Lager is a type of beer conditioned at low temperatures. However, lager can be used as a verb to describe the cold-conditioning process. Lagers can be pale, amber, or dark. Pale lager is the most widely consumed and commercially available style of beer. Well-known brands include Pilsner Urquell, Molson Canadian, Miller, Stella Artois, Beck's, Brahma, Budweiser Budvar, Corona, Snow, Tsingtao, Singha, Kirin, Heineken, Carling, Foster's, Carlsberg, Birra Moretti and Tennents. Amber lager is either traditional Vienna lager: reddish-brown or copper-colored beer with medium body and slight malt sweetness; or Mexican Vienna lager, with a somewhat darker color and roasted flavor. Dark lager would have been the most common until at least the 1840s; Dunkel is a dark German lager, black beer is very dark in color, and Guinness Black Lager is a modern example.
As well as maturation in cold storage, most lagers are also distinguished by the use of Saccharomyces pastorianus yeast, a "bottom-fermenting" yeast that also ferments at relatively cold temperatures. It is possible to use lager yeast in a warm fermentation process, such as with American steam beer; while German Altbier and Kölsch are brewed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae top-fermenting yeast at a warm temperature, but with a cold-storage finishing stage, and classified as obergäriges lagerbier (top-fermented lager beer).
Until the 19th century, the German word lagerbier (de) referred to all types of bottom-fermented, cool-conditioned beer in normal strengths. In Germany today, however, the term is mainly reserved for the prevalent lager beer styles of southern Germany, "Helles" (pale) and "Dunkel" (dark). Pilsner, a more heavily hopped pale lager, is most often known as "Pilsner", "Pilsener", or "Pils". Other lagers are Bock, Märzen, and Schwarzbier. In the United Kingdom, the term lager commonly refers to pale lagers derived from the Pilsner style.
While cold storage of beer, "lagering", in caves for example, was a common practice throughout the medieval period, bottom-fermenting yeast seems to have emerged as a hybridization in the early fifteenth century. In 2011, a team of researchers claimed to have discovered that Saccharomyces eubayanus is responsible for creating the hybrid yeast used to make lager.
Based on the numbers of breweries, lager brewing became the main form of brewing in Bohemia between 1860 and 1870, as shown in the following table:
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In the 19th century, prior to the advent of refrigeration, German brewers would dig cellars for lagering and fill them with ice from nearby lakes and rivers, which would cool the beer during the summer months. To further protect the cellars from the summer heat, they would plant chestnut trees, which have spreading, dense canopies but shallow roots which would not intrude on the caverns. The practice of serving beer at these sites evolved into the modern beer garden.
The rise of lager was entwined with the development of refrigeration, as refrigeration made it possible to brew lager year-round (brewing in the summer had previously been banned in many locations across Germany), and efficient refrigeration also made it possible to brew lager in more places and keep it cold until serving. The first large-scale refrigerated lagering tanks were developed for Gabriel Sedelmayr's Spaten Brewery in Munich by Carl von Linde in 1870.
Lager beer uses a process of cool fermentation, followed by maturation in cold storage. The German word "Lager" means storeroom or warehouse. The yeast generally used with lager brewing is Saccharomyces pastorianus. It is a close relative of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast used for warm fermented ales.
While prohibited by the German Reinheitsgebot tradition, lagers in some countries often feature large proportions of adjuncts, usually rice or maize. Adjuncts entered United States brewing as a means of thinning out the body of U.S. beers, balancing the large quantities of protein introduced by six-row barley. Adjuncts are often used now in beermaking to introduce a large quantity of sugar, and thereby increase ABV, at a lower price than a formulation using an all-malt grain bill. There are however cases in which adjunct usage actually increases the cost of manufacture.
The examples of lager beers produced worldwide vary greatly in flavor, color, composition and alcohol content.
The most common lager beers in worldwide production are pale lagers. The flavor of these lighter lagers is usually mild, and the producers often recommend that the beers be served refrigerated.
Pale lager is a very pale to golden-colored lager with a well attenuated body and noble hop bitterness. The brewing process for this beer developed in the mid 19th century when Gabriel Sedlmayr took pale ale brewing techniques back to the Spaten Brewery in Germany and applied it to existing lagering brewing methods.
This approach was picked up by other brewers, most notably Josef Groll who produced in Bohemia (now part of the Czech Republic) the first Pilsner beer—Pilsner Urquell. The resulting pale colored, lean and stable beers were very successful and gradually spread around the globe to become the most common form of beer consumed in the world today.
Distinctly amber colored Vienna lager was developed by brewer Anton Dreher in Vienna in 1841. German-speaking brewers who emigrated to Mexico in the late 19th century, during the Second Mexican Empire, took the style with them. Traditional Vienna lager is a reddish-brown or copper-colored beer with medium body and slight malt sweetness, while Mexican Vienna lager, developed by Santiago Graf has a somewhat darker color and roasted flavor. The malt aroma and flavor may have a toasted character. Despite their name, Vienna lagers are generally uncommon in continental Europe today but can be found frequently in North America, where it is often called pre-Prohibition style amber lager (often shortened to "pre-Prohibition lager"), as the style was popular in pre-1919 America. Notable examples include Samuel Adams Boston Lager, Great Lakes Eliot Ness, Devils Backbone Vienna Lager, Abita Amber, Yuengling Traditional Lager, Dos Equis Ámbar, August Schell Brewing Company Firebrick, and Negra Modelo. In Norway, the style has retained some of its former popularity, and is still brewed by most major breweries.
Lagers would likely have been mainly dark until the 1840s; pale lagers were not common until the later part of the 19th century when technological advances made them easier to produce. Dark lagers typically range in color from amber to dark reddish brown, and may be termed Vienna, amber lager, dunkel, tmavé, or schwarzbier depending on region, color or brewing method.
Tmavé is Czech for "dark", so it is the term for a dark beer in the Czech Republic - beers which are so dark as to be black are termed černé pivo, "black beer". Dunkel is German for "dark", so is the term for a dark beer in Germany. With alcohol concentrations of 4.5% to 6% by volume, dunkels are weaker than Doppelbocks, another traditional dark Bavarian beer. Dunkels were the original style of the Bavarian villages and countryside. Schwarzbier, a much darker, almost black beer with a chocolate or licorice-like flavor, similar to stout, is mainly brewed in Saxony and Thuringia.
Anheuser-Busch, a wholly owned subsidiary of Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV, is the largest brewing company in the United States, with a market share of 45 percent in 2016.The company operates 12 breweries in the United States and nearly 20 in other countries, which increased recently since Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV acquired SABMiller.
Brands include Budweiser, Busch, Michelob, Bud Light, and Natural Light.Beer in the United States
Beer in the United States is manufactured by more than 7,000 breweries, which range in size from industry giants to brew pubs and microbreweries. The United States produced 196 million barrels (23.0 GL) of beer in 2012, and consumes roughly 28 US gallons (110 L) of beer per capita annually. In 2011, the United States was ranked fifteenth in the world in per capita consumption, while total consumption was second only to China.Although beer was a part of colonial life in the United States, the passing of the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1919 resulted in the prohibition of alcoholic beverage sales, forcing nearly all American breweries to close or switch to producing non-alcoholic products. After the repeal of Prohibition, the industry consolidated into a small number of large-scale breweries. Many of the big breweries that returned to producing beer after Prohibition, today largely owned by international conglomerates like Anheuser-Busch InBev or SABMiller, still retain their dominance of the market in the 21st century. However, the majority of the new breweries that have opened in the U.S. over the past three decades have been small breweries and brewpubs, referred to as "craft breweries" to differentiate them from the larger and older breweries.The most common style of beer produced by the big breweries is American lager, a form of pale lager; small breweries, most of which were founded since the 1980s, produce a range of styles. Beer styles indigenous in the United States include amber ale, cream ale, and California common. More recent craft styles include American Pale Ale, American IPA, India Pale Lager, Black IPA, and the American "Double" or "Imperial" IPA.Carling brewery
Carling brewery was founded by Thomas Carling in London, Ontario, Canada, in 1840. In 1952 Carling lager was first sold in the United Kingdom; in the early 1980s it became the UK's most popular beer brand (by volume sold). The company changed hands numerous times; it was acquired by Canadian Breweries Limited, which was eventually renamed Carling O'Keefe, which merged with Molson, which then merged with Coors to form Molson Coors Brewing Company. In South Africa the Carling brands are distributed by SABMiller.Foster's Group
Foster's Group (now Foster's Group Pty. Ltd.) was an Australian beer group with interests in brewing and soft drinks. Foster's Group Limited was based in Melbourne, Victoria and was renamed Carlton & United Breweries prior to sale to British-South African multinational SABMiller in 2011. Foster's Group was the brewer of Foster's Lager. Foster's wine business was split into a separate company, Treasury Wine Estates, in May 2011.
Since 10 October 2016 when Anheuser-Busch InBev acquired the entire SABMiller company, the latter - including its subsidiaries such as Foster's - has been a business division of Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV. SABMiller ceased to exist as a corporation. SABMiller also ceased trading on global stock markets. As a result, Foster's Group is now a direct subsidiary of Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV.Foster's Lager
Foster's Lager is an internationally distributed brand of lager. It is owned by the international brewing group AB InBev, and is brewed under licence in a number of countries, including its biggest market, the UK, where the European rights to the brand are owned by Heineken International.
Foster's annual sales amount to around 500 megalitres worldwide, largely buoyed by UK sales, where it is the second highest selling beer after Carling. While known internationally as the quintessential Australian beer brand, Foster's is less popular in Australia, particularly when compared to other CUB beers such as Victoria Bitter and Carlton Draught.Harp Lager
Harp Lager is an Irish lager created in 1960 by Guinness in its Great Northern Brewery, Dundalk. It is a major lager brand throughout most of Ulster, but is a minor lager brand in the rest of Ireland.Heineken
Heineken Lager Beer (Dutch: Heineken Pilsener), or simply Heineken (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɦɛinəkən]) is a pale lager beer with 5% alcohol by volume produced by the Dutch brewing company Heineken International. Heineken is well known for its signature green bottle and red star.Heineken brands
Heineken International is a group which owns a worldwide portfolio of over 170 beer brands, mainly pale lager, though some other beer styles are produced. As of 2006, Heineken owns over 125 breweries in more than 70 countries and employs approximately 57,557 people.
The two largest brands are Heineken and Tecate; though the portfolio includes Amstel, Fosters (in Europe and Vietnam), Sagres, Cruzcampo, Skopsko, Affligem, Żywiec, Starobrno, Zagorka, Zlatý Bažant and Birra Moretti.India pale ale
India pale ale (IPA) is a hoppy beer style within the broader category of pale ale.The term 'pale ale' originally denoted an ale brewed from pale malt. Among the first brewers known to export beer to India was Englishman George Hodgson's Bow Brewery on the Middlesex-Essex border. Bow Brewery beers became popular among East India Company traders in the late 18th century because of the brewery's location near the East India Docks in Blackwall. The export style of pale ale, which had become known as 'India pale ale', developed in England around 1840, and it later became a popular product there.On the other hand, IPAs have a long history in Canada and the United States, and many breweries there produce a version of the style.Malt liquor
Malt liquor, in North America, is beer with high alcohol content. Legally, it often includes any alcoholic beverage with 5% or more alcohol by volume made with malted barley. In common usage, it refers to beers containing a high alcohol content, generally above 6%, which are made with ingredients and processes resembling those for American-style lagers.Miller Brewing Company
The Miller Brewing Company is an American beer brewing company headquartered in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The company has brewing facilities in Albany, Georgia; Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin; Fort Worth, Texas; Irwindale, California; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and Trenton, Ohio. On July 1, 2008, SABMiller formed MillerCoors, a joint venture with rival Molson Coors to consolidate the production and distribution of its products in the United States, with each parent company's corporate operations and international operations to remain separate and independent of the joint venture.
The joint venture ended after the SABMiller operation was acquired by Anheuser-Busch InBev (AB InBev) on October 10, 2016. The new company is called Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV (AB InBev). On October 11, 2016, the company sold the Miller brand portfolio outside the US and Puerto Rico to Molson Coors, which also retained "the rights to all of the brands currently in the MillerCoors portfolio for the U.S. and Puerto Rico".Molson Coors is the sole owner of Miller Brewing Company and plans to keep the MillerCoors name and the Chicago headquarters and to operate the company in much the same manner as before October 11, 2016. For the consumer, and for employees, the change to 100 percent ownership (from the previous 42 percent) by Molson Coors will not be apparent in the U.S., according to Jon Stern, MillerCoors' director of media relations. "The good news is that none of this impacts Milwaukee or Wisconsin. It'll be business as usual. Miller Lite, Coors Light, Miller High Life and Leinenkugel's – and frankly all the rest of our brands will continue to be brewed by us."Pabst Brewing Company
The Pabst Brewing Company () is an American company that dates its origins to a brewing company founded in 1844 by Jacob Best and was, by 1889, named after Frederick Pabst. It is currently a holding company which contracts the brewing of over two dozen brands of beer and malt liquor: these include its own flagship Pabst Blue Ribbon, as well as brands from now defunct breweries including P. Ballantine and Sons Brewing Company, G. Heileman Brewing Company, Lone Star Brewing Company, Pearl Brewing Company, Piels Bros., Valentin Blatz Brewing Company, National Brewing Company, Olympia Brewing Company, Falstaff Brewing Corporation, Primo Brewing & Malting Company, Rainier Brewing Company, F & M Schaefer Brewing Company, Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company, Jacob Schmidt Brewing Company and Stroh Brewery Company. About half of the beer produced under Pabst's ownership is Pabst Blue Ribbon brand, with the other half their other owned brands.The company is also responsible for the brewing of Ice Man Malt Liquor, St. Ides High Gravity Malt Liquor, and retail versions of beers from McSorley's Old Ale House and Southampton Publick House (of Southampton, New York).Pabst is headquartered in Los Angeles, California. On November 13, 2014, Pabst announced that it had completed its sale to Blue Ribbon Intermediate Holdings, LLC. Blue Ribbon is a partnership between Russian-American beer entrepreneur Eugene Kashper and TSG Consumer Partners, a San Francisco–based private equity firm. Prior reports suggested the price agreed upon was around $700 million.In 2017 the company opened the Pabst Milwaukee Brewery, a brewpub located in an old chapel on the original Milwaukee Pabst Brewery campus, that brews relatively small batches of craft-type beers and long-discontinued, historic Pabst brands (such as Old Tankard and Andeker).Pale lager
Pale lager is a very pale-to-golden-colored lager beer with a well-attenuated body and a varying degree of noble hop bitterness.
The brewing process for this beer developed in the mid-19th century, when Gabriel Sedlmayr took pale ale brewing techniques back to the Spaten Brewery in Germany and applied them to existing lagering methods. This approach was picked up by other brewers, most notably Josef Groll of Bavaria, who produced Pilsner Urquell in the city of Pilsen, Austria-Hungary (now Plzeň in the Czech Republic). The resulting Pilsner beers—pale-colored, lean and stable— gradually spread around the globe to become the most common form of beer consumed in the world today.Pilsner
Pilsner (also pilsener or simply pils) is a type of pale lager. It takes its name from the Czech city of Pilsen, where it was first produced in 1842 by Bavarian brewer Josef Groll. The world’s first blond lager, the original Pilsner Urquell, is still produced there today.Saint-Lager
Saint-Lager is a commune in the Rhône department in eastern France.Saint-Lager-Bressac
Saint-Lager-Bressac is a commune in the Ardèche department in southern France.Shandy
Shandy is beer mixed with a clear carbonated lemon-lime drink or a clear lemon-flavoured beverage. In Europe, New Zealand, and Australia, this clear lemon-lime soda is referred to as "lemonade," and when mixed with lemon it is called "lemon shandy". The proportions of the two ingredients are adjusted to taste, but are frequently half lemonade and half beer. Shandies are popular in Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
In some jurisdictions, the low alcohol content of shandies makes them exempt from laws governing the sale of alcoholic beverages. Non-alcoholic shandies are known as "rock shandies".Two Pints of Lager and a Packet of Crisps
Two Pints of Lager and a Packet of Crisps is a British sitcom that ran from 26 February 2001 to 24 May 2011. First broadcast on BBC Two, it starred Ralf Little, Will Mellor, Natalie Casey, Sheridan Smith, Kathryn Drysdale, and Luke Gell. Created and written by Susan Nickson, it was set in the northwest England town of Runcorn, and originally revolved around the lives of five twenty-somethings. Little departed after the sixth series finished airing, with Smith and Drysdale leaving following the airing of the eighth series. The ninth and final series had major changes with new main cast members and new writers.
The core cast was augmented by various recurring characters throughout the series, portrayed by Beverley Callard, Lee Oakes, Hayley Bishop, Thomas Nelstrop, Freddie Hogan, and Georgia Henshaw. The title was inspired by the 1980 hit single "Two Pints of Lager and a Packet of Crisps Please" by Splodgenessabounds. On 23 July 2011, it was confirmed that the series would not be returning due to BBC Three wanting to make room for new comedies and feeling that the series had come to a natural end following the departures of most of the main cast members.United Breweries Group
United Breweries Holdings Limited (UBHL) or UB Group is an Indian conglomerate company headquartered in UB City, Bangalore in the state of Karnataka, India. Its core business includes beverages, aviation and investments in various sectors. The company markets beer under the Kingfisher brand, and owns various other brands of alcoholic beverages. It also launched Kingfisher Airlines, an airline in India whose operation has been halted after problems in 2014 that led to its licence being revoked by the DGCA. United Breweries is India's largest producer of beer with a market share of around 52.5% by volume.The company chairman is Vijay Mallya, who left India on 2 March 2016, allegedly to escape legal action by Indian banks to whom he owes some ₹9,000 crore (US$1.3 billion) in loans. United Breweries now has greater than a 40% share of the Indian brewing market with 79 distilleries and bottling units across the world. Recently, UB financed a takeover of the spirits business of the rival Shaw-Wallace company, giving it a majority share of India's spirits business. The group also owns the Mendocino Brewing Company in the United States.
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