In the Israeli legal system, the Labor Courts system (Hebrew: בתי הדין לעבודה) is a system of courts established under the Law of the Labor Court, 1969. This court system is the appellate judiciary specializing in Israeli labor law and social security (National Insurance, Health Insurance etc.).
Labor courts exist in two instances:
The National Labor Court is considered the high authority in the field of labor law, and as such, is often excluded from the intervention of the Israeli Supreme Court. In some cases, however, the Israeli Supreme Court may agree to entertain an appeal. A legal dispute which existed between the then-President of the National Labor Court, Menahem Goldberg and the chief justice of the Supreme Court, Aharon Barak, the relations between the Labor Court to High Court. Goldberg and his predecessor Bar - Niv, ruled for the supremacy of the National Labor Court on the issues. Barak, however, allowed the petitions to the Supreme Court against a ruling by the National Labor Court.
A labor court (or labour court or industrial tribunal) is a governmental judiciary body which rules on labor or employment-related matters and disputes. In a number of countries, labor cases are often taken to separate national labor high courts. Other states, such as the United States, possess general non-judiciary labour relations boards which govern union certifications and elections.