Lake Manzala

Lake Manzala (Arabic: بحيرة المنزلةbaḥīrat manzala), also Manzaleh, is a brackish lake, sometimes called a lagoon, in northeastern Egypt on the Nile Delta near Port Said and a few miles from the ancient ruins at Tanis.[1][2] It is the largest of the northern deltaic lakes of Egypt.[3] As of 2008 it is 47 km long and 30 km wide.[3]

Lake Manzala
Lake Manzala, image from space shuttle - crop
Coordinates31°16′N 32°12′E / 31.267°N 32.200°ECoordinates: 31°16′N 32°12′E / 31.267°N 32.200°E
Basin countriesEgypt


Lake Manzala is long but quite shallow. Though Lake Manzala's unaltered depth is only four to five feet, alterations to the depth were made during the construction of the Suez Canal to allow the Canal to extend 29 miles lengthwise along the lake. Its bed is soft clay.[4] Before construction of the Suez Canal, Lake Manzala was separated from the Mediterranean Sea by a strip of sand 200 to 300 yards wide.

Port Said was established adjacent to Lake Manzala during the nineteenth century to support canal construction and related travel. The lake's location directly south of the Port Said Airport restricts the city's capacity for growth.[5]

Suez Canal

Lake Manzala is the northernmost of three natural lakes intersected by the Suez Canal, the other two being Lake Timsah and the Great Bitter Lake. Construction of the canal proceeded from north to south, reaching Manzala first. Due to the lake's shallowness, it was necessary to dig a banked channel for ships to pass.


Fishermen in Egypt
Fishermen at Lake Manzala

Lake Manzala served as a significant source of inexpensive fish for human consumption in Egypt, but pollution and lake drainage have reduced the lake's productivity. In 1985, the lakes fishery was an open area of 89,000 ha and employed roughly 17,000 workers.[1] The government of Egypt drained substantial portions of the lake in an effort to convert its rich Nile deposits to farmland. The project was unprofitable: crops did not grow well in the salty soil and the value of resulting produce was less than the market value of the fish that the reclaimed land had formerly yielded. By 2001, Lake Manzala had lost approximately 80 percent of its former area through the effects of drainage efforts.[6]


  1. ^ a b Dinar, p.51
  2. ^ Margaret S. Drower (1995). Flinders Petrie: a life in archaeology (Second edition). ASCE Publications. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-299-14624-5. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
  3. ^ a b Zahran, p.283
  4. ^ Rogers, J. R. and G. Owen (2004). Water Resources and Environmental History. ASCE Publications. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-7844-0738-7. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
  5. ^ Melady, J. (2006). Pearson's prize: Canada and the Suez Crisis. Toronto, Lancaster, New York: Dundurn Press Ltd. p. 207. ISBN 978-1-55002-611-5. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
  6. ^ Ibrahim, p.145


  • Dinar, Ariel (1995). Restoring and protecting the world's lakes and reservoirs. World Bank Publications. ISBN 0-8213-3321-6.
  • Ibrahim, Barbara (2003). Egypt: an economic geography. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-548-8.
  • Penn, James R. (2001). Rivers of the world. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-042-5.
  • Zahran, M.A. (2008). The Vegetation of Egypt. Springer. ISBN 1-4020-8755-1.
Chemins de Fer de la Basse-Egypte

The Chemins de Fer de la Basse-Egypte built and operated a network of up to seven lines of metre-gauge (3 ft  3⅜ in) railway track in the area around Mansourah in Egypt.

Economy of Egypt and the environment

In the late 1970s, President Anwar Sadat initiated neoliberal policies in Egypt. Following Sadat's assassination, in 1981, President Hosni Mubarak came to power and continued the economic liberalization of Egypt.

El Manzala

El Manzala is a region (markaz) in Egypt. Situated in the Dakahlia Governorate, it lies on the Lake Manzala coast (which it is named after) in the northeastern part of the country.

El Matareya

Mataria (Arabic: المطرية‎ pronounced [el.mɑ.tˤɑ.ˈɾej.jɑ]) is a region (markaz) in Egypt. Located in the Dakahlia Governorate, it lies on the Lake Manzala coast in the northeastern part of the country.

The region should not be confused with the district of Mataria in Cairo. Mataria has a population of around 300,000 inhabitants, and consists of two main districts: El-Ghasna and El-Okbiyine. It was announced as a separate city in the 1930s, with many villages following in it.

El Salam Canal

El Salam Canal (Arabic: ترعة السلام‎) is a canal built as a part of the Toshka Project. It starts west of the Suez Canal and stretches southwest towards Lake Manzala, then south to drain at El Sarow drainage. It then moves east and then again south to Hadoos drainage. It then moves east under the Suez Canal in some tunnels.

Felis chaus chaus

Felis chaus chaus is the nominate subspecies of the jungle cat.The Baltic-German naturalist Johann Anton Güldenstädt was the first scientist who observed a jungle cat in the southern frontier of the Russian empire during his travels in 1768–1775 undertaken on behalf of Catherine II of Russia. He described the cat in 1776 under the name "chaus".

Floating solar

Floating solar or FPV (Floating photovoltaic), refers to an array of solar panels on a structure that floats on a body of water, typically an artificial basin or a lake.

This technology has had a rapid growth on the renewable energy market since 2016 and in 2017 has overcome the 200 MW of installed power. The first 20 plants, of a few dozen of kWp have been built between 2008 and 2014 as reported in the MIRARCO paper that analyzed the birth of this technology.

The installed power in 2018 is foreseen to be near to 1 GWP .

Kom el-Dahab

Kom el-Dahab is the modern name for the ruins of a Roman town in Egypt. Today the remains of the town are located on an Island near Lake Manzala. The remains cover an area of about 16 hectare. The town is planned on a grid pattern with streets running west-east and south to north. In the southern part there is the main street running from west to east. At this street there are the remains of a big, most likely public building. Its function is unknown. It might have been a temple. In the northern part of the town are the remains of a theatre. Even further north are the remains of a storage building.

The ancient name of the town is unknown. Kom el-Dahab is mainly known from surveys and from satellite images. It was never excavated.

Lake Timsah

Lake Timsah, also known as Crocodile Lake, is a lake in Egypt on the Nile delta. It lies in a basin developed along a fault extending from the Mediterranean Sea to the Gulf of Suez through the Bitter Lakes region. In 1800, a flood filled the Wadi Tumilat, which caused Timsah's banks to overflow and moved water south into the Bitter Lakes about nine miles (14 km) away. In 1862, the lake was filled with waters from the Red Sea.

Nile Delta

The Nile Delta (Arabic: دلتا النيل‎ Delta n-Nīl or simply الدلتا ed-Delta) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from Alexandria in the west to Port Said in the east, it covers 240 km (150 mi) of Mediterranean coastline and is a rich agricultural region. From north to south the delta is approximately 160 km (99 mi) in length. The Delta begins slightly down-river from Cairo.The Nile Delta is an area of the world that lacks detailed ground truth data and monitoring stations. Despite the economic importance of the Nile Delta, it could be considered as one of the most data-poor regions with respect to sea level rise.

Northern coast of Egypt

The northern coast of Egypt (Egyptian Arabic: الساحل الشمالى‎ El Sāḥel El Šamāli, north coast, commonly shortened to الساحل El Sāḥel, "the coast") extends for about 1,050 km (650 mi) along the Mediterranean Sea from the eastern side of the Sinai Peninsula at the Egypt-Gaza border to the western village of Sallum at Egypt's border with Libya. It is one of the longest Mediterranean coastlines in North Africa.

The city of Alexandria lies at the center of Egypt's Mediterranean coastline in Lower Egypt (northern Egypt), as chosen by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BCE. The north coast has been the hub of sea travel between the Mediterranean Sea and the Nile Delta for over 2,300 years.

Port Said

Port Said (Egyptian Arabic: بورسعيد‎ Borsaʿīd or Porsaʿīd) is a city that lies in north east Egypt extending about 30 kilometres (19 mi) along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of the Suez Canal, with an approximate population of 603,787 (2010). The city was established in 1859 during the building of the Suez Canal.

There are numerous old houses with grand balconies on all floors, giving the city a distinctive look. Port Said's twin city is Port Fuad, which lies on the eastern bank of the canal. The two cities coexist, to the extent that there is hardly any town centre in Port Fuad. The cities are connected by free ferries running all through the day, and together they form a metropolitan area with over a million residents that extends both on the African and the Asian sides of the Suez Canal. The only other metropolitan area in the world that also spans two continents is Istanbul.

Port Said acted as a global city since its establishment and flourished particularly during the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century when it was inhabited by various nationalities and religions. Most of them were from Mediterranean countries, and they coexisted in tolerance, forming a cosmopolitan community. Referring to this fact Rudyard Kipling once said "If you truly wish to find someone you have known and who travels, there are two points on the globe you have but to sit and wait, sooner or later your man will come there: the docks of London and Port Said".

Port Said Governorate

Port Said Governorate (Egyptian Arabic: محافظة بورسعيد‎ Muḥāfẓet Būr Sa‘īd) is one of the Canal Zone governorates of Egypt. It is located in the northeastern part of the country, on the Mediterranean Sea at the northern gate of the Suez Canal, making it the second most important harbor in Egypt. Its capital is the city of Port Said, and is the home of the Suez Canal Authority historical administrative building and the Lighthouse of Port Said.

Port Said Governorate is wholly urban, with 98.2% of the area populated. Most of the districts in the Governorate lie on the African side of the Suez Canal, although Port Fuad lies on the Asian side.

Shata, Egypt

Shata or Sheikh Shata (Arabic: شطا‎, Greek: Σάτα) is an old city in Damietta Governorate, Egypt. It lies North East of the Nile Delta on Lake Manzala. City was famous in Middle Ages for its production of textiles known as "Shatawi" and for producing cover (Kiswah) for Kabaa.


Suez (Arabic: السويس‎ as-Suways ; Egyptian Arabic: es-Sewēs, el-Sewēs pronounced [esseˈweːs]) is a seaport city (population of about 750,000 as of August 2018) in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez (a branch of the Red Sea), near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate. It has three harbours, Adabya, Ain Sukhna and Port Tawfiq, and extensive port facilities. Together they form a metropolitan area.

Railway lines and highways connect the city with Cairo, Port Said, and Ismailia. Suez has a petrochemical plant, and its oil refineries have pipelines carrying the finished product to Cairo, in the flag of the governorate: the blue background refer to the sea, the gear refer to the fact that Suez an industrial governorate, and the flame refer to the petroleum firms in it.


Tahpanhes (also transliterated Tahapanes or Tehaphnehes; known by the Ancient Greeks as the (Pelusian) Daphnae (Ancient Greek: Δάφναι αἱ Πηλούσιαι) and Taphnas (Ταφνας) in the Septuagint, now Tell Defenneh) was a city in Ancient Egypt. It was located on Lake Manzala on the Tanitic branch of the Nile, about 26 km (16 miles) from Pelusium. The site is now situated on the Suez Canal.

Water resources management in Egypt

Water resources management in modern Egypt is a complex process that involves multiple stakeholders who use water for irrigation, municipal and industrial water supply, hydropower generation and navigation. In addition, the waters of the Nile support aquatic ecosystems that are threatened by abstraction and pollution. Egypt also has substantial fossil groundwater resources in the Western Desert.

A key problem of water resources management in Egypt is the imbalance between increasing water demand and limited supply. In order to ensure future water availability coordination with the nine upstream Nile riparian countries is essential. The Nile Basin Initiative provides a forum for such cooperation. In the 1990s the government launched three mega-projects to increase irrigation on "new lands". They are located in the Toshka area (the "New Valley"), on the fringe of the Western Nile Delta, and in the Northern Sinai. These projects all require substantial amounts of water that can only be mobilized through better irrigation efficiency on already irrigated "old lands" as well as the reuse of drainage water and treated wastewater.

Water supply and sanitation in Egypt

Drinking water supply and sanitation in Egypt is characterized by both achievements and challenges. Among the achievements are an increase of piped water supply between 1990 and 2010 from 89% to 100% in urban areas and from 39% to 93% in rural areas despite rapid population growth; the elimination of open defecation in rural areas during the same period; and in general a relatively high level of investment in infrastructure. Access to an at least basic water source in Egypt is now practically universal with a rate of 98%. On the institutional side, the regulation and service provision have been separated to some extent through the creation of a national Holding Company for Water and Wastewater in 2004, and of an economic regulator, the Egyptian Water Regulatory Agency (EWRA), in 2006.However, many challenges remain. Only about one half of the population is connected to sanitary sewers. Partly because of low sanitation coverage about 50,000 children die each year because of diarrhea. Another challenge is low cost recovery due to water tariffs that are among the lowest in the world. This in turn requires government subsidies even for operating costs, a situation that has been aggravated by salary increases without tariff increases after the Arab Spring. Poor operation of facilities, such as water and wastewater treatment plants, as well as limited government accountability and transparency, are also issues.

Foreign aid from the United States, the European Union, France, Germany, the World Bank and other donors remains important, both in terms of financing and in terms of technical assistance. Western donors also have long promoted sector reforms aiming at higher levels of cost recovery and more efficient service provision. Private sector participation has so far been limited mainly to Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) projects for treatment plants.

Édouard Empain

Édouard Louis Joseph, Baron Empain (20 September 1852 – 22 July 1929), was a wealthy Belgian engineer, entrepreneur, financier and industrialist, as well as an amateur Egyptologist. During World War I he became a known Major-General.

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