Labrador

Labrador (/ˈlæbrədɔːr/ LAB-rə-dor) is a geographic and cultural region within the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It comprises the mainland portion of the province, separated from the island of Newfoundland by the Strait of Belle Isle. It is the largest and northernmost geographical region in Atlantic Canada.

Labrador occupies the eastern part of the Labrador Peninsula. It is bordered to the west and the south by the Canadian province of Quebec. Labrador also shares a small land border with the Canadian territory of Nunavut on Killiniq Island.

Though Labrador covers 71 percent of the province's land area, it has only 8 percent of the province's population. The aboriginal peoples of Labrador include the Northern Inuit of Nunatsiavut, the Southern Inuit-Métis of Nunatukavut (NunatuKavut), and the Innu. Many of the non-aboriginal population in Labrador did not permanently settle in Labrador until the natural resource developments of the 1940s and 1950s. Before the 1950s, few non-aboriginal people lived in Labrador year-round. The few European immigrants who worked seasonally for foreign merchants and brought their families were known as settlers.

Labrador

Nunatsuak (Inuttitut)[1]
Labrador-Region
Coat of arms of Labrador

Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
"The Big Land"
Motto(s): 
Latin: Munus splendidum mox explebitur, lit. 'Our splendid task will soon be fulfilled'
Country Canada
ProvinceNewfoundland and Labrador
Founded1763
Area
 • Total294,330 km2 (113,640 sq mi)
Population
(2016)
 • Total27,197
 • Density0.092/km2 (0.24/sq mi)
Time zonesUTC−4 (AST)
UTC−3:30 (NST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−3 (ADT)
UTC−2:30 (NDT)
MP1
MHA4
Ethnic groupsEnglish, Innu, Inuit, Métis

Etymology

Labrador is named after João Fernandes Lavrador, a Portuguese explorer who sailed along the coasts of the Peninsula in 1498–99. Lavrador in Portuguese means "farmer", as does its Spanish equivalent labrador.

Geography

Labrador fullmap
Map of Labrador.

Labrador has a roughly triangular shape that encompasses the easternmost section of the Canadian Shield, a sweeping geographical region of thin soil and abundant mineral resources. Its western border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands that drain into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, while lands that drain into Hudson Bay are part of Quebec. Northern Labrador's climate is classified as polar, while Southern Labrador's climate is classified as subarctic.

Labrador can be divided into four geographical regions: the North Coast, Central Labrador, Western Labrador, and the South Coast. Each of those regions is described below.

Nunatsiavut

From Cape Chidley to Hamilton Inlet, the long, thin, northern tip of Labrador holds the Torngat Mountains, named after an Inuit spirit believed to inhabit them. The mountains stretch along the coast from Port Manvers to Cape Chidley, the northernmost point of Labrador. The Torngat Mountain range is also home to Mount Caubvick, the highest point in the province. This area is predominantly Inuit, with the small Innu community of Natuashish being the exception. The north coast is the most isolated region of Labrador, with snowmobiles, boats, and planes being the only modern modes of transportation. The largest community in this region is Nain.

Nunatsiavut is an Inuit self-government region in Labrador created on June 23, 2000. The Settlement area comprises the majority of Labrador's North Coast, while the land-use area also includes land farther to the interior and in Central Labrador. Nain is the administrative center of Nunatsiavut.

Kiglapait Mountains, Labrador
Icy Labrador coast and Kiglapait Mountains on the north coast of Labrador

Central Labrador

Central Labrador extends from the shores of Lake Melville into the interior. It contains the Churchill River, the largest river in Labrador and one of the largest in Canada. The hydroelectric dam at Churchill Falls is the second-largest underground power station in the world. Most of the supply is bought by Hydro-Québec under a long-term contract. The Lower Churchill Project will develop the remaining potential of the river and supply it to provincial consumers. Known as "the heart of the Big Land", the area's population comprises people from all groups and regions of Labrador.

Central Labrador is also home to Happy Valley – Goose Bay. Once a refueling point for plane convoys to Europe during World War II, CFB Goose Bay is now operated as a NATO tactical flight training site. It was an alternate landing zone for the United States' Space Shuttle. Other major communities in the area are North West River and the large reserve known as Sheshatshiu.

Western Labrador

The highlands above the Churchill Falls were once an ancient hunting ground for the Innu First Nations and settled trappers of Labrador. After the construction of the hydroelectric dam at Churchill Falls in 1970, the Smallwood Reservoir has flooded much of the old hunting land. It submerged several gravesites and trapping cabins. Western Labrador is also home to the Iron Ore Company of Canada, which operates a large iron ore mine in Labrador City. Together with the small community of Wabush, the two towns are known as "Labrador West".

Kami Airplane
Aerial view of Kami, Labrador

NunatuKavut

From Hamilton Inlet to Cape Charles/St. Lewis, NunatuKavut is the territory of the Central-Southern Labrador Inuit, formerly known as the Labrador Métis. The region is peppered with tiny Inuit fishing communities, of which Cartwright is the largest.

The Straits

From Cape Charles to the Quebec/Labrador coastal border. Like NunatuKavut, the straits is also known for its Labrador sea grass and the multitude of icebergs that pass by the coast via the Labrador Current. Red Bay is known as one of the best examples of a preserved 16th-century Basque whaling station. It is also the location of four 16th-century Spanish galleons. The lighthouse at Point Amour is the second-largest lighthouse in Canada. MV Apollo, which is a passenger ferry carrying customers between the mainland and St.Barbe on the island of Newfoundland, is based in Blanc Sablon, Quebec near the Quebec/Labrador border. L'Anse-au-Clair is a small town on the Labrador side of the border.

Time zone

Most of Labrador (from Cartwright north and west) uses Atlantic Time (UTC−4 in winter, UTC−3 in summer). The southeastern tip nearest Newfoundland uses Newfoundland Time (UTC−3:30 in winter, UTC−2:30 in summer) to stay coordinated with the more populous part of the province.

History

Innu making canoes near Sheshatshiu, ca. 1920
Innu making canoes ca. 1920

Early history

Fours de fonte d'huile de baleine
Model of Basque whale oil melting factory at Red Bay

Early settlement in Labrador was tied to the sea as demonstrated by the Montagnais (or Innu) and Inuit, although these peoples also made significant forays throughout the interior.

It is believed that the Norsemen were the first Europeans to sight Labrador around 1000 AD, but no Norse remains have been found on the North American mainland. The area was known as Markland in Greenlandic Norse and its inhabitants were known as skrælingjar.

In 1499 and 1500, Portuguese explorers João Fernandes Lavrador and Pêro de Barcelos reached what was probably Labrador today and that is believed to be the origin of the name Labrador.[2] Maggiolo’s World Map, 1511, shows a solid Eurasian continent running from Scandinavia around the North Pole, including Asia’s arctic coast, to Newfoundland-Labrador and Greenland. On the extreme northeast promontory of North America, Maggiolo place-names include Terra de los Ingres (Land of the English), and Terra de Lavorador de rey de portugall (Land of Lavrador of the King of Portugal). Further south, we notice Terra de corte real e de rey de portugall (Land of "Corte-Real" and of the King of Portugal) and terra de pescaria (Land for Fishing). In the 1532 Wolfenbüttel map, believed to be the work of Diogo Ribeiro, along the coast of Greenland, the following legend was added: As he who first sighted it was a farmer from the Azores Islands, this name remains attached to that country. This landowner ("lavrador" in Portuguese) is believed to be Joao Fernandes. For the first seven decades or so of the sixteenth century, the name Labrador was some times also applied to what we know as Greenland.[3] This name Labrador, i.e., the land of the laborer. European settlement was largely concentrated in coastal communities, particularly those south of St. Lewis and Cape Charles, and are among Canada's oldest European settlements.

In 1542 Basque mariners came ashore at a natural harbour on the north east coast of the Strait of Belle Isle. They gave this "new land" its Latin name Terranova. A whaling station was set up around the bay, which they called Butus, now named Red Bay after the red terracotta roof tiles they brought with them. A whaling ship, the San Juan, sank there in 1565 and was raised in 1978.[4]

The Moravian Brethren of Herrnhut, Saxony, first came to the Labrador Coast in 1760 to minister to the migratory Inuit tribes there. They founded Nain, Okak, Hebron, Hopedale and Makkovik. Quite poor, both European and First Nations settlements along coastal Labrador came to benefit from cargo and relief vessels that were operated as part of the Grenfell Mission (see Wilfred Grenfell). Throughout the 20th century, coastal freighters and ferries operated initially by the Newfoundland Railway and later Canadian National Railway/CN Marine/Marine Atlantic became a critical lifeline for communities on the coast, which for the majority of that century did not have any road connection with the rest of North America.

Before 1809 it was located within Lower Canada and before within the province of Quebec.

20th century

As part of Newfoundland, Labrador was a British colony and then Dominion prior to 1949. Subsequently, it became part of Canada.

Moravian Church, Nain, NL, exterior
Nain was established in 1771 by Moravian missionaries

Labrador played strategic roles during both World War II and the Cold War. In October 1943, a German U-boat crew installed an automated weather station on the northern tip of Labrador near Cape Chidley, code–named Weather Station Kurt; the installation of the equipment was the only (known) armed, German military operation on the North American mainland during the war. The station broadcast weather observations to the German navy for only a few days, but was not discovered until the 1980s when a historian, working with the Canadian Coast Guard, identified its location and mounted an expedition to recover it. The station is now exhibited in the Canadian War Museum.[5]

The Canadian government built a major air force base at Goose Bay, at the head of Lake Melville during the Second World War, a site selected because of its topography, access to the sea, defensible location, and minimal fog. During the Second World War and the Cold War, the base was also home to American, British, and later German, Dutch, and Italian detachments. Today, Serco, the company contracted to operate CFB Goose Bay is one of the largest employer for the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay.

Additionally, both the Royal Canadian Air Force and United States Air Force built and operated a number of radar stations along coastal Labrador as part of the Pinetree Line, Mid-Canada Line and DEW Line systems. Today the remaining stations are automated as part of the North Warning System, however the military settlements during the early part of the Cold War surrounding these stations have largely continued as local Innu and Inuit populations have clustered near their port and airfield facilities.

During the first half of the 20th century, some of the largest iron ore deposits in the world were discovered in the western part of Labrador and adjacent areas of Quebec. Deposits at Mont Wright, Schefferville, Labrador City, and Wabush drove industrial development and human settlement in the area during the second half of the 20th century.

The present community of Labrador West is entirely a result of the iron ore mining activities in the region. The Iron Ore Company of Canada operates the Quebec North Shore and Labrador Railway to transport ore concentrate 578 kilometres (359 miles) south to the port of Sept-Îles, Quebec, for shipment to steel mills in North America and elsewhere.

During the 1960s, the Churchill River (Labrador name: Grand River) was diverted at Churchill Falls, resulting in the flooding of an enormous area – today named the Smallwood Reservoir after Joey Smallwood, the first premier of Newfoundland. The flooding of the reservoir destroyed large areas of habitat for the threatened Woodland Caribou. A hydroelectric generating station was built in Labrador and a transmission line to the neighbouring province of Quebec.

Construction of a large hydroelectric dam project at Muskrat Falls began in 2012 by Nalcor Energy and the Province of Newfoundland. Muskrat Falls is 45 km west of Happy Valley-Goose Bay on the Grand River (Newfoundland name: Churchill River). A transmission line began construction in October 2014 and was completed in 2016 that will deliver power down to the southern tip of Labrador and underwater across the strait of Belle Isle to the Province of Newfoundland in 2018.[6]

From the 1970s to early 2000s, the Trans-Labrador Highway was built in stages to connect various inland communities with the North American highway network at Mont Wright, Quebec (which in turn is connected by a highway running north from Baie-Comeau, Quebec). A southern extension of this highway has opened in stages during the early 2000s and is resulting in significant changes to the coastal ferry system in the Strait of Belle Isle and southeastern Labrador. These "highways" are so called only because of their importance to the region; they would be better described as roads, and are not completely paved.

A study on a fixed link to Newfoundland, in 2004, recommended that a tunnel under the Strait of Belle Isle, being a single railway that would carry cars, buses and trucks, was technologically the best option for such a link. However, the study also concluded that a fixed link was not economically viable. Conceivably, if built with federal aid, the 1949 terms of union would be amended to remove ferry service from Nova Scotia to Port aux Basques across the Cabot Strait.

Although a highway link has, as of 16 December 2009, been completed across Labrador, this route is somewhat longer than a proposed Quebec North Shore highway that presently does not exist. Part of the "highway", Route 389, starting approximately 212 kilometres (132 mi) from Baie-Comeau to 482 kilometres (300 mi), is of an inferior alignment, and from there to 570 kilometres (350 mi), the provincial border, is an accident-prone section notorious for its poor surface and sharp curves. Quebec in April 2009 announced major upgrades to Route 389 to be carried out.

Route 389 and the Trans-Labrador Highway were added to Canada's National Highway System in September 2005.

Labrador constitutes a federal electoral district electing one member to the House of Commons of Canada. Due to its size, distinct nature, and large Aboriginal population, Labrador has one seat despite having the smallest population of any electoral district in Canada. Formerly, Labrador was part of a riding that included part of the Island of Newfoundland. Labrador is divided into four provincial electoral districts in the Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly.

Boundary dispute

Labrador boundary dispute
Line A: the boundary decided by the Privy Council; the current legal boundary. Line B: the boundary as it is often portrayed by Quebec today (for example: Duplessis)

The border between Labrador and Canada was set March 2, 1927, after a tortuous five-year trial. In 1809 Labrador had been transferred from Lower Canada to Newfoundland Colony, but the inland boundary of Labrador had never been precisely stated.[7] Newfoundland argued it extended to the height of land, but Canada, stressing the historical use of the term "Coasts of Labrador", argued the boundary was 1 statute mile (1.6 km) inland from the high-tide mark. As Canada and Newfoundland were separate Dominions, but both members of the British Empire, the matter was referred to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council[8] (in London), which set the Labrador boundary mostly along the coastal watershed, with part being defined by the 52nd parallel north. One of Newfoundland's conditions for joining Confederation in 1949 was that this boundary be entrenched in the Canadian constitution.[8] While this border has not been formally accepted by the Quebec government, the Henri Dorion Commission (Commission d'étude sur l'intégrité du territoire du Québec) concluded in the early 1970s that Quebec no longer has a legal claim to Labrador.[9]

Prior to the 1995 Quebec sovereignty referendum, Parti Québécois Premier Jacques Parizeau indicated that in the event of a "yes" vote, a sovereign Quebec under his leadership would have recognised the 1927 border. However, in 2001, Québec Natural Resources Minister and Québec Intergovernmental Affairs Minister reasserted that Québec has never recognised the 1927 border:

Les ministres rappellent qu'aucun gouvernement québécois n'a reconnu formellement le tracé de la frontière entre le Québec et Terre-Neuve dans la péninsule du Labrador selon l'avis rendu par le comité judiciaire du Conseil privé de Londres en 1927. Pour le Québec, cette frontière n'a donc jamais été définitivement arrêtée.[10]

(The ministers reiterate that no Quebec government has ever formally recognized the drawing of the border between Quebec and Newfoundland in the Labrador peninsula according to the opinion rendered by the London Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in 1927. For Quebec, this border has thus never been definitively defined.)

Self-government

A Royal Commission in 2002 determined that there is some public pressure from Labradorians to break from Newfoundland and become a separate province or territory.

Some of the Innu nation (Innu people) would have the area become a homeland for them, much as Nunavut is for the Inuit; a 1999 resolution of the Assembly of First Nations claimed Labrador as a homeland for the Innu and demanded recognition in any further constitutional negotiations regarding the region.[11]

The northern Inuit self-government region of Nunatsiavut was created in 2005[12] through agreements with the provincial government and the Government of Canada. The Southern Inuit of Nunatukavut (NunatuKavut), who are also seeking self-government, have their land claim before the Government of Canada. The government of Newfoundland and Labrador refuses to recognize or negotiate with the Inuit of NunatuKavut until their claim has been accepted by the Government of Canada.[13]

Timeline

Demographics

Battle Harbour, NL
Battle Harbour, traditional outport fishing community
Population of largest towns in Labrador
Town 2016[14] 2011[15] 2006[15]
Happy Valley – Goose Bay 8,109 7,752 7,572
Labrador City 7,220 7,367 7,240
Wabush 1,906 1,861 1,739
Nunajnguk 1,125 1,188 1,037
Sheshatshiu 671 1,314 1,054
Natuashish 936 931 706
L'Anse-au-Loup 558* 657 593
Churchill Falls 634 681
Cartwright 427 504 552
Agvituk 574 556 530
North West River 547 553 692
Port Hope Simpson 412 441 529
Forteau 409 429 448
Mary's Harbour 341 383 417
Maquuvik 377 361 362
Red Bay 169 194 357
Kikiaq 305 306 269
Qipuqqaq 177 206 219
Demographic Factors (2014 Census)[16]
Factor Labrador Canada
Male/Female split 50.7/49.3% 49.0/51.0%
Median age 38 CD10 /28 CD11 39.5
Aboriginal pop. 22% 3.8%
Non-immigrant pop. 95.8% 78.3%
Median family income 171k$ CD10 /47k$ CD11 61k$
Unemployment rate 11.3% 6.6%

(CD10, CD11 refer to Census Divisions)

According to the 2011 Census, Labrador was 55.1% White, 18.5% Inuit, 15.6% Metis, and 8.6% First Nations (Innu).

Natural features

Labrador is home to a number of fauna and flora species. Most of the Upper Canadian and Lower Hudsonian mammalian species are found in Labrador.[17] Notably the Polar bear, Ursus maritimus, reaches the southeast of Labrador on its annual migration.[18]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Labrador Nunatsuak: Stories of the Big Land".
  2. ^ Bailey W. Diffie and George D. Winius (1977). Foundations of the Portuguese empire. University of Minnesota Press. p. 464. ISBN 0-8166-0782-6. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
  3. ^ See James A. Williamson, The Cabot Voyages and Bristol Discovery under Henry VII (London, 1962), pp. 98, 120–1, 312–17.
  4. ^ Richardson, Nigel (1 June 2015). "A corner of Canada that is forever Basque". Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  5. ^ "Weather station Kurt erected in Labrador in 1943". Retrieved 2010-02-18.
  6. ^ http://muskratfalls.nalcorenergy.com/team-work-and-dedication-brings-the-link-to-completion/
  7. ^ "Labrador-Canada boundary". marianopolis. 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-20. Labrador Act, 1809. – An imperial act (49 Geo. III, cap. 27), 1809, provided for the re-annexation to Newfoundland of 'such parts of the coast of Labrador from the River St John to Hudson's Streights, and the said Island of Anticosti, and all other smaller islands so annexed to the Government of Newfoundland by the said Proclamation of the seventh day of October one thousand seven hundred and sixty-three (except the said Islands of Madelaine) shall be separated from the said Government of Lower Canada, and be again re-annexed to the Government of Newfoundland.'
  8. ^ a b Frank Jacobs (July 10, 2012). "Oh, (No) Canada!". Opinionator: Borderlines. The New York Times. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
  9. ^ "Henri Dorion debunks the Ten Great Myths about the Labrador boundary". Quebec National Assembly, First Session, 34th Legislature. October 17, 1991. Archived from the original on October 26, 2009. Retrieved May 18, 2011.
  10. ^ "Communiqué du 31 octobre 2001 – Le ministre des Ressources naturelles du Québec et le ministre délégué aux Affaires intergouvernementales canadiennes expriment la position du Québec relativement à la modification de la désignation constitutionnelle de Terre-Neuve". saic.gouv.qc.ca. Gouvernement du Quebec. October 31, 2001. Archived from the original on April 28, 2005. Retrieved May 18, 2011.
  11. ^ "Resolution No. 11 – Innu Traditional Territory". Assembly of First Nations Resolutions 1999. Assembly of First Nations. July 20–23, 1999. Archived from the original on August 10, 2011. Retrieved May 18, 2011.
  12. ^ "Labrador Inuit land claim passes last hurdle". CBC News. 24 June 2005. Retrieved 2018-01-29.
  13. ^ "Government of Newfoundland Consultation Policy" (PDF). Retrieved 2019-04-06.
  14. ^ "Statistics Canada, Census Profile, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. 30 May 2018. Retrieved 28 Feb 2019.
  15. ^ a b "Statistics Canada, 2011 Census of Population". Statistics Canada. 24 October 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
  16. ^ "2014 Census release topics". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2014-09-06.
  17. ^ The American Naturalist (1898) Essex Institute, American Society of Naturalists
  18. ^ C. Michael Hogan (2008) Polar Bear: Ursus maritimus, Globaltwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg

Further reading

  • Low, Albert Peter (1896), "Report on explorations in the Labrador peninsula along the East Main, Koksoak, Hamilton, Manicuagan and portions of other rivers in 1892–93–94–95", Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, retrieved 2010-09-13
  • The Lure of the Labrador Wild, by Dillon Wallace (1905)
  • Along the Labrador Coast, by Charles W. Townsend, M.D. (1907)
  • Birds of Labrador, by Charles W. Townsend, M.D. (1907)
  • A Labrador Spring, by Charles W. Townsend, M.D. (1910)
  • Captain Cartwright and His Labrador Journal, by Charles W. Townsend, M.D. (1911)
  • In Audubon's Labrador, by Charles W. Townsend, M.D. (1918)
  • Labrador, by Robert Stewart (1977)
  • Labrador by Choice, by Benjamin W. Powell, Sr., C.M. (1979)
  • The Story of Labrador, by B. Rompkey (2005)
  • Buckle, Francis. The Anglican Church in Labrador. (Labrador City: Archdeaconry of Labrador, 1998.)

External links

Atlantic Canada

Atlantic Canada, also called the Atlantic provinces, is the region of Canada comprising the four provinces located on the Atlantic coast, excluding Quebec: the three Maritime provinces – New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island – and the easternmost province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The population of the four Atlantic provinces in 2016 was about 2,300,000 on half a million km2. The provinces combined had an approximate GDP of $121.888 billion in 2011.

Boeing Vertol CH-46 Sea Knight

The Boeing Vertol CH-46 Sea Knight is a medium-lift tandem-rotor transport helicopter powered by twin turboshaft engines. It was designed by Vertol and manufactured by Boeing Vertol following Vertol's acquisition by Boeing.

Development of the Sea Knight, which was originally designated by the firm as the Vertol Model 107, commenced during 1956. It was envisioned as a successor to the first generation of rotorcraft, such as the H-21 "Flying Banana", that had been powered by piston engines; in its place, the V-107 made use of the emergent turboshaft engine. On 22 April 1958, the V-107 prototype performed its maiden flight. During June 1958, the US Army awarded a contract for the construction of ten production-standard aircraft, designated as the YHC-1A, based on the V-107; this initial order was later cut down to three YHC-1As though. During 1961, the US Marine Corps (USMC), who had been studying its requirements for a medium-lift, twin-turbine cargo/troop assault helicopter, selected Boeing Vertol's Model 107M as the basis from which to manufacture a suitable rotorcraft to meet their needs. Known colloquially as the "Phrog" and formally as the "Sea Knight", it was operated across all US Marine Corps' operational environments between its introduction during the Vietnam War and its frontline retirement during 2014.

The Sea Knight was operated by the USMC to provide all-weather, day-or-night assault transport of combat troops, supplies and equipment until it was replaced by the MV-22 Osprey during the 2010s. The USMC also used the helicopter for combat support, search and rescue (SAR), casualty evacuation and Tactical Recovery of Aircraft and Personnel (TRAP). The Sea Knight also functioned as the US Navy's standard medium-lift utility helicopter prior to the type being phased out of service in favor of the MH-60S Knighthawk during the early 2000s. Several overseas operators acquired the rotorcraft as well. Canada operated the Sea Knight, designated as CH-113; the type was used predominantly in the search and rescue (SAR) role until 2004. Other export customers for the type included Japan, Sweden, and Saudi Arabia. The commercial version of the rotorcraft is the BV 107-II, commonly referred to simply as the "Vertol".

L'Anse aux Meadows

L'Anse aux Meadows (; a French-English name meaning the bay with the meadows) is an archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the Great Northern Peninsula on the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Archaeological evidence of a Norse presence was discovered at L'Anse aux Meadows in the 1960s. It is the only confirmed Norse or Viking site in North America outside of the settlements found in Greenland.Dating to around the year 1000, L'Anse aux Meadows is widely accepted as evidence of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. It is notable for being the only confirmed Norse site on mainland North America, its possible connection with Leif Erikson, and with the Norse exploration of North America. It was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1978.

Labrador Retriever

The Labrador Retriever, or just Labrador, is a large type of retriever-gun dog. The Labrador is one of the most popular breeds of dog in Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States.A favourite disability assistance breed in many countries, Labradors are frequently trained to aid the blind, those who have autism, to act as a therapy dog, or to perform screening and detection work for law enforcement and other official agencies. Additionally, they are prized as sporting and hunting dogs.A few kennels breeding their ancestors, the St. John's water dog, were in England. At the same time, a combination of the sheep protection policy in Newfoundland and the rabies quarantine in the United Kingdom led to the gradual demise of the St. John's water dog in Canada.In the 1830s, the 10th Earl of Home and his nephews the 5th Duke of Buccleuch and Lord John Scott, had imported progenitors of the breed from Newfoundland to Europe for use as gundogs. Another early advocate of these Newfoundland dogs, or Labrador Retrievers as they later became known, was the 2nd Earl of Malmesbury who bred them for their expertise in waterfowling.During the 1880s, the 3rd Earl of Malmesbury, the 6th Duke of Buccleuch and the 12th Earl of Home collaborated to develop and establish the modern Labrador breed. The dogs Buccleuch Avon and Buccleuch Ned, given by Malmesbury to Buccleuch, were mated with female dogs carrying blood from those originally imported by the 5th Duke and the 10th Earl of Home. The offspring are considered to be the ancestors of modern Labradors.

Labrador Sea

The Labrador Sea (French: mer du Labrador, Danish: Labradorhavet) is an arm of the North Atlantic Ocean between the Labrador Peninsula and Greenland. The sea is flanked by continental shelves to the southwest, northwest, and northeast. It connects to the north with Baffin Bay through the Davis Strait. It has been described as a marginal sea of the Atlantic.The sea formed upon separation of the North American Plate and Greenland Plate that started about 60 million years ago and stopped about 40 million years ago. It contains one of the world's largest turbidity current channel systems, the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC), that runs for thousands of kilometers along the sea bottom toward the Atlantic Ocean.

The Labrador Sea is a major source of the North Atlantic Deep Water, a cold water mass that flows at great depth along the western edge of the North Atlantic, spreading out to form the largest identifiable water mass in the World Ocean.

Liberal Party of Newfoundland and Labrador

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Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador

The Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador is the viceregal representative in Newfoundland and Labrador of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, who operates distinctly within the province but is also shared equally with the ten other jurisdictions of Canada, as well as the other Commonwealth realms and any subdivisions thereof, and resides predominantly in her oldest realm, the United Kingdom. The Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador is appointed in the same manner as the other provincial viceroys in Canada and is similarly tasked with carrying out most of the monarch's constitutional and ceremonial duties. The current, and 14th, Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador is Judy Foote, who has served in the role since 3 May 2018.

List of airports in Newfoundland and Labrador

This is a complete list of airports, water aerodromes and heliports in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

List of communities in Newfoundland and Labrador

This page lists communities of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

Incorporated towns or cities are recognized as census subdivisions by Statistics Canada and can be found on List of municipalities in Newfoundland and Labrador.

Newfoundland and Labrador at Confederation in 1949 had nearly 1450 communities. Today it has fewer than 700. A listing of abandoned communities is found at the List of ghost towns in Newfoundland and Labrador

List of lieutenant governors of Newfoundland and Labrador

The following is a list of the Governors and Lieutenant Governors of Newfoundland and later Newfoundland and Labrador. Though the present day office of the lieutenant governor in Newfoundland and Labrador came into being only upon the province's entry into Canadian Confederation in 1949, the post is a continuation from the first governorship of Newfoundland in 1610.

List of municipalities in Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador is the ninth-most populous province in Canada with 519,716 residents as of 2016 and is the seventh-largest in land area at 370,514 km2 (143,056 sq mi). Newfoundland and Labrador has 271 municipalities including 3 cities and 268 towns, which cover only 2.2% of the territory's land mass but are home to 89.6% of its population.Towns are created by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador in accordance with the Municipalities Act, 1999, whereas the three cities were incorporated under the City of Corner Brook Act, the City of Mount Pearl Act and the City of St. John's Act. These acts grant the power to enact local bylaws and the responsibility to provide local government services. St. John's is Newfoundland and Labrador's capital and largest municipality by population with 108,860 residents and land area with 445.88 km2 (172.16 sq mi). Tilt Cove is its smallest municipality by population with five residents, and Brent's Cove is the smallest municipality by land area with 1.02 km2 (0.39 sq mi).

Newfoundland (island)

Newfoundland (, locally ; French: Terre-Neuve) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It has 29 percent of the province's land area. The island is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle and from Cape Breton Island by the Cabot Strait. It blocks the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River, creating the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the world's largest estuary. Newfoundland's nearest neighbour is the French overseas community of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.

With an area of 108,860 square kilometres (42,031 sq mi), Newfoundland is the world's 16th-largest island, Canada's fourth-largest island, and the largest Canadian island outside the North. The provincial capital, St. John's, is located on the southeastern coast of the island; Cape Spear, just south of the capital, is the easternmost point of North America, excluding Greenland. It is common to consider all directly neighbouring islands such as New World, Twillingate, Fogo and Bell Island to be 'part of Newfoundland' (i.e., distinct from Labrador). By that classification, Newfoundland and its associated small islands have a total area of 111,390 square kilometres (43,008 sq mi).According to 2006 official Census Canada statistics, 57% of responding Newfoundland and Labradorians claim British or Irish ancestry, with 43.2% claiming at least one English parent, 21.5% at least one Irish parent, and 7% at least one parent of Scottish origin. Additionally 6.1% claimed at least one parent of French ancestry. The island's total population as of the 2006 census was 479,105.

Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador (, French: Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Montagnais: Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it comprises the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador to the northwest, with a combined area of 405,212 square kilometres (156,500 sq mi). In 2018, the province's population was estimated at 525,073. About 92% of the province's population lives on the island of Newfoundland (and its neighbouring smaller islands), of whom more than half live on the Avalon Peninsula.

The province is Canada's most linguistically homogeneous, with 97.0% of residents reporting English (Newfoundland English) as their mother tongue in the 2016 census. Historically, Newfoundland was also home to unique varieties of French and Irish, as well as the extinct Beothuk language. In Labrador, the indigenous languages Innu-aimun and Inuktitut are also spoken.

Newfoundland and Labrador's capital and largest city, St. John's, is Canada's 20th-largest census metropolitan area and is home to almost 40 percent of the province's population. St. John's is the seat of government, home to the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador and to the highest court in the jurisdiction, the Newfoundland and Labrador Court of Appeal.

A former colony and then dominion of the United Kingdom, Newfoundland gave up its independence in 1933, following significant economic distress caused by the Great Depression and the aftermath of Newfoundland's participation in World War I. It became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on March 31, 1949, as "Newfoundland". On December 6, 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's name to Newfoundland and Labrador.

Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly

The Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly is one of two components of the General Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador, the other being the Queen of Canada in Right of Newfoundland and Labrador, represented by the Lieutenant-Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Newfoundland and Labrador General Assembly meets in the Confederation Building at St. John's.

The governing party sits on the left side of the speaker of the House of Assembly as opposed to the traditional right side of the speaker. This tradition dates back to the 1850s because the heaters in the Colonial Building were located on the left side. Thus, the government chose to sit in the heat, and leave the opposition sitting in the cold.

Placentia, Newfoundland and Labrador

Placentia is a town located in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It consists of the Argentia Industrial Park and amalgamated communities of Townside, Freshwater, Dunville, Southeast, and Jerseyside.

Politics of Newfoundland and Labrador

The Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador is governed by a unicameral legislature, the House of Assembly, which operates under the Westminster model of government. The executive function of government is formed by the Lieutenant Governor, the premier (head of government, and normally the leader of the largest party in the legislature) and his or her cabinet. The politics of Newfoundland and Labrador is defined by a long history, liberal democratic political institutions and a unique political culture.

Premier of Newfoundland and Labrador

The Premier of Newfoundland and Labrador is the first minister, head of government and de facto chief executive for the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Since 1949, the Premier's duties and office has been the successor to the First Ministerial position of the Prime Minister of the former Dominion of Newfoundland. Before 1964, the position's official title was Premier of Newfoundland. From 1964 to 2001 this title continued to be used outside the province.

The Premier is appointed by the Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador, as representative of the Queen in Right of Newfoundland and Labrador. He or she is usually the leader of the party that commands a majority in the House of Assembly. The word Premier is derived from the French word of the same spelling, meaning "first"; and ultimately from the Latin word primarius, meaning "primary".The current Premier of Newfoundland and Labrador is Dwight Ball, since December 14, 2015.

St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador

St. John's is the capital and largest city of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is on the eastern tip of the Avalon Peninsula on the large Canadian island, Newfoundland. The city spans 446.04 square kilometres (172.22 sq mi) and is North America's easternmost city.Its name has been attributed to the Nativity of John the Baptist, when John Cabot was believed to have sailed into the harbour in 1497 and to a Basque fishing town with the same name. Existing on maps as early as 1519, it is one of the oldest cities in North America. It was officially incorporated as a city in 1888. With a metropolitan population of approximately 219,207 (as of July 1, 2017), the St. John's Metropolitan Area is Canada's 20th largest metropolitan area and the second largest Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) in Atlantic Canada, after Halifax.The city has a rich history, having played a role in the French and Indian War, the American Revolutionary War, and the War of 1812. Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi received the first transatlantic wireless signal in St. John's. Its history and culture have made it into an important tourist destination.

St. John's International Airport

St. John's International Airport (IATA: YYT, ICAO: CYYT) is in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. It is an international airport located at the northern limits of St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador that serves the St. John's metropolitan area and the Avalon Peninsula. The airport is part of the National Airports System, and is operated by St. John's International Airport Authority Inc.The airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA). CBSA officers at this airport can handle aircraft with no more than 165 passengers. However, they can handle up to 450 if the aircraft is unloaded in stages.

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