Lake sturgeon

The lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), also known as the rock sturgeon,[4] is a North American temperate freshwater fish, one of about 25 species of sturgeon. Like other sturgeons, this species is an evolutionarily ancient bottom feeder with a partly cartilaginous skeleton, an overall streamlined shape and skin bearing rows of bony plates on its sides and back, resembling an armored torpedo. The fish uses its elongated, spade-like snout to stir up the substrate and sediments on the beds of rivers and lakes while feeding. The lake sturgeon has four purely sensory organs that dangle near its mouth. These organs, called barbels, help the sturgeon to locate bottom-dwelling prey. Lake sturgeons can grow to a relatively large size, topping 7.25 ft (2.2 m) long and weighing over 240 lb (108 kg).[5]

Lake sturgeon
Acipenser fulvescens 1908
A lake sturgeon
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Genus:
Species:
A. fulvescens
Binomial name
Acipenser fulvescens
(Rafinesque, 1817)
Synonyms[2][3]
  • Sterletus serotinus (Rafinesque 1820)
  • Acipenser (Huso) anasimos Duméril 1870
  • Acipenser (Huso) anthracinus Duméril 1870
  • Acipenser (Huso) atelaspis Duméril 1870
  • Acipenser (Antaceus) buffalo Duméril 1867
  • Acipenser carbonarius Agassiz 1850
  • Acipenser cataphractus Rapp ex Gray 1835
  • Acipenser (Antaceus) cincinnati Duméril 1867
  • Acipenser (Huso) copei Duméril 1870
  • Acipenser (Huso) honneymani Duméril 1870
  • Acipenser (Huso) kirtlandii Duméril 1870
  • Acipenser laevis Agassiz 1850
  • Acipenser (Huso) lamarii Duméril 1870
  • Acipenser liopeltis Günther 1870
  • Accipenser macrostomus Rafinesque 1820
  • Acipenser maculosus Lesueur 1818
  • Acipenser (Huso) megalaspis Duméril 1870
  • Acipenser (Huso) nertinianus Duméril 1870
  • Accipenser ohiensis Rafinesque 1820
  • Acipenser (Huso) paranasimos Duméril 1870
  • Acipenser (Huso) platyrhinus Duméril 1870
  • Acipenser (Huso) rafinesquii Duméril 1870
  • Acipenser (Huso) rauchii Duméril 1870
  • Acipenser rhynchaeus Agassiz 1850
  • Acipenser (Huso) richardsoni Duméril 1870
  • Acipenser (Huso) rosarium Duméril 1870
  • Acipenser rubicundus Lesueur 1818
  • Acipenser rupertianus Richardson 1836

Description

The lake sturgeon has taste buds on and around its barbels near its rubbery, prehensile lips. It extends its lips to vacuum up soft live food, which it swallows whole due to its lack of teeth. Its diet consists of insect larvae, worms (including leeches), and other small organisms (primarily metazoan) it finds in the mud. Fish are rarely found in its diet and are likely incidental items only, with the possible exception of the invasive round goby.[6] Given that it is a large species surviving by feeding on very small species, its feeding ecology has been compared to that of large marine animals, like some whales, which survive by filter-feeding.[7]

Distribution and Habitat

This species occurs in the Mississippi River drainage basin south to Alabama and Mississippi. It occurs in the Great Lakes and the Detroit River, east down the St. Lawrence River to the limits of fresh water. In the west, it reaches Lake Winnipeg and the North Saskatchewan and South Saskatchewan Rivers. In the north, it is found in the Hudson Bay Lowland.[8] In the east, the species lives in Lake Champlain and in some Vermont rivers, including the Winooski, Lamoille and Missisquoi rivers, and Otter Creek. This distribution makes sense in that all these areas were linked by the large lakes that formed as the glaciers retreated from North America at the end of the last ice age (e.g., Lake Agassiz, Lake Iroquois).

These sturgeon often migrate in search of food or suitable spawning locations, or in response to seasonal environmental conditions. Juveniles typically inhabit pools greater than about 6 feet in depth, and adults typically live deep in large lakes. They are not often far from suitable spawning locations. The abundance of prey also plays a large factor in finding a suitable habitat.[9]

Life Cycle

Lake sturgeon have a very long lifespan. Males typically live for 55 years and females can live for 80 to 150 years.[10] They grow quickly during a lengthy juvenile stage.[9]

Early Life

Lake sturgeon eggs begin yellowed and are attached to a fatty ovarian mass. When the eggs are mature, they become olive green, grey or black. The eggs typically hatch after 8 to 14 days. Observations suggest male lake sturgeon and other fish and invertebrates likely consume some fertilized eggs while on the spawning grounds.

At hatching, the larvae are barely discernible and are about 10 mm long. The larvae soon become pelagic, remaining far from the surface and bed, and negatively phototactic, or attracted to darkness, while searching for rocky places to hide. About two weeks after hatching, they disperse downstream with the current for several miles until settling back down upon the river bottom.

As juveniles, all definitive adult structures, except for gonads, form. They are thought to feed on benthic invertebrates like adults. It is thought that during late summer, yearlings gather in large schools in shallow river mouths and bays. The juveniles can be found in the same habitats as adults after a year.[9]

Reproduction

Male lake sturgeon typically reach sexual maturity at 8 to 12 years, but may take 22 years. Females reach sexual maturity at 14 to 33 years, most often from 24 to 26 years of age. These sturgeon spawn on clean, gravel shoals and stream rapids, usually from April to June. They prefer to spawn in temperatures between 55 and 64 degrees Fahrenheit.[10] Lake sturgeon reproduce by swimming around each other in circles and shaking violently; the male stops circling when he has released his fertilizer and the female then lays her eggs.[11] Males spawn every 2 to 7 years while females spawn every 4 to 9 years. Only 10 to 20 percent of adult lake sturgeon are sexually active during a season[10]

The lake sturgeon are polygamous, maximizing genetic diversity.[12]

Conservation

These fish were once killed as a nuisance bycatch because they damaged fishing gear. When their meat and eggs became prized, commercial fishermen targeted them. Between 1879 and 1900, the Great Lakes commercial sturgeon fishery brought in an average of 4 million pounds (1800 metric tons) per year. Such unsustainable catch rates were coupled with environmental challenges such as pollution and the construction of dams and other flood control measures. Sturgeon, which return each spring to spawn in the streams and rivers in which they were born, found tributaries blocked and spawning shoals destroyed by silt from agriculture and lumbering. In the 20th century, drastic drops in sturgeon catches, increased regulations, and the closure of viable fisheries occurred. Currently, 19 of the 20 states within the fish's original U.S. range list it as either threatened or endangered.

This sturgeon is a valuable gourmet food fish, as well as a source of specialty products including caviar and isinglass. "In 1860, this species, taken on incidental catches of other fishes, was killed and dumped back in the lake, piled up on shore to dry and be burned, fed to pigs, or dug into the earth as fertilizer."[13] It was even stacked like cordwood and used to fuel steamboats. Once its value was realized, "They were taken by every available means from spearing and jigging to set lines of baited or unbaited hooks laid on the bottom to trap nets, pound nets and gillnets."[13] Over 5 million lb were taken from Lake Erie in a single year. The fishery collapsed, largely by 1900. They have never recovered. Like most sturgeons, the lake sturgeon is rare now and is protected in many areas.

In addition to overharvesting, it has also been negatively affected by pollution and loss of migratory waterways. It is vulnerable to population declines through overfishing due to its extremely slow reproductive cycle; most individuals caught before 20 years of age have never bred and females spawn only once every four or five years. The specific harvesting of breeding females for their roe is also damaging to population size. Few individuals ever reach the extreme old age or large size that those of previous generations often did.

Recovery

In 2001, transmitters placed into ten sturgeon and egg mats placed in the Detroit River documented spawning of sturgeon for the first time in many decades.[14] This discovery followed the 2001 discovery of spawning runs under the Blue Water Bridge in the St. Clair River.[15][16]

The Little River Band of Ottawa Indians (Manistee, MI) Sturgeon Program began in 2001. In 2002 they successfully documented natural reproduction of lake sturgeon by capturing larvae (newly hatched fish) from the Big Manistee River. The Streamside Rearing Facility for lake sturgeon on the Big Manistee River became operational in the spring of 2004 and marked the first time this technique had ever been used for this species. Since that time there have been five SRFs operated within the Lake Michigan Basin built on the same LRBOI design. Many agencies now collaborate on this effort including the US Fish and Wildlife Service, States of Michigan and Wisconsin, and many other partners. The LRBOI Nmé Stewardship Plan, created by biologists and Tribal members, was published in 2005 as a guiding document for the LRBOI sturgeon program and sturgeon restoration. A documentary video, "Manistee Nmé: A Lake Sturgeon Success Story" was released in 2011 and has been viewed by hundreds of people.

New York State has also had a successful recovery program, using eggs and sperm collected from a spawning area on the St. Lawrence River. In early June 2017, aquatic biologists conducted the annual assisted propagation effort, through which 130,000 fertilized eggs were sent to hatcheries.[17]

Several populations of Lake sturgeon have experienced levels of recovery with help of United States Fisheries and Wildlife Service. There are fisheries located from North Carolina all the way to the Great Lakes that not only support restoration of Lake sturgeon populations, but also monitor striped bass and blue catfish populations. However, many lake sturgeon populations still remain imperiled. The USFWS is going through measures to restore the species of Lake sturgeon by recording abundance, distribution, age, growth and health of the species. Lake sturgeon are tagged and released by the USFWS to capture a better understanding of their life cycle. While strict regulations have been put in place to monitor harvests, hatcheries are accredited to much of their restoration of the species.[18]

Recreational Fishing

Today, limited sturgeon fishing seasons are permitted in only a few areas, including some locations in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Fishing for sturgeon is allowed on Black Lake in Michigan, for example, but the fishery is limited to five total fish taken each year, each over 36 in (910 mm) and taken through the ice with spears.

Anglers in Minnesota have the opportunity to harvest one lake sturgeon per calendar year between 45 and 50 in on the Rainy River, and Lake of the Woods on the Canada–US border. The early season runs from April 24 to May 7 each year with the late season running from July 1 to September 30. Anglers must have a valid Minnesota fishing license and purchase a sturgeon tag to harvest a lake sturgeon.

An annual sturgeon spearing season is open on Lake Winnebago in Wisconsin. It has changed from a 16-day season in the past to a season with a marked quota, but the season can still run for the full 16 days. If 90–99% of the quota is reached on any day, the season is over at 1:00 pm the following day. If 100% (or more) of the quota is reached, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources can enable an emergency stoppage rule.[19] In 2012, the largest sturgeon ever caught on Lake Winnebago (a female) was 125 years old, weighed 240 lb., and measured 87.5 in. in length. It was tagged and released by scientists from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.[20]

The sturgeon is also present in Quebec in the St. Lawrence River, where it is targeted by commercial fisheries. It is also a game fish with a harvest limit of one per day.

Wolf Lake State Fish Hatchery in Kalamazoo, MI, raises and releases lake sturgeon. The lake sturgeon are produced mainly for inland waters, although a few are stocked in Great Lakes waters.

There is also a streamside rearing facility near Onaway, Michigan on the Black River, a tributary of the Cheboygan River, then Lake Huron. The facility is run and managed by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Michigan State University, and Tower Kliber. Each year hundreds to thousands of sturgeon are raised and released into Black Lake, and other surrounding areas. Adult sturgeon are caught in the river, their eggs and sperm are extracted and then taken back to the hatchery for fertilization, and left to incubate. Hatched larvae are also caught in the river with drift nets. The hatchery is open to the public, and people can also watch the hatchery workers catch the fish.

Gallery

Lake sturgeon (Batchawana B) 2

Batchawana Bay, Lake Superior (live released)

Lakesturgeon public U.S.Fish&Wildlife

Lake sturgeon

Juvenile lake sturgeon (Goulais B) 2

Juvenile
Goulais Bay, Lake Superior

Juvenile lake sturgeon (Goulais B) 3

Juvenile
Goulais Bay, Lake Superior

See also

References

  1. ^ St. Pierre, R. & Runstrom, A. (U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service) (2004). "Acipenser fulvescens". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T223A13036599. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T223A13036599.en. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  2. ^ Froese, R.; Pauly, D. (2017). "Acipenseridae". FishBase version (02/2017). Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  3. ^ "Acipenseridae" (PDF). Deeplyfish- fishes of the world. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  4. ^ "Sturgeons". New York State Department of Conservation. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  5. ^ "Record lake sturgeon caught in Wisconsin". 16 April 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  6. ^ "At last a use for trashy Erie gobies: sturgeon bait". 12 June 2005. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  7. ^ Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1972. Freshwater Fisheries of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Department of the Environment, Ottawa. p. 87.
  8. ^ Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1972. Freshwater Fisheries of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Department of the Environment, Ottawa. p. 83-84.
  9. ^ a b c Peterson, Douglas L.; Vecsei, Paul; Jennings, Cecil A. (2006-11-14). "Ecology and biology of the lake sturgeon: a synthesis of current knowledge of a threatened North American Acipenseridae". Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries. 17 (1): 59–76. doi:10.1007/s11160-006-9018-6. ISSN 0960-3166. Archived from the original on 2018-05-08.
  10. ^ a b c "Lake Sturgeon Biology". U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. 2016-03-03. Archived from the original on 2018-11-17. Retrieved 2018-11-17.
  11. ^ Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1972. Freshwater Fisheries of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Department of the Environment, Ottawa. p. 82-89.
  12. ^ Bruch, R. M.; Binkowski, F. P. (2002-12-17). "Spawning behavior of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)". Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 18 (4–6): 570–579. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0426.2002.00421.x. ISSN 0175-8659.
  13. ^ a b Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1972. Freshwater Fisheries of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Department of the Environment, Ottawa. p. 88.
  14. ^ Caswell, N.M.; D.L. Peterson; B.A. Manny & G.W. Kennedy (2004). "Spawning by lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the Detroit River". Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 20: 1–6. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0426.2004.00499.x. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  15. ^ Manny, B. A.; Kennedy, G. W. (2002). "Known lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) spawning habitat in the channel between lakes Huron and Erie in the Laurentian Great Lakes". Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 18: 486–490. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0426.2002.00390.x. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  16. ^ Nichols, S.J.; Kennedy, G.; Crawford, E.; Allen, J.; French III, J.; Black, G.; Blowin, M.; Hickey, J.; Chernyak, S.; Haas, R.; Thomas, M. (2003). "Assessment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) spawning efforts in the lower St. Clair River, Michigan". Journal of Great Lakes Research. 29: 383–391. doi:10.1016/S0380-1330(03)70445-6. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  17. ^ Ferre-Sadurni, Luis (2017-06-13). "How New York is Saving a Fish that Swam with Dinosaurs". New York Times. Retrieved 2017-06-13.
  18. ^ "Lake Sturgeon". USFWS. USFWS. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  19. ^ "Fishing Wisconsin: Lake Winnebago Sturgeon Spearing Regulations for 2007". 8 February 2007. Archived from the original on 22 April 2007. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  20. ^ "Wis. DNR tags 240-pound, 125 year old sturgeon". Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
Acipenser

Acipenser is a genus of sturgeons. With 17 living species (3 others are only known from fossil remains), it is the largest genus in the order Acipenseriformes. They are native to Europe, Asia and North America, and most species are threatened.

Black Lake (Michigan)

Black Lake is located in Cheboygan and Presque Isle counties in northern Michigan, United States. With a surface area of 10,130 acres (41.0 km2), it is the seventh largest inland lake in Michigan. The largest body of water in the Black River watershed, it drains through the Lower Black and Cheboygan rivers into Lake Huron. Black Lake is a summer destination for many families from the suburban Detroit area and from other nearby states as well as residents of the neighboring town of Onaway.

Onaway State Park, at the southeastern end of the lake, offers camping, swimming and fishing. Its buildings, built during the Great Depression by the Civilian Conservation Corps, have been deemed eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places.

Businesses on or near the lake include the Black River Marina, The Bluffs Restaurant and the 211 Outpost. Since the late 1960s, the United Auto Workers Union has maintained the Walter and May Reuther Family Education Center on the site of a former private estate.

Black Lake is noted for its unusual fishing season. A limited lake sturgeon ice fishing season is permitted in the winter. The fishery is limited to five total fish taken each year, each over 36 inches and taken through the ice with fishing spears. 25 anglers are chosen by lottery each day and given a flag to raise when they have caught a fish. When five flags have been raised the season is closed for the year. Seasons have lasted as little as a few hours.

Burt Lake

Burt Lake is a 17,120 acre (69 km²) lake in Cheboygan County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The western shore of the lake is on the boundary with Emmet County. The lake is named after William Austin Burt, who, together with John Mullett, made a federal survey of the area from 1840 to 1843.

The lake is approximately 10 miles (16 km) long from north to south, about 5 miles (8 km) at its widest, and 73 feet (22 m) at its deepest. Major inflows to the lake are the Maple River, which connects with nearby Douglas Lake, the Crooked River, which connects with nearby Crooked Lake, and the Sturgeon River which enters the lake near the point where the Indian River flows out of the lake into nearby Mullett Lake.

The lake is part of the Inland Waterway, by which one can boat from Crooked Lake several miles (km) east of Petoskey on the Little Traverse Bay of Lake Michigan across the northern tip of the lower peninsula's so-called mitten to Cheboygan on Lake Huron. Along with nearby Mullett Lake and Black Lake, it is noted for its population of Lake Sturgeon, which briefly held the record of largest sturgeon caught in the USA.

YMCA Camp Al-Gon-Quian and Burt Lake State Park are both located on the southern shore of the lake. The unincorporated community of Burt Lake is on the southwest shore on M-68. Interstate 75 passes to the east of the lake, with two interchanges near the south end of the lake at the unincorporated community of Indian River.

Goulais River

The Goulais River (Pronounced: goo-lee) is a river in northern Ontario, Canada, which rises in the Algoma highlands and empties into Goulais Bay on eastern Lake Superior near Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. It is one of the largest tributaries on the eastern lake, draining an area of approximately 2,000 square kilometres (770 sq mi).

The river and its tributaries were used to transport logs to local sawmills during the second half of the 19th century. The Algoma Central Railway travels up the river valley on its way to the Agawa canyon.

At one time, the river was an important spawning area for lake sturgeon. However, logging operations, fishing and the installation of an electric barrier to prevent sea lampreys from travelling upstream (removed in 1960) have reduced sturgeon activity in the river.

The river is used for recreational canoeing, kayaking, and swimming, and the headwaters and parts of the river have been protected by the Goulais River Provincial Park.

The river's name is thought to come from the French word goulet or "narrow passage", which is also the source of the English words "gully" and "gullet". The French called the area at the river's mouth Anse de la pêche or "Fish Inlet".

The Goulais River is a popular yellow pickerel fishing area. The river is also home to bass, brook trout, and other species.

Lake Ontario

Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is surrounded on the north, west, and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south and east by the American state of New York, whose water boundaries meet in the middle of the lake. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. Many of Ontario's most populous cities, including Toronto, Canada's most populous city, and Hamilton, are on the lake's northern or western shores. In the Huron language, the name Ontarí'io means "Lake of Shining Waters". Its primary inlet is the Niagara River from Lake Erie. The last in the Great Lakes chain, Lake Ontario serves as the outlet to the Atlantic Ocean via the Saint Lawrence River. It is the only Great Lake not to border the state of Michigan.

Ledge View Nature Center

Ledge View Nature Center is a 105-acre (0.42 km2) park and interpretive center. It is located two miles (3 km) south of Chilton, Wisconsin. The facility is part of the Calumet County Parks system operated by Calumet County.

The park features 2.5 miles (4.0 km) of hiking and cross country ski trails through field and forest; a 60-foot (18 m) observation tower; an arboretum; a butterfly garden; a rain garden; prairie; three natural solution dolostone caves accessible only by guided tour; and a quarry. The Ledge Views caves are one of two publicly owned park systems accessible in eastern Wisconsin with the other being Cherney Maribel Caves County Park in neighboring Manitowoc County, Wisconsin. The nature center offers school programs in caving, sedimentary geology, maple syruping, and winter ecology on traditional wood-framed snowshoes. It also has exhibits which explain the geology of the area, including the drumlins and the Niagara Escarpment. The park is open to the public. The interpretive center has interactive exhibits on lake sturgeon, birds, bats of Wisconsin, honeybees, and the Niagara Escarpment, in addition to some live animals.

The facility’s exhibits and educational programming are financially supported by the 501(c)(3) volunteer group Friends of Ledge View Nature Center. Every spring the group has a fundraiser called Maple Syrup Sunday, where visitors can enjoy a pancake breakfast with real maple syrup. Visitors can participating in tapping and collecting, and view the boiling process. The Escarpment Bicycle Tour in August, Fall Food and Energy Fest in September, and Halloween Candlelight Cave Tours in October also raise funds for the Friends group and nature center.

Nickajack Lake

Nickajack Lake is the reservoir created by Nickajack Dam as part of the Tennessee Valley Authority. The lake stretches from Nickajack Dam to Chickamauga Dam, passing through the city of Chattanooga. The stretch of the Tennessee River commonly referred to as the "Grand Canyon of Tennessee" also is part of Nickajack Lake.

Full pool for Nickajack Lake is approximately 633.5 feet (193.1 m) above sea level, and remains consistent during the course of the year, unlike nearby Chickamauga Lake.

The world record for freshwater drum was caught from Nickajack Lake in 1972 by Benny Hull, and weighed in at 54 pounds 8 ounces (24.7 kg).

A lake sturgeon was caught in Nickajack Lake in 2011. This was the first sighting of one in the lake since they left the area in the 1960s.

Onaway, Michigan

Onaway () is a city in Presque Isle County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 880 at the 2010 census. Onaway is the Sturgeon Capital of Michigan, and there is a lake sturgeon streamside rearing facility on the nearby Black River, where the fish migrate down to the Cheboygan River and then to Lake Huron.

Prehensility

Prehensility is the quality of an appendage or organ that has adapted for grasping or holding. The word is derived from the Latin term prehendere, meaning "to grasp".

Quaker Agriculture missions to the Miami

In 1802, during a trip to Washington, DC, Miami Chief Little Turtle extended an invitation to the Baltimore area Quakers to visit Fort Wayne and teach the Miami about white civilization and European cultivation methods. The Quakers sent farm implements in 1803. Little Turtle, by way of William Wells, sent a letter thanking them for the tools, but expressed uncertainty of how they should be used.

The Quakers sent two missionaries, a farmer, and a blacksmith, who arrived in Spring of 1804. Missionaries Gerard T. Hopkins and George Ellicott remained two weeks to see to the establishment of Philip Dennis, a Baltimore area farmer who would remain through Autumn to demonstrate the farming methods used by Americans on the East Coast. Their reception was small, as Little Turtle explained, because many were busy making seasonal maple sugar. However, they received a guided tour of the Miami territory, including the site of Harmar's Defeat and the migration of lake sturgeon up the Maumee River.The Miami tribes set Dennis in a solitary area, near the present-day border of Wabash and Huntington counties in Indiana. At the time, it was closest to Little Turtle's village, but not near any towns. Dennis established his farm on what is today known as Dennis' Creek, a tributary of the Wabash River.

Members of the Miami, Potowatami, and Wea tribes all visited to watch Dennis farm during the Summer, but only one or two men showed enough interest to help Dennis establish the farm. After harvesting the crops and storing them for the Winter for his hosts, Dennis returned to his family in Baltimore, and later died on his farm in Montgomery County, Maryland. His report indicated that he had successful crops, and that the land was very fertile.

Despite the interest in his farming methods, the Miami did not adopt them. Anecdotal stories from the report to the Baltimore Friends indicate that the Miami already farmed adequately and were very apt hunters; they may have simply found their hunting methods more efficient than the Quaker farm.The location of Dennis' farm became known as Dennis' Station or Little Turtle's Farm School, and it became a central location for the "civilization project." Government money was allocated towards the project, but William Wells argued that nothing permanent could be achieved unless someone could be appointed as manager.

Unfortunately, when Quakers William and Mahlon Kirk arrived in 1806, they got along poorly with the Miami leadership, and the project fell apart. William Kirk transferred his mission to the Shawnee at Wapakoneta, Ohio. William Wells was especially critical of Kirk, and accused him of lying to the Quakers and embezzling government funds. The government instead decided that Wells had interfered with Kirk's mission, which harmed US-Miami relations.

Saskatchewan River Sturgeon Management Board

The Saskatchewan River Sturgeon Management Board (SRSMB) advises the governments of Canada, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and First Nations on all matters related to sturgeon management on the Saskatchewan River between the Grand Rapids and E.B. Campbell dams.

Savant Lake (Sturgeon Lake) Water Aerodrome

Savant Lake (Sturgeon Lake) Water Aerodrome, (TC LID: CJP3), is located 3.5 nautical miles (6.5 km; 4.0 mi) southeast of Savant Lake, Thunder Bay District, Ontario, Canada.

Located 0.81 NM (1.50 km; 0.93 mi) north-east at 50°11′40″N 90°39′50″W is the abandoned "Savant Lake Aerodrome" at an elevation of 453 m (1,486 ft). The gravel strip is visible from the air and is still listed on the visual flight rules (VFR) aeronautical charts.

Scugog River

The Scugog River is a river in the city of Kawartha Lakes in Central Ontario, Canada. It is in the Kawartha Lakes region, is part of the Great Lakes Basin, and is a branch of the Trent-Severn Waterway.

The river flows north from the northeast end of Lake Scugog, goes under Ontario Highway 7, heads through the community of Lindsay where it passes through Trent-Severn Waterway Lock 33 and associated control dams, and reaches its mouth at Sturgeon Lake. Sturgeon Lake flows via the Otonabee River and the Trent River to Lake Ontario.

Sea Life Michigan

Sea Life Michigan Aquarium is an interactive aquarium located at Great Lakes Crossing Outlets in Michigan. The aquarium contains thousands of aquatic creatures, plus interactive touch pools and a 180° ocean tunnel. SEA LIFE Michigan is owned and operated by Merlin Entertainments.

Sturgeon

Sturgeon is the common name for the 27 species of fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae. Their evolution dates back to the Triassic some 245 to 208 million years ago. The family is grouped into four genera: Acipenser, Huso, Scaphirhynchus and Pseudoscaphirhynchus. Four species may now be extinct. Two closely related species, Polyodon spathula (American paddlefish) and Psephurus gladius (Chinese paddlefish, possibly extinct) are of the same order, Acipenseriformes, but are in the family Polyodontidae and are not considered to be "true" sturgeons. Both sturgeons and paddlefish have been referred to as "primitive fishes" because their morphological characteristics have remained relatively unchanged since the earliest fossil record. Sturgeons are native to subtropical, temperate and sub-Arctic rivers, lakes and coastlines of Eurasia and North America.Sturgeons are long-lived, late-maturing fishes with distinctive characteristics, such as a heterocercal caudal fin similar to that of sharks, and an elongated spindle-like body that is smooth-skinned, scaleless and armored with 5 lateral rows of bony plates called scutes. Several species can grow quite large, typically ranging 7–12 feet (2-3½ m) in length. The largest sturgeon on record was a Beluga female captured in the Volga estuary in 1827, weighing 1,571 kg (3,463 lb) and 7.2 m (24 ft) long. Most sturgeons are anadromous bottom-feeders which migrate upstream to spawn but spend most of their lives feeding in river deltas and estuaries. Some species inhabit freshwater environments exclusively while others primarily inhabit marine environments near coastal areas, and are known to venture into open ocean.

Several species of sturgeon are harvested for their roe which is processed into caviar—a luxury food and the reason why caviar-producing sturgeons are among the most valuable of all wildlife resources. They are particularly vulnerable to overexploitation and other threats, including pollution and habitat fragmentation. Most species of sturgeon are considered to be at risk of extinction, making them more critically endangered than any other group of species.In art, a sturgeon is the symbol on the coat of arms for Saint Amalberga of Temse.

Sturgeon Lake (Northwestern Ontario)

Sturgeon Lake is a lake in the Kenora and Thunder Bay districts in northwestern Ontario, Canada. The lake has many bays and arms, and is drained by the Sturgeon River. It has a shallow V shape, with one arm beginning near O'Briens Landing and extending 35 km (22 mi) north-east to Sturgeon Lake Narrows at the vertex of the "V", and the second arm continuing from there another 24 km (15 mi) north to a point 6.5 km (4.0 mi)south of Savant Lake. Savant Lake (Sturgeon Lake) Water Aerodrome is located on the lake.

Sturgeon River (Big Fork River)

The Sturgeon River (Big Fork River) is a river of Minnesota, located in Koochiching County near Big Falls.

Sturgeon River was named for its lake sturgeon.

Turtle Lake Monster

In Canadian folklore, the Turtle Lake Monster is an entity purportedly inhabiting Turtle Lake, in West Central Saskatchewan Canada. The Monster is usually described as a creature 3–9 metres long, scaly, with no dorsal fin and a head resembling a dog, a "sea horse" or pig.

Natives are said to be nervous about the attention the Monster might bring and say its simply a massive Sturgeon that left his home and lives in Turtle Lake.

About once a year someone claims to have had an encounter with the beast. Reports date back to pre-settlement days when the local Cree had a legend about people who ventured into the monster's territory vanishing without a trace. There is speculation that the Monster sightings may be attributed to sightings of an unusually large lake sturgeon, or a relict population of prehistoric plesiosaurs.There was also a report of man seeing the creature while on the Lake with his grandson and daughter.

They say they saw the Monster about 12 metres away, saying "Its head came up, its back came up and it sort of rolled over we never saw the tail and its head looked like a seahorse."

Gord Sedgewick - Fisheries Biologist, Ministry of Environment has written: Much has been reported and written over the years about the Turtle Lake “monster” (although nothing has been reported in recent years). Over the years, people fishing in the open water have reported sightings of a big “thing” swimming near their boat. Could it have been a lake sturgeon? Lake sturgeon inhabit the Saskatchewan River system, and the outflow from Turtle Lake flows via the Turtle River directly into the North Saskatchewan River. It is not inconceivable during some years of very high outflow that sturgeon could have found their way from the North Saskatchewan up the Turtle River and into Turtle Lake. Sturgeon have a very long life span, so the few that may have entered the lake could have stayed there for many decades. And of course, the longer they lived in the lake, the larger they grew. Sturgeon are bottom feeding fish, so they wouldn’t often be sighted near the surface. The presence of a few lake sturgeon is the most plausible explanation for the numerous reported sightings of a “monster” swimming in the waters of Turtle Lake. Having said this, sturgeon have never been caught in any test netting surveys, nor in any commercial fishing nets, so there is no conclusive evidence of their presence in the lake. However, there are similarities between Turtle Lake and Candle Lake in regard to their connection to the Saskatchewan River system; in the case of Candle Lake, a few large lake sturgeon have actually been caught which verifies they were able to find their way upstream and take up residence in the lake. But for Turtle Lake we’ll likely never know for sure!

Whiteshell Provincial Park

Whiteshell Provincial Park is a 2,721 km2 park centrally located in Canada in the province of Manitoba. It is found in the southeast region of the province along the Manitoba-Ontario boundary, approximately 130 km east of the city of Winnipeg. The park is located in the Canadian Shield region and has many rivers, remote lakes, boreal forest and bare granite ridges. It has rare archeological sites of petroforms on flat granite ridges. The park is used year-round for nature-oriented recreation activities.Whiteshell Provincial Park was designated a provincial park by the Government of Manitoba in 1961. The park is considered to be a Class II protected area under the IUCN protected area management categories.

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