Lagina

Lagina (Ancient Greek: τὰ Λάγινα) or Laginia (Λαγινία)[1] was a town in the territory of Stratonicea, in ancient Caria. It contained a most splendid temple of Hecate, at which every year great festivals were celebrated.[2] Tacitus, when speaking of the worship of Trivia among the Stratoniceans, evidently means Hecate.[3]

Its site is located near Turgut, Asiatic Turkey.[4][5]

Recent studies have shown that the site had been inhabited and/or employed in an uninterrupted manner during a time span stretching back to the Bronze Age. Seleucid kings conducted a considerable reconstruction effort in the sacred ground of Lagina and transformed it into a foremost religious center of its time, with the nearby (at a distance of 11 kilometers) site of Stratonicea becoming the administrative center. The two sites (Lagina and Stratonkeia) were connected to each other in antiquity by a holy path.

The archaeological research conducted in Lagina is historically significant in that it was the first to have been done by a Turkish scientific team, under the direction of Osman Hamdi Bey and Halit Ethem Bey. In 1993, excavation and restoration work was resumed under the guidance of Muğla Museum, by an international team advised by Professor Ahmet Tırpan.

The friezes of the Hecate sanctuary are displayed in the Istanbul Archaeology Museums. Four different themes are depicted in these friezes. These are, on the eastern frieze, scenes from the life of Zeus; on the western frieze, a battle between gods and giants; on the southern frieze, a gathering of Carian gods; and on the northern frieze, a battle of Amazons.

Lagina was Christianised at an early date and was the seat of a bishop; no longer a residential see, it remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.[6]

The Sanctuary of Hecate in Lagina, Caria, Turkey (17263493936)
Temple of Hecate

References

  1. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium. Ethnica. s.v.
  2. ^ Strabo. Geographica. xiv. p.660. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  3. ^ Tacitus. Annals. 3.62.
  4. ^ Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 61, and directory notes accompanying.
  5. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.
  6. ^ Catholic Hierarchy

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Lagina". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Coordinates: 37°22′42″N 28°02′21″E / 37.378275°N 28.039242°E

Ancient Greek temple

Greek temples (Ancient Greek: ναός, romanized: naós, lit. 'dwelling', semantically distinct from Latin templum, "temple") were structures built to house deity statues within Greek sanctuaries in ancient Greek religion. The temple interiors did not serve as meeting places, since the sacrifices and rituals dedicated to the respective deity took place outside them, within the wider precinct of the sanctuary, which might be large. Temples were frequently used to store votive offerings. They are the most important and most widespread building type in Greek architecture. In the Hellenistic kingdoms of Southwest Asia and of North Africa, buildings erected to fulfill the functions of a temple often continued to follow the local traditions. Even where a Greek influence is visible, such structures are not normally considered as Greek temples. This applies, for example, to the Graeco-Parthian and Bactrian temples, or to the Ptolemaic examples, which follow Egyptian tradition. Most Greek temples were oriented astronomically.

Between the 9th century BC and the 6th century BC, the ancient Greek temples developed from the small mudbrick structures into double porched monumental buildings with colonnade on all sides, often reaching more than 20 metres in height (not including the roof). Stylistically, they were governed by the regionally specific architectural orders. Whereas the distinction was originally between the Doric and Ionic orders, a third alternative arose in late 3rd century BC with the Corinthian order. A multitude of different ground plans were developed, each of which could be combined with the superstructure in the different orders. From the 3rd century BC onwards, the construction of large temples became less common; after a short 2nd century BC flourish, it ceased nearly entirely in the 1st century BC. Thereafter, only smaller structures were newly begun, while older temples continued to be renovated or brought to completion if in an unfinished state.

Greek temples were designed and constructed according to set proportions, mostly determined by the lower diameter of the columns or by the dimensions of the foundation levels. The nearly mathematical strictness of the basic designs thus reached was lightened by optical refinements. In spite of the still widespread idealised image, Greek temples were painted, so that bright reds and blues contrasted with the white of the building stones or of stucco. The more elaborate temples were equipped with very rich figural decoration in the form of reliefs and pedimental sculpture. The construction of temples was usually organised and financed by cities or by the administrations of sanctuaries. Private individuals, especially Hellenistic rulers, could also sponsor such buildings. In the late Hellenistic period, their decreasing financial wealth, along with the progressive incorporation of the Greek world within the Roman state, whose officials and rulers took over as sponsors, led to the end of Greek temple construction. New temples now belonged to the tradition of the Roman temple, which, in spite of the very strong Greek influence on it, aimed for different goals and followed different aesthetic principles (for a comparison, see the other article).

The main temple building sat within a larger precinct or temenos, usually surrounded by a peribolos fence or wall; the whole is usually called a "sanctuary". The Acropolis of Athens is the most famous example, though this was apparently walled as a citadel before a temple was ever built there. This might include many subsidiary buildings, sacred groves or springs, animals dedicated to the deity, and sometimes people who had taken sanctuary from the law, which some temples offered, for example to runaway slaves.

Ariassus

Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Caloe

Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.

Cestrus

Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Cotenna

Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

Drizipara

Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.

Eduard Hula

Eduard Hula (25 September 1862, in Prague – 26 September 1902, in Vienna) was an Austrian classical archaeologist and epigrapher.

He studied classical philology, archaeology and epigraphy at the University of Vienna, receiving his doctorate in 1889. Later on, he taught classes at gymnasiums in Brünn and Vienna. In 1892/93, with a scholarship from the Austrian Academy of Sciences, he conducted research in Italy and Greece, and in 1894, along with epigrapher Emil Szántó, he performed investigations in Asia Minor. In 1901 he was named secretary of the Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut.

Handball Club Lada

Handball Club Lada is a Russian women's handball club from Tolyatti playing in the Russian Super League.

Founded in 1998, Lada soon became the leading team in the Super League winning five championships in a row between 2002 and 2006 and a sixth one in 2008. It also built itself a name in Europe winning the 2002 Cup Winners' Cup in its international debut and reaching the final of the 2007 Champions League and the next edition's semifinals.The following three seasons were less successful, with Dynamo Volgograd retrieving the leading position. On the other hand, Lada won the 2012 EHF Cup, its second international title, while attaining the national championship's bronze in 2009, 2011 and 2012.

Hecate

Hecate or Hekate (; Ancient Greek: Ἑκάτη, Hekátē) is a goddess in ancient Greek religion and mythology, most often shown holding a pair of torches or a key and in later periods depicted in triple form. She was variously associated with crossroads, entrance-ways, light, magic, witchcraft, knowledge of herbs and poisonous plants, ghosts, necromancy, and sorcery. She appears in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and in Hesiod's Theogony, where she is promoted strongly as a great goddess. The place of origin of her following is uncertain, but it is thought that she had popular followings in Thrace.Hecate was one of the main deities worshiped in Athenian households as a protective goddess and one who bestowed prosperity and daily blessings on the family. In the post-Christian writings of the Chaldean Oracles (2nd–3rd century CE) she was regarded with (some) rulership over earth, sea, and sky, as well as a more universal role as Saviour (Soteira), Mother of Angels and the Cosmic World Soul.

Regarding the nature of her cult, it has been remarked, "she is more at home on the fringes than in the center of Greek polytheism. Intrinsically ambivalent and polymorphous, she straddles conventional boundaries and eludes definition."

Leine

The Leine (German: [ˈlaɪnə] (listen); Old Saxon Lagina) is a river in Thuringia and Lower Saxony, Germany. It is a left tributary of the Aller and the Weser and it is 281 km (175 mi) long.

The river's source is located close to the town of Leinefelde in Thuringia. About 40 km (25 mi) downriver, the river enters Lower Saxony and runs northwards.

Important towns along its course, from upstream to downstream, are Göttingen, Einbeck, Alfeld, and Gronau, before the river enters Hanover, the largest city on its banks. Downstream some 40 km (25 mi) north of Hanover, near Schwarmstedt, the river joins the Aller and reaches the North Sea via the Weser. Its northern (lower) reaches are only navigable today by the smallest commercial carriers, though in the past, it served as an important pre-railway barge transport artery as far upriver as Göttingen.

The river is somewhat polluted by industry, so the water is not used for drinking, but the pollution has never been severe enough to prevent fish from living in it. Like many western rivers since the 1960s, it has enjoyed increasingly cleaner waters since the implementation of environmental controls. Sport fishing is enjoyed from small boats and along the banks, although yields are normally low.

At least one point of the river (Göttingen) is partially diverted into a canal that runs more or less parallel to the river.

List of The Curse of Oak Island episodes

The Curse of Oak Island is a reality television series premiered January 5, 2014. The show features the Oak Island mystery. As of January 15, 2019, 88 episodes of The Curse of Oak Island have aired.

Lucien Bulathsinhala

Lucien Bulathsinhala (Sinhala:ලූෂන් බුලත්සිංහල,) is a playwright, poet, author and stage drama producer. He was born in Ratmalana on 30 May 1943. He is most notable for writing the play Tharavo Igilethi.

He started working in the theatre industry in the 1960s, playing Saliya in the tragicomedy Ashoka mala.

Lyrbe

Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Marcus Cocceius Nerva (consul 36 BC)

Marcus Cocceius Nerva was consul of the Roman Republic in 36 BC, together with Lucius Gellius Publicola. His family were of Umbrian origin and were supporters of Marcus Antonius, providing him with a number of generals and diplomats.Nerva was Proquaestor pro praetore under Antonius in 41 BC, and it is assumed that he was with Lucius Antonius during the Perusine War. He was one of the key military officers in Antonius's army who refused to fight Octavianus and brought about the reconciliation between the two men in 40 BC. Around 38 BC, Marcus Antonius appointed Nerva as the proconsular governor of Asia, during which time he was acclaimed as imperator for some military action at Lagina. For his services to Marcus Antonius, Nerva was elected consul in 36 BC. In 31 BC he was elected to the Quindecimviri sacris faciundis, and was raised to the Patriciate after 29 BC.He is the great-grandfather of the more famous Emperor Nerva who ruled the Roman Empire from 96 to 98 AD. His son, also named Marcus Cocceius Nerva, was part of the entourage of emperor Tiberius.

Mercy Edirisinghe

Mercy Edirisinghe (1945/1946 – 17 March 2014) was a popular Sri Lankan stage actress and singer. She began her singing career in 1964 from the 'Nawaka Madala' song contest and became a stage actress in 1966. Her most famous play was a musical by Lucien Bulathsinhala, titled Tharavo Igilethi (Ducks fly). Composed by Gunadasa Kapuge, 'Made Lagina Tharawan' from the soundtrack of the play became her most successful single. She is also well known for her role in numerous comedic television shows and radio dramas, the most famous of which is a radio program titled 'Vinoda Samaya', in which she acts alongside Annesly Dias, Berty Gunattileke and Samuel Rodrigo.

Oak Island

Oak Island is a 57-hectare (140-acre) privately owned island in Lunenburg County on the south shore of Nova Scotia, Canada. The tree-covered island is one of about 360 small islands in Mahone Bay and rises to a maximum of 11 metres (36 feet) above sea level. The island is located 200 metres (660 feet) from shore and connected to the mainland by a causeway and gate. The nearest community is the rural community of Western Shore which faces the island, while the nearest village is Chester. The island is best known for various theories about possible buried treasure or historical artifacts, and the associated exploration.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

The Curse of Oak Island

The Curse of Oak Island is an active reality television series that first premiered in Canada on the History network on January 5, 2014. The show features what is known as the Oak Island mystery, showing efforts to search for historical artifacts and treasure.

Turgut, Muğla

Turgut is a town in Muğla Province, Turkey.

Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern
Anatolia

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.