Lake Forest is a city located in Lake County, Illinois, United States. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 19,375. The city is along the shore of Lake Michigan, and is a part of the Chicago metropolitan area and the North Shore.
Lake Forest was founded together with Lake Forest College; it was laid out as a town in 1857, and was a stop for travelers making their way south to Chicago. The Lake Forest City Hall, designed by Charles Sumner Frost, was completed in 1898. It originally housed the fire department, the Lake Forest Library, and city offices.
The city used restrictive covenants to bar "African-Americans and Jews from purchasing property in Lake Forest", a practice associated with sundown towns that "continued at least until the 1960s", but which seems to have been "greatly diminished" by the 1990s, though still active.
Lake Forest, Illinois
Lake Forest City Hall
Location of Lake Forest in Lake County, Illinois.
Location within Illinois
Location within United States
|Township||Moraine, Shields, Vernon, West Deerfield|
|• Mayor||Robert T. E. Lansing|
|• Total||17.24 sq mi (44.66 km2)|
|• Land||17.18 sq mi (44 km2)|
|• Water||0.07 sq mi (0.17 km2)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||1,128.59/sq mi (435.75/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
|Area code(s)||847, 224|
|Wikimedia Commons||Lake Forest, Illinois|
According to the 2010 census, Lake Forest has a total area of 17.246 square miles (44.67 km2), of which 17.18 square miles (44.50 km2) (or 99.62%) is land and 0.066 square miles (0.17 km2) (or 0.38%) is water.
As Lake Forest was first developed in 1857, the planners laid roads that would provide limited access to the city in an effort to prevent outside traffic and isolate the tranquil settlement from neighboring areas. Though the town is considerably more accessible today, due in part to the extensive new construction taking place further west, the much smaller neighborhood of eastern Lake Forest, near the coast of Lake Michigan, remains relatively secluded. It is one of the most scenic, historical, and architecturally significant suburbs of Chicago. These neighborhoods include estates and homes designed by distinguished architects such as Howard Van Doren Shaw, David Adler, Frank Lloyd Wright, Arthur Heun, Jerome Cerny, Henry Ives Cobb, and modernist George Fred Keck, among others. Landscape architects Frederick Law Olmsted and Jens Jensen also designed projects in Lake Forest. Market Square, designed by Howard Van Doren Shaw, was completed in 1916 as a commercial center for Lake Forest.
The secluded style of Lake Forest was intended as a form of protection. According to the president of the Lake Forest-Lake Bluff Historical Society, the captains of industry and upper-class elite who first settled in Lake Forest sought a refuge from late 19th and early 20th-century Chicago. In their view, the city was overrun with immigrants from southern and eastern Europe who had dangerous socialist ideas and indulged in excessive alcoholic consumption.
Country clubs became important centers of social activity in Lake Forest's early decades. The Onwentsia Club was, in the words of one writer, "the premiere social and sporting club in the Midwest". In 1898, members held a plantation-themed party, dining on fried chicken, corn on the cob, and watermelon served by—in keeping with the party's theme—"little colored girls". After-dinner entertainment included a minstrel show. This was a period in United States history in which there was considerable interest in Southern culture and the mythical plantation society. Both the North and South were active in memorializing their contributions to the Civil War, as well as achieving a kind of reconciliation that, according to historian David W. Blight, pushed issues of race to the side.
One of Lake Forest's most notable features is its virgin prairies and other nature preserves. In 1967, a group of 12 long-time residents of Lake Forest formed a land conservation organization, Lake Forest Open Lands Association. Its express purpose was to purchase or otherwise set aside the rapidly disappearing open spaces in the city, in the interests of preserving animal habitat, restoring ecosystems, and providing environmental education for the city's children. In the next 38 years, the group managed to acquire more than 700 acres (2.8 km2) within the city limits, which now form six nature preserves with 12 miles (19 km) of walking trails open to the public.
Preserved in perpetuity are wetlands, original pre-1830 prairie, woodland, and savanna, all within the community. The restoration of these lands is celebrated by an annual "Bagpipes and Bonfire" event in September, which started as a community event in which controlled fires were burned to clear underbrush and preserve the savannah. From an early time, the playing of bagpipes has accompanied the community gathering, as the town had numerous Scots-Irish residents in its early years. This has also been an annual fundraising event for Lake Forest Open Lands Association.
The Ragdale Foundation, an artists' community and residence, is located in Lake Forest. Formerly Howard Van Doren Shaw's summer retreat and built in 1897, the estate has accommodated notable artist Sylvia Shaw Judson.
In 1992, Lake Forest gained national attention when it attempted to ban the sale of offensive music to anyone under the age of 18. City council members used existing ordinances against obscenity—defined in the codes as "morbid interest in nudity, sex or excretion"—to buttress their campaign. Mayor Charles Clarke stated, "If they sell an obscene tape to somebody underage, we will prosecute." The person who came up most frequently in discussions of obscene content was Ice-T, a rapper who has since also performed as an actor.
Lake Forest has been named a Tree City USA by the National Arbor Day Foundation in recognition of its commitment to community forest. As of 2006, Lake Forest had received this national honor for 26 years. The actor Mr. T notably angered the town by cutting down more than 100 oak trees on his estate, in what is now referred to as the "Lake Forest Chain Saw Massacre."
Commercial development in Lake Forest is focused in three areas, two of which have public railway stations. The central business district includes a Metra commuter railroad station on the Union Pacific/North Line. It extends beyond Market Square, providing a mixture of retail, banking, and professional services, as well as restaurants. Market Square is composed of a wide variety of shops and restaurants, including Talbots, Williams-Sonoma, J.Crew, and Einstein Bros. Bagels. The business district to the west includes a Metra commuter railroad station on the Milwaukee District/North Line. It extends beyond Settlers' Square to provide a mixture of retail, banking and professional services, as well as restaurants. A third area of business development, consisting mostly of corporate and office space, has been developed along the city's northwestern border with the Tri-State Tollway.
The headquarters of Fortune 500 companies Tenneco, Brunswick, and Hospira are located in Lake Forest; Covered Logistics, IDEX, Packaging Corporation of America, Pactiv, Prestone, and Trustmark also have their headquarters in Lake Forest, while W. W. Grainger and BFG Technologies are located in unincorporated Lake County, near Lake Forest. The Chicago Bears training facility and headquarters, Halas Hall, opened in 1997 in west Lake Forest, and the Chicago Fire now train at the Bears' previous facility located on the campus of Lake Forest.
Lake Forest is the base for Linking Efforts Against Drugs (LEAD), a national organization aimed at discouraging youth from getting involved in drugs. It empowers parents and community members to encourage the drug-free choice.
According to Lake Forest's 2017 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||Northwestern Lake Forest Hospital||1,438|
|2||Pfizer (formerly Hospira)||N/A|
|4||Trustmark Insurance Company||704|
|5||Lake Forest College||448|
|7||Lake Forest Community High School District 115||327|
|8||Lake Forest Elementary School District 67||305|
|9||Packaging Corporation of America||275|
|10||City of Lake Forest||213|
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 19,375 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 92.11% White, 4.67% Asian, 2.80% Hispanic or Latino (of any race), 1.30% of two or more races, 1.10% Black or African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.01% Pacific Islander, and 0.68% of some other race.
As of the census of 2000, there were 20,059 people, 6,687 households, and 5,329 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,189.4 people per square mile (459.1/km²). There were 7,001 housing units at an average density of 415.1 per square mile (160.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 95.80% White, 1.35% African American, 0.06% Native American, 2.45% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 0.44% from other races, and 0.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.87% of the population.
There were 6,687 households out of which 39.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.6% were married couples living together, 4.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 20.3% were non-families. Of all households 18.3% Of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.17.
In the city, the population was spread out with 27.5% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 19.7% from 25 to 44, 28.6% from 45 to 64, and 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.5 males.
According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $150,670, and the median income for a family was more than $200,000. Males had a median income of $100,000+ versus $44,083 for females. The per capita income for the city was $77,092. About 0.15% of families and 0.2% of the population were below the poverty line.
Lake Forest has Interstate Highway access through the Tri-State Tollway (I-94). In addition, the Skokie Highway (U.S. Highway 41) runs through Lake Forest, roughly bisecting the city. Lake Forest is connected with suburbs west of it through Illinois Route 60. Additionally, Lake Forest has two Metra commuter railroad stations, both of which share the same name. The Union Pacific/North Line has a station in East Lake Forest, while the Milwaukee District/North Line has a station in West Lake Forest.
Lake Forest is noted in the Chicago area for its history of polo, once being the westernmost establishment of the sport in the United States. It was home to the "East-West clash of 1933", in which a team of "Westerners" (who would today be considered Midwesterners), challenged the best of the Eastern US polo teams, winning two of three matches. Box seats sold for $5.50, and the general public was admitted for $1.10. The Chicago press covered the match extensively, including the arrival of every horse and player, the color of the horseflesh, and the color of the goalposts. The match was described as a "gleaming moment in American polo, if not the very zenith of the game in this country." In the early 21st century, Lake Forest continues the tradition, and polo is played yearly throughout August.
The 1906 U.S. Open was the twelfth U.S. Open, held June 28–29 at Onwentsia Club in Lake Forest, Illinois, a suburb north of Chicago. Alex Smith won the first of his two U.S. Open titles, seven strokes ahead of runner-up Willie Smith, his younger brother and the 1899 champion.Willie Anderson, three-time defending champion and club pro at Onwentsia, was the heavy favorite. He trailed Alex Smith by two strokes after the first 36 holes on Thursday, and by three after the third round on Friday morning, but an 84 that afternoon dropped him to a distant fifth. Smith posted rounds of 73-74-73-75 for 295, a U.S. Open record and the first sub-300 winning score. Not only did his brother Willie finish in second, his brother-in-law James Maiden tied for third.Smith's win marked the end of a streak where Scottish-born players won seven consecutive major championships.
For the first time, no player from the inaugural U.S. Open in 1895 participated. Horace Rawlins, the first champion, had played in every edition until this year.Barat College
Barat College of the Sacred Heart was a small Roman Catholic college located in Lake Forest, Illinois, United States, 30 miles north of Chicago. The college was named after Saint Madeleine Sophie Barat, founder of the Society of the Sacred Heart. Barat College was purchased by DePaul University in 2001, but closed in 2005; the faculty and student body were absorbed by DePaul, and the campus and educational inventory were sold.Enella Benedict
Enella Benedict (December 21, 1858 – April 6, 1942) was an American realism and landscape painter. She taught at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and was a founder and director for nearly 50 years for the Art School at the Hull House.Fort Sheridan, Illinois
Fort Sheridan in IL is a residential neighborhood spread among Lake Forest, Highwood, and Highland Park in Lake County, Illinois, United States. It was originally established as Fort Sheridan, a United States Army Post named after Civil War Cavalry General Philip Sheridan, to honor his services to Chicago.Halas Hall
Halas Hall is a building complex in Lake Forest, Illinois, that serves as the Chicago Bears' headquarters. Designed by Peter Rose of Peter Rose + Partners, the building hosts the team's front office, as well as indoor and outdoor practice facilities. The franchise spent $20 million to build the complex in 1997. The location is four miles west of the original Halas Hall, which is now used by the Lake Forest College Athletics Department.In 2013, the Bears announced that Halas Hall will be renovated, which will include an event center, broadcast studio, along with an outdoor patio and dining facility. Additional conference rooms and staff offices will also be added, and the building will expand the parking lot and renovate the entrance to the lobby. The event centers will feature interactive digital displays, video monitors and memorabilia such as the 1963 NFL Championship Game trophy. The new facility was designed by Richard Preves & Associates, PC. On April 21, 2015, PNC Financial Services purchased the naming rights to the new building, naming it PNC Center at Halas Hall.On November 17, 2017, Ted Phillips announced the franchise will be expanding and renovating Halas Hall to effectively double its size. The project began in March 2018 and is set to conclude in August 2019.Harry Shipp
Harrison "Harry" Shipp (born November 7, 1991) is an American soccer player who plays as a midfielder for Seattle Sounders FC in Major League Soccer.Hospira
Hospira was an American global pharmaceutical and medical device company with headquarters in Lake Forest, Illinois. It had approximately 19,000 employees. Before its acquisition by Pfizer, Hospira was the world's largest producer of generic injectable pharmaceuticals, manufacturing generic acute-care and oncology injectables, as well as integrated infusion therapy and medication management systems. Hospira's products are used by hospitals and alternate site providers, such as clinics, home healthcare providers and long-term care facilities. It was formerly the hospital products division of Abbott Laboratories. On September 3, 2015, Hospira was acquired by Pfizer, who subsequently sold off the medical devices portion of Hospira to ICU Medical.
Worldwide sales in 2014 were approximately $4.5 billion. Current results are now part of Pfizer's consolidated statements.Jeff Pilson
Jeffrey Steven Pilson (born January 19, 1959) is an American musician who is currently the bass guitarist for the rock band Foreigner. He has also performed with bands Dokken and Dio. He also plays guitar, cello, keyboards, piano, and mellotron. Pilson played fictional heavy metal bassist Jörgen in the 2001 film Rock Star, and voiced Johnny Cage in the 2011 video game Mortal Kombat.Lake Forest College
Lake Forest College is a private liberal arts college in Lake Forest, Illinois. Founded in 1857 as Lind University by Presbyterian ministers, the college has been coeducational since 1876 and an undergraduate-focused liberal arts institution since 1903. Lake Forest enrolls approximately 1,600 students representing 47 states and 81 countries. Lake Forest offers 30 undergraduate major and minor programs in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences, and features programs of study in pre-law, pre-medicine, communication, business, finance, and computer science. The majority of students live on the college's wooded 107-acre campus located a half-mile from the Lake Michigan shore.
Lake Forest is affiliated with the Associated Colleges of the Midwest. The college has 19 varsity teams which compete in the NCAA Division III Midwest Conference.Lake Forest Graduate School of Management
Lake Forest Graduate School of Management is a private business school in Lake Forest, Illinois. It opened in 1946 and has satellite campus in Schaumburg, Illinois. Until 2004, the school was located near, but unaffiliated with, Lake Forest College. In 2004, the school moved its campus to its present location, near the Tri-State Tollway. The school only offers Master's degrees.Lake Forest High School (Illinois)
Lake Forest High School, or LFHS, is a public four-year high school located in Lake Forest, Illinois, a North Shore suburb of Chicago, Illinois, in the United States. It is the only school of Lake Forest Community High School District 115, which serves the communities of Lake Forest, Lake Bluff, Knollwood, and smaller parts of Mettawa and North Chicago. It is fed by Lake Bluff Middle School, Lake Forest Country Day School, Saint Mary's, and Deer Path Middle School.Market Square (Lake Forest, Illinois)
Market Square is a shopping center located in Lake Forest, Illinois, United States, in the Chicago metropolitan area. Opened in 1916, it is notable as one of the earliest planned shopping centers, and is often cited as the first planned shopping center in the United States.Although Country Club Plaza (1923) in Kansas City, Missouri is generally credited as the first regional shopping center designed to accommodate shoppers arriving by automobile, Market Square was built within an already defined central retail district, replacing prior development. Lake Forest resident Arthur T. Aldis championed the notion of replacing the dilapidated business district of the town, and engaged architect Howard Van Doren Shaw.In Illinois, the first major center to be developed after Market Square was Spanish Court (1928).
In celebration of the 2018 Illinois Bicentennial, Lake Forest Market Square was selected as one of the Illinois 200 Great Places by the American Institute of Architects Illinois component (AIA Illinois).Melora Walters
Melora Walters (born October 21, 1960) is a Saudi Arabian-born American actress. She played Wanda Henrickson in the television series Big Love. She has also starred in Paul Thomas Anderson's films, including Boogie Nights (1997) and Magnolia (1999).Onwentsia Club
Onwentsia Club is an 18-hole golf course in the central United States, located in Lake Forest, Illinois, a suburb north of Chicago.Ordinary People
Ordinary People is a 1980 American drama film that marked the directorial debut of actor Robert Redford. The film stars Donald Sutherland, Mary Tyler Moore, Judd Hirsch, and Timothy Hutton.
The story concerns the disintegration of an upper-middle class family in Lake Forest, Illinois, following the death of one of their sons in a boating accident. The screenplay by Alvin Sargent was based upon the 1976 novel Ordinary People by Judith Guest.
The film received six Academy Awards nominations and won four: the Academy Award for Best Picture, Best Director for Redford, Adapted Screenplay for Sargent, and Supporting Actor for Hutton. In addition, it won five Golden Globe Awards: Best Motion Picture – Drama, Best Director (Redford), Best Actress in a Drama (Tyler Moore), Best Supporting Actor (Hutton), and Best Screenplay (Sargent).Pactiv
Pactiv is a manufacturer and distributor of food packaging and foodservice products, supplying packers, processors, supermarkets, restaurants, institutions and foodservice outlets across North America.Robert P. Lamont
Robert Patterson Lamont (December 1, 1867 – February 20, 1948) was United States Secretary of Commerce March 5, 1929 to August 7, 1932 during the administration of Herbert Hoover. He was commerce secretary during difficult times for commerce, as a result of the Great Depression.Vince Vaughn
Vincent Anthony Vaughn (born March 28, 1970) is an American actor, producer, screenwriter, and comedian.
Vaughn began acting in the late 1980s, appearing in minor television roles before attaining wider recognition with the 1996 comedy-drama film Swingers. He has appeared in a number of films in the 1990s, including the sports film Rudy (1993), the sci-fi adventure dinosaur film The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997), and the drama-thriller Return to Paradise (1998).
Other than his dramatic role in The Cell (2000), in the 2000s he acted primarily in comedies, including Old School (2003), Dodgeball: A True Underdog Story (2004), Wedding Crashers (2005), The Break-Up (2006), Fred Claus (2007), and Four Christmases (2008). He continued his comedic roles in the 2010s with The Dilemma (2011), The Watch (2012), and The Internship (2013). In 2015, he starred as Frank Semyon in the second season of the HBO anthology crime drama television series True Detective alongside Colin Farrell, Taylor Kitsch and Rachel McAdams, and since then has taken dramatic roles such as in Hacksaw Ridge and Brawl in Cell Block 99.Woodlands Academy of the Sacred Heart
Woodlands Academy of the Sacred Heart (Woodlands, WA, or WASH) is a private, Roman Catholic girls' high school in Lake Forest, Illinois, north of Chicago. Founded by the Society of the Sacred Heart, it is located in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago but is run by lay staff with several Sisters sitting on the Board of Trustees.
Places adjacent to Lake Forest, Illinois
Lake Forest, Illinois
|Colleges and universities|
This list is incomplete.
Municipalities and communities of Lake County, Illinois, United States
‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties
(over 30,000 in 2010)
|Towns and villages|
(over 30,000 in 2010)
|The North Shore|
|The Greater North Shore|