|Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia|
12 October 1988 – 10 December 1989
|Preceded by||Lubomír Štrougal|
|Succeeded by||Marián Čalfa|
|Born||10 September 1926|
Frenštát pod Radhoštěm, Czechoslovakia
|Died||14 April 2007 (aged 80)|
Prague, Czech Republic
|Political party||Communist Party of Czechoslovakia|
Adamec joined the Presidium in March 1987 and served as the prime minister of the Czech Socialist Republic from March 1987 to 1988. Upon the retirement of Prime Minister Lubomír Štrougal on 12 October 1988, he assumed the role, thus serving as the last Communist prime minister of Czechoslovakia. He served in the post from 12 October 1988 to 7 December 1989. Marián Čalfa succeeded Adamec as prime minister.
On 20 December, Adamec became general secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. However, he was not the de facto leader of the country; the party had given up its monopoly of power on 29 November.
The Velvet Revolution lasted from 17 November to 29 December 1989. During the Velvet Revolution student protesters took to the streets of Prague in what became an overthrow of the government. Large demonstrations that occurred on 25 and 26 November, and a public strike on 27 November, pushed the communist regime into holding a conference with the Civic Forum. The Forum demanded that Adamec form a new government—that would include existing political parties and Civic Forum. The federal government under Adamec had been in contact with different leaders since 21 November and on 26 November, Adamec even addressed the crowds on Letná.
The 1989 Czechoslovak presidential election was held on 29 December. Václav Havel became the first non-communist president of Czechoslovakia since 1948. Election was held following the Velvet Revolution.1990 Czechoslovak parliamentary election
Federal elections were held in Czechoslovakia on 8 and 9 June 1990, alongside elections for the Czech and Slovak Assemblies. They were the first elections held in the country since the end of Communist rule seven months earlier, and the first free elections since 1946.
The election saw a comprehensive victory for the movement of President Václav Havel. The Czech wing, Civic Forum, won 68 of the 150 seats in the House of the People and 50 of the 150 seats in the House of Nations. Its Slovak counterpart, Public Against Violence, won 19 seats in the House of the People and 33 in the House of Nations. Civic Forum won 36% of the vote for the House of the People, the most a Czechoslovakian party won in a free election.
The two wings of Havel's movement commanded a strong majority in the legislature, with 87 seats in the House of the People and 83 in the House of Nations between them. It was the only occasion in Czechoslovakia's history in which a party or alliance won an outright majority of seats in a free election. Voter turnout was 96.2%. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, running in an honest election for the first time in 44 years, made a stronger showing than expected, taking 13 percent of the vote in both chambers to finish second behind Civic Forum.Although Civic Forum and Public Against Violence had more than enough seats between them to govern without the support of other parties, they sought a broader base. They let it be known that they were willing to go into coalition with all parties except the Communists and the Slovak National Party.Adamec
Adamec (feminine: Adamcová) is a surname of Czech and Slovak origin. It comes from the personal name Adam and the Czech/Slovak suffix -ec. Pronounced "a-da-mets", it is occasionally Germanized as Adametz.
Notable people with the surname include:
Austin Adamec (born 1988), American musician
Jiří Adamec (born 1982), Czech footballer
Joseph Victor Adamec (1935-2019), American Roman Catholic bishop
Jozef Adamec (1942–2018), Slovak footballer
Ladislav Adamec (1926–2007), Czechoslovak prime minister
Leopold Adametz (1861-1941), Czech-born Austrian zoologist
Luboš Adamec (born 1959), Czech sport shooter
Ludwig W. Adamec (1924–2019), American academic and historian
Petr Adamec (born 1960), Czech swimmer
Quido Adamec (1924–2007), Czech ice hockey referee
Zdeněk Adamec (born 1956), Czechoslovak javelin throwerCommunist Party of Czechoslovakia
The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (Czech and Slovak: Komunistická strana Československa, KSČ) was a Communist and Marxist–Leninist political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. It was a member of the Comintern. Between 1929 and 1953 it was led by Klement Gottwald. After its election victory in 1946 it seized power in the 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état and established a one-party state allied with the Soviet Union. Nationalization of virtually all private enterprises followed.
In 1968, party leader Alexander Dubček proposed reforms that included a democratic process and this led to the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Soviet Union. Under pressure from the Kremlin, all reforms were repealed, party leadership became taken over by its more authoritarian wing and a massive non-bloody purge of party members was conducted.
In 1989 the party leadership bowed to popular pressure during the Velvet revolution and agreed to call the first contested election since 1946. In 1990, the centre-based Civic Forum won the election and the Communist Party stood down.
In November 1990, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia became a federation of the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia and the Communist Party of Slovakia.
The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia was declared to be a criminal organisation in the Czech Republic by the 1993 Act on Illegality of the Communist Regime and on Resistance Against It.Frenštát pod Radhoštěm
Frenštát pod Radhoštěm (Czech pronunciation: [ˈfrɛnʃtaːt ˈpod radɦoʃcɛm]; German: Frankstadt unter dem Radhoscht) is a town in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic.
It lies under the Moravian-Silesian Beskids Range, in a region rich in history and therefore the town is an important holiday resort in both summer and winter.Ivan Knotek
Ivan Knotek (born 26 August 1936) is a Slovak politician who served as Politburo member and prime minister from 1988 to 1989 of the Slovak Socialist Republic.Josef Korčák
Josef Korčák (17 December 1921 – 5 October 2008) was a Czech politician who served as a Prime Minister of the Czech Socialist Republic from 1970 to 1987. He was the longest serving Czech Prime Minister.Karel Urbánek
Karel Urbánek (born 22 March 1941 in Bojkovice, Moravia) is a retired Czech politician. He was the last leader of Communist Czechoslovakia during the Velvet Revolution.
A former Bojkovice railway station manager, he replaced Miloš Jakeš as Secretary General of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia after a swift election on 24 November 1989. The only important decision he made during his very short term was to cancel the clause of the Constitution which gave the Communist Party a monopoly of power, though Communist rule had effectively ended with Jakeš' resignation. He remained as party leader until 20 December, when he was succeeded by Ladislav Adamec.Ladislav
Ladislav is a Czech and Slovak variant of the Slavic name Vladislav. The female form of this name is Ladislava.
Folk etymology occasionally links Ladislav with the Slavic goddess Lada.List of Prime Ministers of the Czech Socialist Republic
This is a list of Prime Ministers of the Czech Socialist Republic.
1 January 1969 – 5 March 1990: called "Czech Socialist Republic" within the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.6 March 1990 – 31 December 1992: called "Czech Republic" within the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic.
Stanislav Rázl: 8 January – 29 September 1969
Josef Kempný: 29 September 1969 – 28 January 1970
Josef Korčák: 28 January 1970 – 20 March 1987
Ladislav Adamec: 20 March 1987 – 12 October 1988
František Pitra: 12 October 1988 – 6 February 1990
Petr Pithart: 6 February 1990 – 2 July 1992
Václav Klaus: 2 July 1992 – 31 December 1992List of prime ministers of Czechoslovakia
The Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia (Czech: Předseda vlády Československa, Slovak: Predseda vlády Česko-Slovenska) was the head of government of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992.
In periods when the post of the President of Czechoslovakia was vacant, some presidential duties were carried out by the Prime Minister. However, the Czechoslovak Constitutions do not define anything like a post of acting president.
As of 2017, there are three living former Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia: Lubomír Štrougal, Marián Čalfa and Jan Stráský.Lubomír Štrougal
Dr. Lubomír Štrougal (born October 19, 1924 in Veselí nad Lužnicí) is a former Czech politician and communist Czechoslovakia prime minister.
After a compulsory service in Germany’s industry during the World War II (the total appointment order for Czech people – German: Totaleinsatz) he finished the law studies at the Charles University in Prague. He entered the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and since the late 1950s was a member of its leadership (member of its Central Committee).
Between 1959 and 1961 Štrougal was agriculture minister, then till 1965 he was interior minister.
In 1968 he became deputy prime minister to Oldřich Černík. At first he refused the 1968 Occupation of Czechoslovakia by the Warsaw Pact forces, but later became one of the prominent representatives of Gustáv Husák‘s regime. Štrougal was Czechoslovakia’s prime minister from January 28, 1970 to October 12, 1988.
Because of the conflicts with the communist party chairman Miloš Jakeš, he resigned as the prime minister. He criticized the state of the party, the executive and the society. During the 1989 Velvet Revolution Štrougal was one of the candidates for the communist party chairmanship, but later left political stage and in February 1990 he was expelled from the party.
The Office for the Documentation and the Investigation of the Crimes of Communism Police of the Czech Republic (Czech: ÚDV) accused Štrougal, that in his function in 1965, he prevented investigation of crimes conducted by the communist State Security in 1948 and 1949. However, the Prague city court discharged him in 2002 due to lack of evidence.Marián Čalfa
Marián Čalfa (born 7 May 1946, in Trebišov) is the former Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia during and after the Velvet Revolution, as well as de facto acting President for 19 days, and was a key facilitator of the smooth transfer of power from Communist rule to a new democratic representation.
A Slovak, from 1985 he worked as the head of a legislative department of the Czechoslovak federal government. In April 1988, he became a minister - the chairman of the legislative committee. During the Velvet Revolution, on 10 December 1989, he was appointed Prime Minister in place of discredited Ladislav Adamec. Although he himself was a member of the KSČ, this government had a non-Communist majority. He thus headed the first cabinet in 41 years that was not dominated by the KSČ. When President Gustáv Husák resigned from his office shortly after swearing in the government, Čalfa also took on most presidential duties until the election of Václav Havel on 29 December.
On 18 January 1990, he left the KSČ to join the Public Against Violence (VPN) party, the Slovak counterpart of Havel's Civic Forum. He thus became the first prime minister since before World War II who was not a Communist or a fellow traveler. The only non-Communist to hold the premiership before the start of Communist rule, Social Democrat Zdeněk Fierlinger, was openly pro-Communist (and later led his party into a merger with the Communists). He helped lead the Havel movement to a sweeping victory in the 1990 elections—the first free elections held in the country in 44 years. When VPN dissolved in April 1991, Čalfa followed most of the party into the Civic Democratic Union (ODU-VPN), of which he became a leading member.
Both cabinets headed by Čalfa succeeded in introducing significant political and economic reforms, facilitating the transition from Communism Party rule to a multi-party system and a market-oriented economy. Čalfa enjoyed strong support from all relevant political powers, including both President Václav Havel and an increasingly confident Finance Minister Václav Klaus.
Čalfa resigned from the Federal Government after the defeat of the Public Against Violence in the elections of 1992. He was succeeded by caretaker Jan Stráský, whose major task was the execution of Dissolution of Czechoslovakia. In that year, Čalfa took up Czech citizenship and started working as a lawyer in Prague, heading law firm Čalfa, Bartošík a Partneři.During his tenure as Prime Minister, Čalfa was occasionally a target of criticism for his Communist past. Some considered this as a proof that the Velvet Revolution was unfinished or even "stolen" by people belonging to the past nomenklatura. Presently, historians consider him as a "power behind the throne," who greatly contributed to the smoothness and speed of Velvet Revolution and the election of Václav Havel as President. He used his negotiation skills in critical moments against his fellow Communist Party members and talked them into compromises that were sometimes more radical the representatives of the Civic Forum had expected.
Many politicians of the subsequent democratic era, including Václav Klaus, said that they learned many things about real politics from Čalfa.Milán Václavík
Milán Václavík (28 March 1928 – 2007) was a Slovak-origin Czechoslovak military officer with the rank of colonel general. He served as defense minister from 1985 to 1989, being the last communist-era defense minister of Czechoslovakia.Oskar Krejčí
Oskar Krejčí (born 13 July 1948 in Prague) is a Czech political scientist, the author of approximately thirty books and more than thousand articles in the area of political science.
Krejčí is a director of the Institute of the Global Studies of The Jan Amos Komensky University Prague, Czech Republic.
In 1967 he was convicted for an attempt illegal crossing Czechoslovak-Austrian border to a suspended sentence of 14 months. In 1968 Krejčí entered the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. Since 1975 until the end of communist regime he was a secret agent of the StB, the Czechoslovak secret service. In this position he also supervised other agents. Before and during the Velvet Revolution he was an adviser to two last Communist Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia – Ladislav Adamec and Marián Čalfa. He is author of the address of the Prime Minister in whereby was in the Federal Assembly of ČSSR designed on president Václav Havel and author of the program of the federal government of the national understanding.
He is a vocal critic of the plans of the Bush administration to install a national missile defense system on the territory of the Czech Republic and Poland.Pavol Hrivnák
Pavol or Pavel Hrivnák (9 October 1931 – 3 February 1995) was a Slovak politician who served as prime minister of the Slovak Socialist Republic from June to December 1989.Petr Pithart's Cabinet
Petr Pithart's Cabinet was in power from 29 June 1990 to 2 July 1992. It was the first Czech government formed after democratic election. It originally consisted of Civic Forum (OF), Christian and Democratic Union (KDU-ČSL), Christian Democratic Party (KDS) and Movement for Autonomous Democracy–Party for Moravia and Silesia (HSD-SMS). Civic Forum was dissolved in 1991 and replaced by Civic Movement (OH) and Civic Democratic Party (ODS).Velvet Revolution
The Velvet Revolution (Czech: sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution (Slovak: nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989. Popular demonstrations against the one-party government of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia included students and older dissidents. The result was the end of 41 years of one-party rule in Czechoslovakia, and the subsequent dismantling of the command economy and conversion to a parliamentary republic.On 17 November 1989 (International Students' Day), riot police suppressed a student demonstration in Prague. The event marked the 50th anniversary of a violently suppressed demonstration against the Nazi storming of Prague University in 1939 where 1,200 students were arrested and 9 killed. (See Origin of International Students' Day for more information.) The 1989 event sparked a series of demonstrations from 17 November to late December and turned into an anti-communist demonstration. On 20 November, the number of protesters assembled in Prague grew from 200,000 the previous day to an estimated 500,000. The entire top leadership of the Communist Party, including General Secretary Miloš Jakeš, resigned on 24 November. On 27 November, a two-hour general strike involving all citizens of Czechoslovakia was held.
In response to the collapse of other Warsaw Pact governments and the increasing street protests, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia announced on 28 November that it would relinquish power and end the one-party state. Two days later, the federal parliament formally deleted the sections of the Constitution giving the Communist Party a monopoly of power. Barbed wire and other obstructions were removed from the border with West Germany and Austria in early December. On 10 December, President Gustáv Husák appointed the first largely non-communist government in Czechoslovakia since 1948, and resigned. Alexander Dubček was elected speaker of the federal parliament on 28 December and Václav Havel the President of Czechoslovakia on 29 December 1989.
In June 1990, Czechoslovakia held its first democratic elections since 1946. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia split into two countries—the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
|First Czechoslovak Republic|
|Second Czechoslovak Republic|
|Third Czechoslovak Republic|