Laccadive Sea

The Laccadive Sea or Lakshadweep Sea is a body of water bordering India (including its Lakshadweep islands), the Maldives, and Sri Lanka. It is located to the southwest of Karnataka, to the west of Kerala and to the south of Tamil Nadu. This warm sea has a stable water temperature through the year and is rich in marine life. The Gulf of Mannar alone hosting about 3,600 species. Mangaluru, Kozhikode, Kochi, Alappuzha, Kollam, Thiruvananthapuram, Tuticorin, Colombo, and Malé are the major cities on the shore of the Laccadive Sea. Kanyakumari, the southernmost tip of peninsular India, also borders this sea.

Laccadive Sea
Laccadive Sea-Indian subcontinent CIA
Coordinates08°N 75°E / 8°N 75°ECoordinates: 08°N 75°E / 8°N 75°E
TypeSea
Basin countriesIndia, Sri Lanka, Maldives
Surface area786,000 km2 (303,500 sq mi)
Average depth1,929 m (6,329 ft)
Max. depth4,131 m (13,553 ft)
References[1]

Extent

A View of the Laccadive Sea from Villingili
A View of the Laccadive Sea from Villingili

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Laccadive Sea as follows:[2]

Kollam, Kerala
Laccadive sea shore at Kollam Beach

On the West. A line running from Sadashivgad Lt. on West Coast of India (14°48′N 74°07′E / 14.800°N 74.117°E) to Corah Divh (13°42′N 72°10′E / 13.700°N 72.167°E) and thence down the West side of the Laccadive [Lakshadweep] and Maldive Archipelagos to the most Southerly point of Addu Atoll in the Maldives.

On the South. A line running from Dondra Head in Sri Lanka to the most Southerly point of Addu Atoll.

On the East. The West coasts of Sri Lanka and India.

On the Northeast. Adams Bridge (between India and Sri Lanka).

Hydrology

Water temperature is rather constant through the year, averaging 26–28 °С in summer and 25 °С in winter. Salinity is 34‰ (parts per thousand) in the center and northern part and up to 35.5‰ in the south. The coasts are sandy but the deeper parts are covered in silt. There are numerous coral reefs in the sea, such as the Lakshadweep islands which are made up of atolls and contain 105 coral species.[1][3][4]

Fauna and human activities

Pearling crew 1926
Pearl fishing in the Gulf of Mannar, ca. 1926

The Gulf of Mannar is known for its pearl banks of Pinctada radiata and Pinctada fucata for at least two thousand years. Pliny the Elder (23–79) praised the pearl fishery of the gulf as most productive in the world.[5][6] Although extraction of natural pearls is considered too expensive in most parts of the world, it is still conducted in the gulf.[7][8] Also collected in large numbers are Shankha mollusks (Xancus pyrum)[7] whose shells are used as a ritual and religious object. Other mollusks of the sea[9] are either too scarce or not popular in the Indian society and therefore have no commercial value.[10]

Another traditional occupation in the Laccadive Sea is fishing. The annual fish catch is 2,000 to 5,000 tonnes from the Lakshadweep islands, which is mostly constituted by tuna (about 70%) and shark. Perches, halfbeaks, Carangidae, needlefish and rays are also caught near the reefs. Shrimp, Achelata[1] and small fish, such as Sprattus, Pomacentridae and Apogonidae are widely used as a bait by the Laccadive islanders.[11]

With about 3,600 species of flora and fauna, the Gulf of Mannar is regarded as one of the richest marine biological resources in the world. Of these 3,600 species, 44 are protected, 117 are corals, 79 crustaceans, 108 sponges, 260 mollusks, 441 fin fishes, 147 seaweeds and 17 mangroves.[12] In 1986, a group of 21 islands and nearby waters with the total area of 560 km² were declared Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park. The park and its buffer zone were designated as a Biosphere Reserve in 1989. The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve covers an area of 10,500 km² of ocean, islands and the adjoining coastline, and is the largest such reserve in India. Most of its area is restricted for outsiders and the access of boats is subject to strict rules,[13] but local people continue fishing activities which they crucially depend on. About 150,000 people live in the buffer zone, and more than 70% of them depend on the coastal marine resources. There are about 125 fishing villages with 35,000 active fishers and 25,000 divers for sea cucumbers in the area, about 5,000 women collect seaweed.[14][15] About 106,000 tonnes of fish were produced in the gulf in 2006, mostly oil sardines (Sardinella longiceps), lesser sardines (Sardinella spp.), ponyfish (Letognathus sp.), mackerel, penaeid shrimp, perches, squid (Sepioteuthis arctipinni), deep-sea lobster (Puerulus sewelli), crab (Varuna littorata), skates and rays.[10][16] The seaweed collection aims at shallow-water species Gelidiella acerosa (marikozhundu passi), Gracilaria edulis (Agarophytes, Kanchi passi), Sargassum spp. (kattakorai), Turbinaria (Alginophyte, Pakoda passi) and Ulva lactuca, and is conducted between October and March. Because of National Park related restrictions, the production of seaweeds declined from 5,800 tonnes (dry weight) in 1978 to 3,250 tonnes in 2003.[17]

References

  1. ^ a b c V. M. Kotlyakov, ed. (2006). Dictionary of modern geographical names: Laccadive Sea (in Russian).
  2. ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. p. 21. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  3. ^ Coral Reefs of India: Review of Their Extent, Condition, Research and Management Status by Vineeta Hoon, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations
  4. ^ Status of Coral Reefs of India. Envfor.nic.in. Retrieved on 2013-03-22. Archived 10 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Arnold Wright (1999). Twentieth century impressions of Ceylon: its history, people, commerce, industries, and resources. p. 227. ISBN 978-81-206-1335-5.
  6. ^ James Hornell (2009). The Indian Pearl Fisheries of the Gulf of Manar and Palk Bay. BiblioBazaar. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-110-87096-7.
  7. ^ a b ICSF p. 27
  8. ^ Michael O'Donoghue (2006). Gems: their sources, descriptions and identification. Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 566. ISBN 978-0-7506-5856-0.
  9. ^ Taxa reported from regions in Indo-Arabia – see Maldives, Laccadive islands
  10. ^ a b R. Raghu Prasad; P. V. Ramachandran Nair (1973). "India and the Indian Ocean Fisheries" (PDF). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India. 15: 1–19.
  11. ^ T. R. McClanahan; Charles R. C. Sheppard; David O. Obura (2000). Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean: their ecology and conservation. Oxford University Press. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-19-512596-2.
  12. ^ ICSF p.25
  13. ^ ICSF pp. 27–30
  14. ^ ICSF pp. 1–2, 21, 24, 30
  15. ^ J. Sacratees; R. Karthigarani (2008). Environment impact assessment. APH Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 978-81-313-0407-5.
  16. ^ ICSF p. 26
  17. ^ ICSF pp. 42–43

Bibliography

A Naturalist in Indian Seas

A Naturalist in Indian Seas, or, Four Years with the Royal Indian Marine Survey Ship Investigator is a 1902 publication by Alfred William Alcock, a British naturalist and carcinologist. The book is mostly a narrative describing the Investigator's journey through areas of the Indian Ocean, such as the Laccadive Sea, the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. It also details the history of the Investigator, as well as the marine biology of the Indian Ocean.

The book is considered a classic in natural history travel, and in 1903, The Geographical Journal described it as "a most fascinating and complete popular account of the deep-sea fauna of the Indian seas. The book is one of intense interest throughout to a zoologist". In its original edition, A Naturalist in Indian Seas was 328 pages long and published in 8 volumes in London.

Alappuzha

Alappuzha (pronunciation ), popularly known by its former name Alleppey, is the administrative headquarters of Alappuzha District in the Indian State of Kerala. Alappuzha is a city and a municipality in Kerala with an urban population of 174,164 and ranks third among the districts in literacy rate in the State of Kerala. In 2016, the Centre for Science and Environment rated Alappuzha as the cleanest town in India. Alappuzha is considered to be the oldest planned city in this region and the lighthouse built on the coast of the city is the first of its kind along the Laccadive Sea coast.The city is situated 28 km from Changanacherry, 46 km from Kottayam, 53 km from Kochi, 129.4 km from Thrissur and 155 km north of Trivandrum. A town with canals, backwaters, beaches, and lagoons, Alappuzha was described by Lord Curzon as the "Venice of the East." Hence, it is known as the "Venetian Capital" of Kerala. In Alappuzha, Malayalam is the most spoken language.

It is an important tourist destination in India. The Backwaters of Alappuzha are the most popular tourist attraction in Kerala. A houseboat cruise in these backwaters can be booked. It connects Kumarakom and Cochin to the North and Quilon to the South. Apart from houseboat services, the Kerala State Water Transport Department provides government boat services within the district.

it is also the access point for the annual Nehru Trophy Boat Race, held on the Punnamada Lake, near Alappuzha, on the second Saturday of August every year. This is the most competitive and popular of the boat races in India. The mullackal chirap is also one of the attractions of Alapuzha which is the festive season held for ten days every year in December.

Other attractions in Alappuzha are Alappuzha Beach, offering a views of the Laccadive Sea, Pathiramanal , Ambalappuzha Sri Krishna Temple, St. Andrew's Basilica, Arthunkal, Mannarasala Temple, Chettikulangara Devi Temple, Haripad Sree Subrahmanya Swamy temple, Krishnapuram Palace, Thakazhy Sree Dharma Sastha Temple, Mullakkal Temple, Padanilam Parabrahma Temple, Edathua Church, Alappuzha CSI Christ Church (oldest Anglican church in Central Kerala) and Champakulam Valia Palli.

Alappuzha is home to the Punnapra-Vayalar uprising against the British and also the revolt against the Feudal raj. Communist Party members were killed by the army of the diwan, 200 people at Punnapra on 24 October and more than 150 at Vayalar on 27 October. The total loss of life is allegedly estimated to be more than a thousand. Coir is the most important commodity manufactured in Alappuzha. The Coir Board was established by the Central Government under the provisions of the Coir Industry Act, 1955. A Central Coir Research Institute is located at Kalavoor.

Arabian Sea

The Arabian Sea is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, on the southeast by the Laccadive Sea, on the southwest by the Somali Sea, and on the east by India. Its total area is 3,862,000 km2 (1,491,000 sq mi) and its maximum depth is 4,652 metres (15,262 ft). The Gulf of Aden in the west connects the Arabian Sea to the Red Sea through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, and the Gulf of Oman is in the northwest, connecting it to the Persian Gulf.

The Arabian Sea has been crossed by many important marine trade routes since the third or second millennium BCE. Major seaports include Kandla Port, Okha Port, Mumbai Port, Nhava Sheva Port (Navi Mumbai), Mormugão Port (Goa), New Mangalore Port and Kochi Port in India, the Port of Karachi, Port Qasim, and the Gwadar Port in Pakistan, Chabahar Port in Iran and the Port of Salalah in Salalah, Oman. The largest islands in the Arabian Sea include Socotra (Yemen), Masirah Island (Oman), Lakshadweep (India) and Astola Island (Pakistan).

Cochin Port

Cochin Port or Kochi Port is a port on the Arabian Sea - Laccadive Sea – Indian Ocean sea-route in the city of Kochi and is one of the ports in India. The port lies on two islands in the Lake of Kochi: Willingdon Island and Vallarpadam, towards the Fort Kochi river mouth opening onto the Laccadive Sea. The International Container Transshipment Terminal (ICTT), part of the Cochin Port, is the largest container transshipment facility in India.

The port is governed by the Cochin Port Trust (CPT), a government of India establishment. It was established in 1928 and has completed 90 years of active service.

The Kochi Port is one of a line of maritime-related facilities based in the port-city of Kochi. The others are the Cochin Shipyard, the largest shipbuilding as well as maintenance facility in India; the SPM (single point mooring) facility of the Kochi Refineries, an offshore crude carrier mooring facility; and the Kochi Marina.

Enrica Lexie

Enrica Lexie (called Olympic Sky since 2013) is an Italian Aframax oil-tanker. In 2012, the ship was involved in the shooting of two Indian fisherman in the Laccadive Sea.

Enrica Lexie case

The Enrica Lexie case is an ongoing international controversy about a shooting that happened off the western coast of India. On 15 February 2012, two Indian fishermen were killed off the coast of Kerala, India, aboard the St. Antony. India alleged that the two Italian marines aboard the Italian-flagged commercial oil tanker MV Enrica Lexie killed the fishermen.Shortly after the incident, the Indian Navy intercepted the MV Enrica Lexie and detained the two Italian marines. That has sparked a conflict of opinions over legal jurisdiction and functional immunity between the governments of India and Italy and has continued to cause diplomatic tension between the two nations.

After having been detained in India with no formal charges for two and four years, respectively, the two marines were finally released and returned to Italy. Meanwhile, an independent United Nations court was charged to resolve the conflict of jurisdiction. That was following a European Parliament resolution of January 2015, stating that "no charge has been brought by the Indian authorities" and that "Italian marines' detention without charge is a serious breach of their human rights".While tangential, the incident drew attention to the practice of commercial shipping using armed guards. The controversy also had commercial implications between Italy and India.

Geography of Kollam

City of Kollam or Quilon is a Port city in South India and was the commercial capital of erstwhile Kingdom of Travancore. It is situated on the Laccadive Sea coast of South Kerala. The city is known as the "Gateway to the backwaters of Kerala". The city lies on the banks of Ashtamudi Lake, Kerala's second largest lake, on the Arabian sea coast. Major parts of Kollam city are covered by Ashtamudi Lake.

Gulf of Mannar

The Gulf of Mannar is a large shallow bay forming part of the Laccadive Sea in the Indian Ocean. It lies between the west coast of Sri Lanka and the southeastern tip of India , in the Coromandel Coast region. The chain of low islands and reefs known as Ramsethu, also called Adam's Bridge, which includes Mannar Island, separates the Gulf of Mannar from Palk Bay, which lies to the north between Sri Lanka and India. The Malvathu Oya (Malvathu River) of Sri Lanka and the estuaries of Thamirabarani River and Vaipar River of South India drain into the Gulf. The dugong (sea cow) is found here.

History of Kannur

Kannur is sometimes identified with Naura in Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. In the Middle Ages, Kannur was the important port town, on the Laccadive Sea, called Kolathunadu, which was ruled by the Kolathiris. In the 12th and 13th centuries there was trade with Persia and Arabia.

It served as the British military headquarters on India's west coast until 1887. In conjunction with her sister city, Tellicherry, it was the third largest city on the western coast of British India in the 18th century after Bombay and Karachi.

Kanyakumari

Kanyakumari, (formerly known as Cape Comorin) is a city of the Kanyakumari district in the Indian State of Tamil Nadu. It is the southernmost city of peninsular/contiguous India. Kanyakumari has been a city since the Sangam period. and is a popular tourist destination.

Kollam district

Kollam district (formerly Quilon) is one of 14 districts of the state of Kerala, India. The district has a cross-section of Kerala's natural attributes; it is endowed with a long coastline, a major Laccadive Sea seaport and an inland lake (Ashtamudi Lake). The district has many waterbodies. Kallada river is one among them, and the east side land of river is EastKallada and the west side land is WestKallada. Kallada Boat race is one among the famous festival events of district. Even though it is a competition between two land sides of the river, many boat clubs from various place,s even beyond the district participate in the event. Kollam is the capital of Kerala's cashew industry. Plains, mountains, lakes, lagoons and backwaters, forests, farmland and rivers make up the topography of the district. The area had trading relationships with Phoenicia and Ancient Rome.

List of airports in the Maldives

This is a list of airports in the Maldives, grouped by type and sorted by location.

The Maldives or Maldive Islands, officially the Republic of Maldives, is an island country in the Indian Ocean formed by a double chain of twenty-six atolls stretching in a north-south direction off India's Lakshadweep islands, between Minicoy Island and Chagos Archipelago. It stands in the Laccadive Sea, about 700 kilometres (435 mi) southwest of Sri Lanka.

The atolls of Maldives encompass a territory spread over roughly 90,000 square kilometres (34,749 sq mi), making it one of the most disparate countries in the world. It features 1,192 islets, of which two hundred are inhabited. The Republic of Maldives's capital and largest city is Malé.

Moringua bicolor

Moringua bicolor, the bicolor spaghetti eel, is an eel in the family Moringuidae (spaghetti/worm eels). It was described by Johann Jakob Kaup in 1856. It is a marine eel known from Japan, Indonesia, the Philippines, and the Laccadive Sea, in the Indo-West Pacific. It dwells in temperate waters at a known depth of 3 m.Moringua bicolor is the first moringuid eel to be described from Japan.

Postage stamps and postal history of the Maldives

This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the Maldives.

The Maldive Islands are located in the Indian Ocean and are formed by a double chain of twenty-six atolls stretching in a north-south direction off India's Lakshadweep islands, between Minicoy Island and Chagos Archipelago. They stand in the Laccadive Sea, about seven hundred kilometers south-west of Sri Lanka.

SS Jalabala (1927)

SS Jalabala was the cargo steamship owned by Scindia Steam Navigation Company Ltd., the British Indian shipping company, which was completed in 1927. She was torpedoed and sunk in the Laccadive Sea west of Cape Comorin by the German submarine U-532 with the loss of five of her 77 crew members on 11 October 1943 during World War II.

Shankumugham Beach

Shankumugham Beach is a beach in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala, south India. The beach is on the western side of Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum) and very near to Trivandrum International Airport.

The vast stretch of white sand and the serene atmosphere, away from the crowd in the city, provide all the ingredients for relaxation and for spending an ideal evening. There is also a "Star Fish Restaurant" with eating kiosks and open-air theatre with car parking facilities. Good food can be enjoyed at the Old Coffee House, just across the beach, which is also a vantage point for enjoying the sunset. The beach is not well maintained, with garbage littering the entire area.

Shanghumugham beach is considered as the ‘Arattukadavu’ of Sri Ananthapadmanabhan - The presiding deity of the city. Thousands of Hindus perform ‘Bali Tharpanam’ during special occasions. Shankhumugham is the prime location for Ganesh Nimarjan at the time of Vinayaka Chathurthi.

On the Arattu day at Thiruvananthapuram, images of Lord Padmanabhaswamy, Lord Narasimha, and Lord Krishna are taken in procession to the Laccadive Sea at Shanghumugham beach. His Highness the now-titular Maharaja of Travancore will lead the procession with the royal sword in hand, who will be escorted by members of the royal family, armed guards, temple authorities, mounted police, and officers. After the ceremonial bath at Shanghumugham, images are taken back in procession which marks the conclusion of the festival.

The skating school here offers coaching on skating. Adjacent to the skating school is an indoor sports complex which provides facilities for Badminton and Table Tennis.

The sculpture of Sagarakanyaka - Mermaid by Kanayi Kunhiraman is an added attraction. This giant statue is more than 35 metres long. The 'Jawaharlal Nehru Park of Traffic signs for children' is situated here, which is helpful for the children to understand the traffic rules while playing in the park. The park also provides cycling facilities for small children.

The military area of Southern Air Command of the Indian Air Force and part of the main airport are situated near Shankumugham Beach.

Veli Tourist Village is near the beach. Boating facilities are offered at this picnic spot. Speed boats, restaurants and well-landscaped gardens are available.

Vembanad

Vembanad (Vembanad Kayal or Vembanad Kol) is the longest lake in India, and the largest lake in the state of Kerala. Spanning several districts in the state of Kerala, it is known as Vembanadu Lake in Kottayam, Punnamada Lake in Kuttanad and Kochi Lake in Kochi. Several groups of small islands including Vypin, Mulavukad, Vallarpadam, Willingdon Island are located in the Kochi Lake portion. Kochi Port is built around the Willingdon Island and the Vallarpadam island.

The Nehru Trophy Boat Race is conducted in a portion of the lake. High levels of pollution have been noticed at certain hotspots of the Vembanad backwaters. Government of India has identified the Vembanad wetland under National Wetlands Conservation Programme.

Visayan Sea

The Visayan Sea is a sea in the Philippines surrounded by the islands of the Visayas: Western Visayas, Eastern Visayas, and Central Visayas to the south. It is bounded by the islands Masbate to the north, Panay to the west, Leyte to the east, and Cebu & Negros to the south.

The sea is connected to the Sibuyan Sea to the northwest via the Jintotolo Channel, the Samar Sea to the northeast, the Panay Gulf (part of the Sulu Sea) to the southwest via the Guimaras Strait, and the Camotes Sea to the southeast.

The largest island within this sea is Bantayan Island of Cebu province.

Vivekananda Rock Memorial

Vivekananda Rock Memorial is a popular tourist monument in Vavathurai, Kanyakumari, India. It was built in 1970 in honour of Swami Vivekananda who is said to have attained enlightenment on the rock. According to local legends, it was on this rock that Goddess Kumari performed austerity. A meditation hall known as Dhyana Mandapam is also attached to the memorial for visitors to meditate. The design of the mandapa incorporates different styles of temple architecture from all over India. The rocks are surrounded by the Laccadive Sea. The memorial consists of two main structures, the Vivekananda Mandapam and the Shripada Mandapam.

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