeprakshak, was commissioned on Kavaratti island.[12]

A DX-pedition (VU7AG) by amateur radio operators was run on Agatti Island during November 2013.

Geography

Map of Lakshadweep-en
Lakshadweep Islands map
LakshadweepIsland
One of the uninhabited islands in Bangaram Atoll, Lakshadweep.
Lakshadweep
Satellite picture showing the atolls of the Lakshadweep except for Minicoy.

Lakshadweep is an archipelago of twelve atolls, three reefs and five submerged banks, with a total of about thirty-nine islands and islets. The reefs are in fact also atolls, although mostly submerged, with only small unvegetated sand cays above the high-water mark. The submerged banks are sunken atolls. Almost all the atolls have a northeast-southwest orientation with the islands lying on the eastern rim, and a mostly submerged reef on the western rim, enclosing a lagoon. It has 10 inhabited islands, 17 uninhabited islands, attached islets, 4 newly formed islets and 5 submerged reefs.[13]

The main islands are Kavaratti, Agatti, Minicoy, and Amini. The total population of the territory is 60,595 according to the 2001 census. Agatti has an airport with direct flights from Kochi.

India's Coral Islands

The Aminidivi subgroup of islands (consisting of Amini, Keltan, Chetlat, Kadamat, Bitra, and Perumal Par) and the Laccadive subgroup of islands (comprising mainly Androth, Kalpeni, Kavaratti, Pitti, and Suheli Par), both subgroups having a submarine connection between them through Pitti Bank. Together with Minicoy Island, a lonely atoll located at the southern end of the 200-km-broad Nine Degree Channel, they form the Coral Islands of India in the Arabian Sea. All these islands have been built up by corals and have fringing coral reefs very close to their shores.[14]

Two banks further north are not considered part of the group:

The atolls, reefs, and banks are listed from north to south in the table:

Atoll/Reef/Bank
(alternate name)
type Land
Area
(km2)
Lagoon
Area
(km2)
No. of
islets
Pop.
Census
2001
Location
Aminidivi Islands
Cora Divh bank - 339.45 - - 13°42′N 72°11′E / 13.700°N 72.183°E
Sesostris Bank bank - 388.53 - - 13°08′N 72°00′E / 13.133°N 72.000°E
Bassas de Pedro
(Munyal Par, Padua Bank)
bank - 2474.33 - - 13°07′N 72°25′E / 13.117°N 72.417°E
Cherbaniani Reef (Beleapani Reef) reef 0.01 172.59 2 - 12°18′N 71°53′E / 12.300°N 71.883°E
Byramgore Reef (Chereapani) reef 0.01 57.46 1 - 11°54′N 71°49′E / 11.900°N 71.817°E
Chetlat Island atoll 1.14 1.60 1 2,289 11°42′N 72°42′E / 11.700°N 72.700°E
Bitrā Island atoll 0.10 45.61 2 264 11°33′N 72°09′E / 11.550°N 72.150°E
Kiltān Island atoll 2.20 1.76 1 3,664 11°29′N 73°00′E / 11.483°N 73.000°E
Kadmat Island (Cardamom) atoll 3.20 37.50 1 5,319 11°14′N 72°47′E / 11.233°N 72.783°E
Elikalpeni Bank bank - 95.91 - - 11°12′N 73°58′E / 11.200°N 73.967°E
Perumal Par reef 0.01 83.02 1 - 11°10′N 72°04′E / 11.167°N 72.067°E
Amini Island 1) atoll 2.59 155.091) 1 7,340 11°06′N 72°45′E / 11.100°N 72.750°E
Laccadive Islands
Agatti Island (Agatti) 2) atoll 2.70 4.84 1 8,000 10°50′N 73°41′E / 10.833°N 73.683°E
Bangaram Island (Bangaram) 2) atoll 2.30 4.84 1 61 10°50′N 73°41′E / 10.833°N 73.683°E
Pitti Island 1) islet 0.01 155.09 1 - 10°50′N 72°38′E / 10.833°N 72.633°E
Androth Island (Andrott) atoll 4.90 4.84 1 10,720 10°50′N 73°41′E / 10.833°N 73.683°E
Kavaratti Island atoll 4.22 4.96 1 10,113 10°33′N 72°38′E / 10.550°N 72.633°E
Kalpeni Island atoll 2.79 25.60 7 4,319 10°05′N 73°38′E / 10.083°N 73.633°E
Suheli Par 3) atoll 0.57 78.76 2 - 10°05′N 72°17′E / 10.083°N 72.283°E
Minicoy Atoll
Investigator Bank bank - 141.78 - - 08°32′N 73°17′E / 8.533°N 73.283°E
Minicoy Island 4) atoll 4.80 30.60 2 9,495 08°17′N 73°02′E / 8.283°N 73.033°E
Viringili Island 4) islet 0.02 30.60 1 - 08°27′N 73°01′E / 8.450°N 73.017°E
Lakshadweep   32.69 4203.14 32 60,595 08°16'-13°58'N,
71°44°-74°24'E
1) Amini Island and Pitti Island are both on Pitti Bank, a largely sunken atoll with a lagoon area of 155.09 km2
2) Bangaram and Agatti Islands are connected by a shallow submarine ridge
3) new international tourist resort, otherwise uninhabited, but with a population 61 at the 1990 census
4) Minicoy Island and Viringili Island are both on Maliku Atoll

Flora and fauna

Ducks on a beach at Kavaratti, Lakshadweep
Ducks on a beach at Kavaratti, Lakshadweep

The Lakshadweep Archipelago forms a terrestrial ecoregion together with the Maldives and the Chagos.[15] It has over 600 species of marine fishes, 78 species of corals, 82 species of seaweed, 52 species of crabs, 2 species of lobsters, 48 species of gastropods, 12 species of bivalves, 101 species of birds.[16][17] It is one of the four coral reef regions in India.[18] The corals are a major attraction for the tourist. Pitti Island, is an important breeding place for sea turtles and for a number of pelagic birds such as the brown noddy (Anous stolidus), lesser crested tern (Sterna bengalensis) and greater crested tern (Sterna bergii).[19] The island has been declared a bird sanctuary.[20] Cetacean diversity off the Lakshadweep Islands and in adjacent areas is higher than other areas although a lack of scientific study results in poor understanding and conservation promoting. These include various whales (e.g. pygmy blue, Bryde's,[21] sperm[22]), smaller cetaceans (e.g. orca,[23] pilot whale[24]) and dolphins.[25][26][27][28]

The region does not have a rich flora and almost all the plants can be found on the mainland of India. There is also an absence of forest in the region. Nearly 400 species of flowering plants have been documented, including three species of sea grasses Cymodocea isoetifolia, Syringodium isoetifolium and Thalassia hemprichii, other angiosperms as Pandanus, Heliotropium foertherianum, Tournefortia argentea and Pemphis acidula as well as fungi, algae, lichens are also found. The common flora of the coral sands include coconut groves and coastal shrubs as Pemphis acidula, Cordia subcordata, Scaevola taccada, Thespesia populnea, Suriana maritima, Dodonaea viscosa, Guettarda speciosa and seaweeds such as sea lettuces, Codium and Hypena.[16][29]

Government and administration

INDIA, LAKSHADWEEP (LACCADIVE) ISLANDS c.2000 passenger plate - Flickr - woody1778a
Plate in Western Script is from the Laccadive Islands

Lakshadweep forms a single Indian district and is governed by an administrator appointed by the President of India under article 239 of the constitution. The present administrator is Mr. Farooq Khan IPS[30] There are 10 Sub Divisions of the territory. In Minicoy and Agatti the Sub Division is under a Deputy Collector while in the remaining 8 islands developmental activities are coordinated by Sub Divisional Officers. The Collector cum Development Commissioner who is also the District Magistrate oversees matters coming under District Administration, such as revenue, land settlement, law and order. The District Magistrate is assisted by one Additional District Magistrate and Ten Executive Magistrates with respect to enforcement of law and order. Administrator in his capacity as Inspector General of Lakshadweep Police has command and control of the Lakshadweep Police. Administration Secretariat is in Kavaratti.[31] The union territory comes under the jurisdiction of the Kerala High Court at Kochi along with a system of lower courts.[32] The territory elects one member to the Lok Sabha (lower house of the Parliament of India).[33]

Demographics

ISS002-E-7260
NASA picture of Maliku Atoll with Minicoy Island

According to the 2011 census Lakshadweep has a population of 64,429,[34] roughly equal in number to that of the Marshall Islands.[35] This gives it a ranking of 627th among the 640 districts in India.[34] The district has a population density of 2,013 inhabitants per square kilometre (5,210/sq mi).[34] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 6.23%.[34] Lakshadweep has a sex ratio of 946 females for every 1000 males,[34] and a literacy rate of 92.28%.[34]

Most people of Lakshadweep are descendants of migrants from the Malabar Coast of southwest India and the islanders are ethnically similar to coastal Kerala's Malayali people. More than 93% of the indigenous population are Muslims, and the majority of them belong to the Shafi School of the Sunni Sect. The southernmost and second largest island of Minicoy has an ethnically Mahls population that are native to the Maldives.[13][36]

Religion

Religion in State (2011)[37]

  Islam (77.58%)
  Hinduism (22.11%)
  Christianity (0.05%)
  Sikhism (0.00%)
  Buddhism (0.00%)
  Jainism (0.00%)
  Other Religions (0.00%)
  Atheism (0.00%)

The inhabitants of Lakshadweep were known to practice different religious customs. Then Islam was propounded by the Sheikh Ubaidullah.[38]

The spread of Islam has contributed to the religious identity of Lakshadweep. Eid-ul-Fitr, Muharram, Eid-ul-Adha and Milad-un-Nabi are the prominent occasions when the people of the island gather in various mosques.

Religious observance in Lakshadweep is characterized by certain festivals that are found in its core ethnic groups. Moulood is one such religious event when the islanders offer prayers to the divine power and eat in groups. The festival of Ratheeb is another uncommon occasion which originated in the Kavaratti region of Lakshadweep. The grave of Sheikh Kasim, one of the respected saints is praised during Ratheeb by the people of the island to gather his holy blessings.

The Sunni branch of Islam is the predominant faith.

Languages

Languages of Lakshadweep in 2001[39]

  Malayalam (85.00%)
  Others (15.00%)

The principal languages of Lakshadweep are Malayalam, Jeseri (Dweep Bhasha) and Mahl.[40] The people of all the northern islands speak a dialect of Malayalam with the influence of Tamil and Arabic similar to Arwi. The people of Minicoy, the southernmost atoll, speak Mahl, a variant of Divehi language spoken in the Maldives.

Malayalam with Malayalam script was introduced as the official language of Lakshadweep during the British raj. Previously a type of Arabic script (Arabi Malayalam) was used for the language. The policy was continued by the Indian government. Malayalam serves as a link language on the islands including on the Mahl dominated Minicoy Island.[41] The dances here include:-Lava Dance, Kolkali dance & Parichakli Dance.

Economy

A beach side resort at Kadmat Island, Lakshadweep
A beachside resort at Kadmat Island, Lakshadweep

Lakshadweep's gross territorial domestic product for 2004 is estimated at US$ 60 million at current prices. There is little economic inequality in Lakshadweep and the poverty index is low. Coconut fibre extraction and production of fibre products is Lakshadweep's main industry. There are five coir fibre factories, five production demonstration centres and seven fibre curling units run by the government of India. These units produce coir fibre, coir yarn, curled fibre and corridor mattings.[42]

Fisheries

Lakshadweep comprises the only coral atolls of the country. With a vast lagoon of 4,200 km2 (1,600 sq mi), it has territorial waters of 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi), Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 4 lakh (400,000 km2 [150,000 sq mi]) and coastal line of about 132 kilometres (82 mi). There is an estimation of about one lakh tonnes (100,000 tonnes [110,000 tons]) of tuna and tuna-like fishes and about an equal quantity of shark in the sea around Lakshadweep. Fishing is the main livelihood of the islanders, or else it is coconut fibre.[43] Freshly caught tuna is processed by drying it in the sun after cooking and smoking. The resultant product, known as 'mas', are popular products exported from these islands to southeast Asian countries.[44] Eleven workshops in islands and two boat building yards cater to the needs of fishermen. There are 375 boats in operation in Lakshadweep.[45]

Tourism

Agatti island, Lakshadweep
Agatti island, Lakshadweep

Due to its isolation and scenic appeal, Lakshadweep was already known as a tourist attraction for Indians since 1974.[46] This brings in significant revenue, which is likely to increase. Since such a small region cannot support industries, the government is actively promoting tourism as a means of income in Bangaram and Kadmat islands. Bangaram is projected to become a major destination for international tourism.[47] Marine fauna are plentiful. Water sports activities such as scuba diving, wind surfing, snorkelling, surfing, kayaking, canoeing, water skiing, sportfishing, yachting and night sea voyages are popular activities among tourists. Tourists flock to these islands throughout the year, except during the southwest monsoon months when seas are extremely rough. The government has also proposed to set up two customs clearance check-in offices so that tourists can enter directly instead of getting permission from the nearest customs office in Kochi, which is 260 nautical miles (300 mi; 480 km) from these islands. These will be the smallest customs offices in India. Tourism is expected to get a big boost after these offices open as the islands lie on one of the busiest cruise ways.

Desalination

Local symbols of Lakshadweep
Animal Butterfly fish[48][49] Bep chaetodon falcula.jpg
Bird Noddy tern[48][49] Anous stolidus by Gregg Yan 01.jpg
Tree Bread fruit[48][49] Breadfruit Tree.jpg
Flower Not designated

A low-temperature thermal desalination plant opened on Kavaratti in 2005, at a cost of 50 million (€922,000). The experimental plant, which uses the temperature difference between warm surface seawater and much colder seawater at 500m depth to generate potable water as well as energy, was slated to produce 100,000 litres/day of potable water from seawater.[50][51] Production costs in 2005 were 220-250/m³ (€4.1-4.6/m³); the cost was supposed to drop to 30-60/m³ (€0.55-1.11/m³) with increased capacity.[52]

The technology was developed by the National Institute of Ocean Technology. It can be used to produce drinking water and also for power generation and air conditioning. In addition, the deep seawater contains extra nutrients for fish, an important source of food and income for the local population. The government plans to set up desalination plants with a capacity of 10 million litres/per day on all islands and coastal areas.[50] In 2009, the NIOT announced plans to build plants on Minicoy, Agatti and Andrott.[53]

Education

Transport and tourism

Agatti Airstrip
Agatti Airstrip
MV Amindivi 001
Passenger ship MV Amindivi of the Lakshadweep Islands administration docked at Old Mangalore port

Agatti Aerodrome on Agatti Island is the only airport in Lakshadweep. Alliance Air, a subsidiary of the state-owned carrier, serves Agatti and flies to Kochi and Bengaluru on the mainland. Kingfisher Airlines, had flights connecting Kochi and Bangalore to Agatti before the airline ceased operations. The other islands are linked by the Pawan Hans helicopter or boat service.[54] Six ships connect Kochi, Calicut(Beypore) and Lakshadweep: MV Kavaratti, MV Amindivi, MV Minicoy, MV Arabian Sea, MV Lakshadweep Sea and MV Bharath Seema.[55]

Tourists need a permit to visit the islands; foreign nationals are not permitted to visit certain islands.[56] According to the current alcohol laws of India, alcoholic beverage consumption is not permitted in the Lakshadweep Archipelago except on Bangaram Island.[57]

See also

References

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Further reading

External links

Agatti Airport

Agatti Airport (IATA: AGX, ICAO: VOAT) is located on the southern end of Agatti Island, in the union territory of Lakshadweep in India. It is the sole airstrip in the archipelago, which lies off the west coast of mainland India.

Agatti Island

Agatti Island is a 7.6 km long island, situated on a coral atoll called Agatti atoll in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep, India. It has a distance of 2,034 km (1,264 mi) south of the city of Delhi.

Andrott

Andrott Island (Malayalam: ആന്ധ്രോത് ദ്വീപ്), also known as Androth Island, is a small inhabited island in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep, a group of 36 coral islands scattered in the Arabian Sea off the western coast of India

It has a distance of 2,006 km (1,246 mi) south of the city of Delhi.

Bangaram Atoll

Bangaram (Malayalam: ബങ്കാരം) is an atoll in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep, India.

It has a distance of 2,022 km (1,256 mi) south of the city of Delhi.

Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Minicoy

Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Minicoy or JNV Lakshadweep is a boarding, co-educational school in Lakshadweep U.T. in India. JNV Minicoy is funded by M.H.R.D. and administered by Navodaya Vidyalaya Smiti, an autonomous body under the ministry. Navodaya Vidyalayas offer free education to talented children from Class VI to XII.

Jeseri

Jeseri (also known as Jesri or Dweep Bhasha) is a dialect of Malayalam, spoken in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep in India.

It is spoken on the islands of Chetlat, Bitra, Kiltan, Kadmat, Amini, Kavaratti, Androth, Agatti, and Kalpeni, in the archipelago of Lakshadweep. Each of these islands has its own slang.

Kavaratti

Kavaratti is the capital of the Union Territory of Lakshadweep in India. Kavaratti is a census town as well as the name of the atoll upon which the town stands.

It is well known for its pristine white sand beaches and calm lagoons, which makes it a popular tourist destination.

It has a distance of 2,056 km (1,278 mi) south of the city of Delhi.

Kiltan

Kiltan or Kilthān Island (Malayalam: കിൽത്താൻ, Arabic: کلتان‎) is a coral island belonging to the Amindivi Subgroup of islands of the Union Territory of Lakshadweep in India.

It is at a distance of 1,947 km (1,210 mi) south of the city of Delhi.

The nearest mainland body is Cannanore and the nearest port is Mangalore.

Laccadive Islands

The Laccadive Islands or Cannanore Islands are one of the three island subgroups in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep, India. It is the central subgroup of the Lakshadweep, separated from the Amindivi Islands subgroup roughly by the 11th parallel north and from the atoll of Minicoy (Maliku) —far to the south— by the 9 Degree or Mamala Channel.Formerly the Union Territory of Lakshadweep was known as Laccadive, Minicoy, and Amindivi Islands, a name that was changed to Lakshadweep by an act of Parliament in 1973.The Laccadive subgroup had been known earlier as the "Cannanore Islands" after the coastal town of Cannanore (Kannur). The name originated in the fact that while the northern group of Amindivi had stopped in 1784 being a vassal state of the Cannanore Kingdom (Arakkal) in exchange for fealty to Tippu Sultan's Kingdom of Mysore, the southern group remained loyal to Cannanore.

Laccadive Sea

The Laccadive Sea or Lakshadweep Sea is a body of water bordering India (including its Lakshadweep islands), the Maldives, and Sri Lanka. It is located to the southwest of Karnataka, to the west of Kerala and to the south of Tamil Nadu. This warm sea has a stable water temperature through the year and is rich in marine life. The Gulf of Mannar alone hosting about 3,600 species. Mangaluru, Kozhikode, Kochi, Alappuzha, Kollam,

Thiruvananthapuram, Tuticorin, Colombo, and Malé are the major cities on the shore of the Laccadive Sea. Kanyakumari, the southernmost tip of peninsular India, also borders this sea.

Lakshadweep (Lok Sabha constituency)

Lakshadweep Lok Sabha constituency (Malayalam: ലക്ഷദ്വീപ് ലോക്സഭാ മണ്ഡലം, Hindi: लक्षद्वीप लोकसभा निर्वाचन क्षेत्र) is a Lok Sabha (lower house of the Indian parliament) constituency, which covers the entire area of the Union Territory of Lakshadweep in India. This seat is reserved for Scheduled Tribes. As of 2014, it is the smallest Lok Sabha constituency by number of voters.Before its first election in 1967, its member of parliament (MP) was directly appointed by the President of India. Its first MP was K. Nalla Koya Thangal of the Indian National Congress (INC) who served two terms from 1957–67. Its first election in 1967 was won by independent politician, P. M. Sayeed. In the next election in 1971, Sayeed representing the INC was elected unopposed. He went on to win the next eight elections consecutively before being defeated by 71 votes in the 2004 election by P. Pookunhi Koya of the Janata Dal (United) party. In total, Sayeed represented this constituency in the Lok Sabha for ten consecutive terms from 1967 to 2004. In the 2009 election, Sayeed's son, Muhammed Hamdulla Sayeed, won the seat. As of the latest election in 2014, the current MP representing this constituency is Mohammed Faizal P. P. of the Nationalist Congress Party.

Lakshadweep Police

The Lakshadweep Police is the law enforcement agency for the Union Territory of Lakshadweep .

Lakshadweep Territorial Congress Committee

Lakshadweep Territorial Congress Committee (LTCC) is the wing of Indian National Congress in the parts of Lakshadweep.

M. Hamdulla Sayeed

is the present president.

List of Administrators of Lakshadweep

The Administrator of Lakshadweep is the Head of the Union Territory of Lakshadweep. He is also the Chairman of Lakshadweep Development Corporation (a U.T. Administration public sector undertaking) and SPORTS (Society for Promotion of Recreational Tourism and Sports). He functions ex officio as the Inspector General of Lakshadweep Police.

List of constituencies of the Lok Sabha

The Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India, is made up of Members of Parliament (MPs). Each MP, represents a single geographic constituency. There are currently 543 constituencies.

The maximum size of the Lok Sabha as outlined in the Constitution of India is 552 members made up of upto 530 members representing people of the states of India and upto 20 members representing people from the Union Territories on the basis of their population and 2 Anglo-Indians are nominated by President.

List of islands of India

This is a partial list of islands of India. There are a total of 1,208 islands (including uninhabited ones) in India.

Lists of Indian Monuments of National Importance

This page contains lists of Monuments in India.

An Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958 defines an "Ancient Monument" as follows:

Ancient Monument means any structure, erection or monument, or any tumulus or place of interment, or any cave, rock-sculpture, inscription or monolith which is of historical, archaeological or artistic interest and which has been in existence for not less than 100 years

A "Monument of National Importance" is designated by the Archaeological Survey of India and includes the following:

The remains of an ancient monument

The site of an ancient monument

The land on which there are fences or protective covering structures for preserving the monument

Land by means of which people can freely access the monument

Minicoy

Minicoy, locally known as Maliku (Dhivehi: މަލިކު [məliku]; Malayalam: മലിക്കു) is an island in Lakshadweep, India. Along with Viringili, it is on Maliku atoll, the southernmost atoll of Lakshadweep archipelago. Administratively, it is a census town in the Indian union territory of Lakshadweep.

South India

South India is the area including the five Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana, as well as the three union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area (635,780 km2 or 245,480 sq mi). Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Indian Ocean in the south. The geography of the region is diverse with two mountain ranges–the Western and Eastern Ghats, bordering the plateau heartland. Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Tungabhadra, Periyar and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Trivandrum, Coimbatore, Visakhapatnam, Madurai, Kozhikode and Kochi are the largest urban areas.

The majority of the people in South India speak one of the four major Dravidian languages: Telugu, Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and culture in those regions. Major dynasties that were established in South India include the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyas, Pallavas, Satavahanas, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas and Vijayanagara. Europeans entered India through Kerala and the region was colonised by Britain and other nations.

After experiencing fluctuations in the decades immediately after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics, poverty continues to affect the region much like the rest of the country, although it has considerably decreased over the years. HDI in the southern states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. Literacy rates in the southern states are higher than the national average with approximately 80% of the population capable of reading and writing. The fertility rate in South India is 1.9, the lowest of all regions in India.

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Union Territories
Countries and territories bordering the Indian Ocean
Africa
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