Laemophloeidae, "lined flat bark beetles," is a family in the superfamily Cucujoidea characterized by predominantly dorso-ventrally compressed bodies, head and pronotal discs bordered by ridges or grooves, and inverted male genitalia.[1][2] Size range of adults is 1–5 mm (0.04–0.2 in) in length. Currently, it contains 40 genera and about 450 species,[3] and is represented on all continents except Antarctica; species richness is greatest in the tropics.

Historically, Laemophloeidae was treated as a subfamily of Cucujidae, but starting in the middle of the 20th century,[4] most of what had been treated as subfamilies of the Cucujidae were considered to be families.

Most laemophloeids, adults and larvae, are found under bark of dead trees, where they apparently are primarily fungivores,[5] although some genera with adults having subcylindrical bodies (e.g., Leptophloeus, Dysmerus) occur in the galleries of bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), upon which they may feed.[6] A few genera, but most particularly Cryptolestes, contain some species that are pests of stored grain products. The most important of these are C. ferrugineus (Stephens), C. pusillus (Schönherr), and C. turcicus (Grouvelle).[7]

Several genera exhibit unusual modifications to male antennae (especially Cryptolestes, Dysmerus, and Microbrontes), with the scape expanded into hook-like or blade-like structures[8][9] Several other genera (Rhinomalus, Rhinophloeus, and Metaxyphloeus) related to Laemophloeus are atypical in that the adults are rostrate to varying degrees[10] Photographs of most world genera are available at,[11] and most North American species are pictured at,[12]

Odontophloeus sp Brazil habitusMontage

Odontophloeus sp.

Phloeolaemus hoplitesMontage

Phloeolaemus hoplites.

Dysmerus symphilus male dorsalMontage

Dysmerus symphilus.

Metaxyphloeus germaini dorsal2Montage

Metaxyphloeus germaini.

Lepidophloeus habitusMontage

Lepidophloeus exquisitus.

Laemophloeus germaini Montage
Laemophloeus germaini
Scientific classification

Ganglbauer, 1899

Acompsophloeus Thomas, 2010
Blubos Lefkovitch, 1962
Brontolaemus Sharp, 1885
Carinophloeus Lefkovitch, 1961
Caulonomus Wollaston, 1862
Charaphloeus Casey, 1916
Cryptolestes Ganglbauer, 1899
Cucujinus Arrow, 1920
Deinophloeus Sharp, 1899
Dysmerus Casey, 1884
Gannes Lefkovitch, 1962
Heterojinus Sengupta & Mukhopadhyay, 1978
Laemophloeus Laporte de Castelnau, 1840
Lathropus Erichson, 1845
Lepidophloeus Thomas, 1984
Leptophloeus Casey, 1916
Magnoleptus Lefkovitch, 1962
Mariolaemus Lefkovitch, 1962
Mestolaemus Lefkovitch, 1962
Metaxyphloeus Thomas, 1984
Microbrontes Reitter, 1874
Microlaemus Lefkovich, 1962
Narthecius J.LeConte, 1861
Nipponophloeus Sasaji, 1983
Notolaemus Lefkovitch, 1959
Odontophloeus Thomas, 1984
Parandrita J.LeConte & Horn, 1880
Paraphloeolaemus Thomas, 2018
Passandrophloeus Kessel, 1921
Phloeipsius Casey, 1916
Phloeolaemus Casey, 1916
Placonotus MacLeay, 1871
Planolestes Lefkovitch, 1958
Pseudophloeus Yablokov-Khnzoryan, 1977
Rhabdophloeus Sharp, 1899
Rhinolaemus Steel, 1954
Rhinomalus Gemm, 1870
Rhinophloeus Sharp, 1899
Sinuatophloeus Kessel, 1921
Xylolestes Lefkovitch, 1962
Xylophloeus Lefkovitch, 1962


  1. ^ Thomas, M.C. 2002. Family 83. Laemophloeidae Ganglbauer 1899. Pp. 331-334 In: Arnett, R. H., Jr., M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley, and J. H. Frank (editors). 2002. American Beetles. Vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea. CRC Press, Boca Raton. xiv + 861pp.
  2. ^ Thomas, M. C., and R.A.B. Leschen. 2010. Laemophloeidae, Ganglbauer, 1899. p. 376-380. In: Leschen, R.A.B., R.G. Beutel, and J.F. Lawrence. Coleoptera, Beetles. Vol. 2: Morphology and Systematics (Elateroidea, Bostrichiformia, Cucujiformia partim). Handbook of Zoology. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.
  3. ^ Laemophloeidae Species List Archived 2012-10-23 at the Wayback Machine at Joel Hallan’s Biology Catalog. Texas A&M University. Retrieved on 15 May 2012.
  4. ^ Crowson, R.A. 1955. The natural classification of the families of Coleoptera. Nathaniel Lloyd, London, 187pp.
  5. ^ Lawrence, J.F. 1977. Coleoptera associated with an Hypoxylon species (Ascomycetes: Xylariaceae) on oak. Coleopterists Bulletin 31:309-312.
  6. ^ Thomas, M.C. 1993. The flat bark beetles of Florida (Laemophloeidae, Passandridae, Silvanidae). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas 15: i-viii and 1-93.
  7. ^ Halstead, D.G.H. 1993. Keys for the identification of beetles associated with stored products-II. Laemophloeidae, Passandridae and Silvanidae. Journal of Stored Product Research 29(2): 99-197.
  8. ^ Lefkovitch, L.P. 1958. Unusual antennal characters in some Laemophloeinae (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) and their taxonomic importance. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London B 27:93-100.
  9. ^ Thomas, M. C. 2009. A review of the genus Dysmerus Casey (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae). Insecta Mundi 0074: 1-30.
  10. ^ Thomas, M.C. 1984. A new Neotropical genus and species of rostrate Laemophloeinae (Coleoptera: Cucujidae), with discussion of the systematic position of the subfamily. Coleopterists Bulletin 38:67-83.
  11. ^ Photographic Atlas of Laemophloeid Genera Retrieved 31 January 2014
  12. ^ Laemophloeidae of Florida Retrieved 31 January 2014

Cryptolestes is a genus of beetles in the family Laemophloeidae. Several species are known as economically important pests of stored products, especially food grains. The four most notorious species are Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Cryptolestes pusilloides, Cryptolestes pusillus, and Cryptolestes turcicus. C. capensis, C. klapperichi, and C. ugandae are less widespread pests.

Species in this genus can be hard to distinguish from one another, and definitive identification often requires close examination of the genitalia.Species include:

Cryptolestes abietis Wankowicz

Cryptolestes ampiyacus Thomas

Cryptolestes atuloides Lefkovitch

Cryptolestes atulus Lefkovitch

Cryptolestes beccarii Grouvelle

Cryptolestes bicolor Chevrolat

Cryptolestes biskrensis Grouvelle

Cryptolestes brunneus Lefkovitch

Cryptolestes calabozus Thomas

Cryptolestes candius Lefkovitch

Cryptolestes capensis Waltl

Cryptolestes capillulus Thomas

Cryptolestes cornutus Thomas & Zimmerman

Cryptolestes corticinus Erichson

Cryptolestes curus Lefkovitch

Cryptolestes diemenensis Blackburn

Cryptolestes divaricatus Grouvelle

Cryptolestes duplicatus Waltl

Cryptolestes dybasi Thomas

Cryptolestes evansi Lefkovitch

Cryptolestes fauveli Grouvelle

Cryptolestes ferrugineus Stephens – rusty grain beetle

Cryptolestes fractipennis Motschulsky

Cryptolestes fursovi Iablokoff-Khnzorian

Cryptolestes halevyae Thomas

Cryptolestes incertus Grouvelle

Cryptolestes inyoensis

Cryptolestes klapperichi Lefkovitch

Cryptolestes lepesmei Villiers

Cryptolestes mexicanus Thomas

Cryptolestes minimus Lefkovitch

Cryptolestes obesus

Cryptolestes planulatus Grouvelle

Cryptolestes pubescens Casey

Cryptolestes punctatus LeConte

Cryptolestes pusilloides Steel & Howe

Cryptolestes pusillus Schonherr – flat grain beetle

Cryptolestes robinclarkei

Cryptolestes schwarzi Casey

Cryptolestes spartii Curtis

Cryptolestes spatulifer Thomas

Cryptolestes spectabilis

Cryptolestes trinidadensis Thomas

Cryptolestes turcicus Grouvelle – flour mill beetle

Cryptolestes turnbowi

Cryptolestes ugandae Steel & Howe

Cryptolestes uncicornis Reitter

Cryptolestes weisei Reitter

Cryptolestes ferrugineus

Cryptolestes ferrugineus is a species of lined flat bark beetle native to Europe.

Cryptolestes pusillus

Cryptolestes pusillus is a species of lined flat bark beetle native to Europe. It is also known as the flat grain beetle. It feeds on grain products, and is considered a pest in Canada.

Cryptolestes turcicus

Cryptolestes turcicus, the flour mill beetle, is a species of lined flat bark beetle in the family Laemophloeidae. It is found in North America.


Cucujoidea is a superfamily of beetles. They include many fungus beetles, as well as lady beetles ("ladybugs" or "ladybirds"). Also included are a diversity of lineages of "bark beetles" unrelated to the "true" bark beetles (Scolytinae), which are weevils (superfamily Curculionoidea).


Dysmerus is a genus of beetles in the family Laemophloeidae. Restricted to the New World, until recently Dysmerus included only the type species, D. basalis, described from Florida in the late 19th Century. A recent revision resurrected two incorrectly synonymized species and recognized an additional 12 new species, so that the genus currently contains 15 species.

Members of Dysmerus are small (~2mm in length), elongate, subcylindrical, brownish, pubescent beetles with closed procoxal cavities, a narrow intercoxal process of the first ventrite, and lacking an clypeal suture. The salient character of the members of Dysmerus is the possession by males of a grotesquely modified antennal scape and, in both sexes, the position of the pedicel, which arises laterally from the scape. The function of the modified male scape in unknown.

These beetles are rarely collected, although adults are sometimes attracted to light at night. They have been found in the burrows of bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and may be predacious upon them. Dysmerus larvae have not been completely described, but possess mandibles with an acute basal tooth in place of the more usual grinding mola, which may be a modification for predation.

Species of Dysmerus occur from the southeastern U.S. south to Bolivia and in the West Indies. The genus includes the following species:

Dysmerus basalis Casey

Dysmerus boliviensis Thomas

Dysmerus caseyi (Grouvelle)

Dysmerus curvicornis Thomas

Dysmerus genaspinosus Thomas

Dysmerus hamaticornis Thomas

Dysmerus impolitus Thomas

Dysmerus skelleyi Thomas

Dysmerus mexicanus Thomas

Dysmerus monstrosus Thomas

Dysmerus politus Thomas

Dysmerus rondoniensis Thomas

Dysmerus sulcicollis Grouvelle

Dysmerus symphilus Thomas

Dysmerus trinidadensis Thomas

Gannes (beetle)

Gannes is a genus of beetles in the family Laemophloeidae, containing the following species:

Gannes ambiguus Grouvelle

Gannes immoderatus Lefkovitch


Heterojinus semilaetanus is a species of beetle in the family Laemophloeidae, the only species in the genus Heterojinus.


Laemophloeus is a genus of beetles; it is the type genus of the family Laemophloeidae. The genus has been almost completely reviewed in modern times. Following by recognizing only those species congeneric with the type species, Laemophloeus monilis (Fabricius), as valid members of the genus reduces the size of the genus from more than a hundred species to only 28, as follows (with their distribution):

Laemophloeus apache Thomas [North America]

Laemophloeus biguttatus (Say) [North America]

Laemophloeus buenavista Thomas [Mexico, Central and South America]

Laemophloeus capitisculptus Thomas [South America]

Laemophloeus concinnus Thomas [Central and South America]

Laemophloeus corporoflavus Thomas [South America]

Laemophloeus dozieri Thomas [South America]

Laemophloeus fasciatus Melsheimer [North America]

Laemophloeus fervidus Casey [North America]

Laemophloeus germaini Grouvelle [Central and South America]

Laemophloeus incisus Sharp [Central and South America]

Laemophloeus insulatestudinas Thomas [Galapagos]

Laemophloeus kraussi Ganglbauer [Europe]

Laemophloeus lecontei Grouvelle [North, Central, and South America, West Indies]

Laemophloeus macrognathus Reitter [Central and South America]

Laemophloeus mathani Grouvelle [South America]

Laemophloeus megacephalus Grouvelle [North, Central, and South America, West Indies]

Laemophloeus monilis (Fabricius) [Europe, North Africa, Asia]

Laemophloeus muticus (Fabricius) [Europe, Asia]

Laemophloeus nigricollis Lucas [Europe, North Africa]

Laemophloeus planaclavatus Thomas [South America]

Laemophloeus ribbei Reitter [Siberia]

Laemophloeus sexarticulatus Kessel [Mexico, Central and South America]

Laemophloeus shastanus Casey [North America]

Laemophloeus submonilis Reitter [Japan, Siberia]

Laemophloeus suturalis Reitter [North, Central and South America]

Laemophloeus taurus Thomas [Mexico, South America]

Laemophloeus terminalis Casey [North America]Those species still listed as Laemophloeus in published or online lists (e.g.) should be listed as Laemophloeus (sens. lat.).

Like most members of the Laemophloeidae, Laemophloeus species are found under bark of dead trees, where they seem to feed primarily on fungus, especially Ascomycetes. They range in size from moderate to large for the family (2mm-4mm in length). The members of the genus occur throughout the Palaearctic and Nearctic Regions, but extend south into the tropics in the New World, where five other closely related genera are found.


Lathropus is a genus of beetles in the family Laemophloeidae. It has been the subject of recent taxonomic study. Lathropus species are minute (<2mm) flattened beetles with short, clubbed antennae, closed mesocoxal cavities, extremely dense surface sculpture, and dorsal pubescence composed of bifurcate setae. Currently recognized valid species are:

Lathropus chickcharnie Thomas

Lathropus jamaicensis Thomas

Lathropus minimus Champion

Lathropus parvulus Grouvelle

Lathropus pictus Schwarz

Lathropus pubescens Casey

Lathropus rhabdophloeoides Thomas

Lathropus robustulus Casey

Lathropus sepicola (Müller in Germar)

Lathropus striatus Casey, 1916

Lathropus vernalis CaseyAll but one of the known species of Lathropus are indigenous to the New World. The one exception, L. sepicola, is found in Europe. Adults and larvae are associated with dead trees and feed on fungi.


Lepidophloeus is a genus of beetles in the family Laemophloeidae, containing the following species:

Lepidophloeus exquisitus Grouvelle

Lepidophloeus minusculus Grouvelle


Leptophloeus is a genus of beetles in the family Laemophloeidae, containing the following species:

Leptophloeus abei Sasaji

Leptophloeus alternans Erichson

Leptophloeus angustulus LeConte

Leptophloeus anormus Grouvelle

Leptophloeus ater Lefkovitch

Leptophloeus axillaris Wollaston

Leptophloeus bupleuri Peyerimhof

Leptophloeus capitus Lefkovitch

Leptophloeus cassavae Lefkovitch

Leptophloeus clematidis Erichson

Leptophloeus convexiusculus Grouvelle

Leptophloeus cornutus Lefkovitch

Leptophloeus femoralis Sasaji

Leptophloeus foveicollis Sasaji

Leptophloeus hypobori Perris

Leptophloeus janeti Grouvelle

Leptophloeus juniperi Grouvelle

Leptophloeus linearis Grouvelle

Leptophloeus lucidus Grouvelle

Leptophloeus mobilis Grouvelle

Leptophloeus mucunae Lefkovitch

Leptophloeus opaculus Grouvelle

Leptophloeus parallelus Lefkovitch

Leptophloeus perrisi Grouvelle

Leptophloeus problematicus Lefkovitch

Leptophloeus punctatus Lefkovitch

Leptophloeus stenoides Wollaston


Microbrontes is a genus of beetles in the family Laemophloeidae, containing the following species:

Microbrontes blackburni (Grouvelle, 1902) Lefkovitch 1958

Microbrontes laemophloeoides Reitter, 1874

Microbrontes lineatus (Broun, 1893) Lefkovitch 1958The genus Tularthrum became classified as a junior synonym in 1958.


Narthecius is a genus of beetles in the family Laemophloeidae, containing the following species:

Narthecius crassiceps Sharp

Narthecius grandiceps LeConte

Narthecius haroldi Reitter

Narthecius longicollis (Sharp)

Narthecius monticola Fall

Narthecius schedli Lefkovitch

Narthecius simulator Casey

Narthecius striaticeps Fall

Narthecius suturalis Grouvelle


Parandrita is a genus of beetles in the family Laemophloeidae, containing the following species:

Parandrita aenea Sharp

Parandrita capito Grouvelle

Parandrita cephalotes LeConte

Parandrita deceptor Sharp

Parandrita gracilis Sharp

Parandrita konae Sharp

Parandrita liturata Sharp

Parandrita molokaiae Sharp

Parandrita perkinsi Sharp

Parandrita permixtus Grouvelle

Parandrita stipes Sharp


Passandrophloeus is a genus of beetles in the family Laemophloeidae, containing the following species:

Passandrophloeus belli Grouvelle

Passandrophloeus ditomoides Grouvelle

Passandrophloeus falcidens Grouvelle

Passandrophloeus glabriculus Grouvelle

Passandrophloeus spinosus Grouvelle


Rhabdophloeus is a genus of beetles in the family Laemophloeidae, containing the following species:

Rhabdophloeus chiriquensis Sharp

Rhabdophloeus concolor Sharp

Rhabdophloeus costatus Grouvelle

Rhabdophloeus dispar Sharp

Rhabdophloeus horni Casey


Rhinomalus is a genus of beetles in the family Laemophloeidae, containing the following species:

Rhinomalus anthracinus Sharp

Rhinomalus chriquensis Sharp

Rhinomalus ruficollis Grouvelle

Rhinomalus rufirostris Chevrolat


Xylophloeus is a genus of beetles in the family Laemophloeidae, containing the following species:

Xylophloeus bimaculatus Lefkovitch

Xylophloeus chrysomeloides Lefkovitch

Xylophloeus darjeelingensis Mukhopadhyay & Sen Gupta

Xylophloeus dentatus Lefkovitch

Xylophloeus elgonensis Lefkovitch

Xylophloeus integer Grouvelle

Xylophloeus mimosae Lefkovitch

Xylophloeus nainitalensis Mukhopadhyay & Sen Gupta

Xylophloeus patens Grouvelle

Xylophloeus unifasciatus Lefkovitch

Extant Coleoptera families


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