Labiodental consonant

In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.

Labiodental consonant in IPA

The labiodental consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet are:

IPA Description Example
Language Orthography IPA Meaning
voiceless labiodental stop Greek σάπφειρος [ˈsafiro̞s̠] 'sapphire'
voiced labiodental stop Sika
p̪͡f voiceless labiodental affricate Tsonga timpfuvu [tiɱp̪͡fuβu] 'hippos'
b̪͡v voiced labiodental affricate Tsonga shilebvu [ʃileb̪͡vu] 'chin'
ɱ labiodental nasal English symphony [ˈsɪɱfəni]
f voiceless labiodental fricative English fan [fæn]
v voiced labiodental fricative English van [væn]
ʋ labiodental approximant Dutch wang [ʋɑŋ] 'cheek'
labiodental flap Mono vwa [a] 'send'
ʘ̪ labiodental click Nǁng ʘoe [ʘ̪oe] 'meat'

The IPA chart shades out labiodental lateral consonants. This is sometimes read as indicating that such sounds are not possible. In fact, the fricatives [f] and [v] often have lateral airflow, but no language makes a distinction for centrality, and the allophony is not noticeable.

The IPA symbol ɧ refers to a sound occurring in Swedish, officially described as similar to the velar fricative [x], but one dialectal variant is a rounded, velarized labiodental, less ambiguously rendered as [fˠʷ]. The labiodental click is an allophonic variant of the (bi)labial click.

Occurrence

The only common labiodental sounds to occur phonemically are the fricatives and the approximant. The labiodental flap occurs phonemically in over a dozen languages, but it is restricted geographically to central and southeastern Africa (Olson & Hajek 2003). With most other manners of articulation, the norm are bilabial consonants (which together with labiodentals, form the class of labial consonants).

[ɱ] is quite common, but in all or nearly all languages in which it occurs, it occurs only as an allophone of /m/ before labiodental consonants such as /v/ and /f/. It has been reported to occur phonemically in a dialect of Teke, but similar claims in the past have proven spurious.

The XiNkuna dialect of Tsonga features a pair of affricates as phonemes. In some other languages, such as Xhosa, affricates may occur as allophones of the fricatives. These differ from the German bilabial-labiodental affricate <pf>, which commences with a bilabial p. All these affricates are rare sounds.

The stops are not confirmed to exist as separate phonemes in any language. They are sometimes written as ȹ ȸ (qp and db ligatures). They may also be found in children's speech or as speech impediments.

Dentolabial consonants

Dentolabial consonants are the articulatory opposite of labiodentals: They are pronounced by contacting lower teeth against the upper lip. They are rare cross-linguistically, likely due to the prevalence of dental malocclusions (especially retrognathism) that make them difficult to produce, though one allophone of Swedish /ɧ/ has been described as a velarized dentolabial fricative, and the voiceless dentolabial fricative is apparently used in some of the southwestern dialects of Greenlandic (Vebæk 2006).

The diacritic for dentolabial in the extensions of the IPA for disordered speech is a superscript bridge, ⟨◌͆⟩, by analogy with the subscript bridge used for labiodentals: ⟨m͆ p͆ b͆ f͆ v͆⟩. Complex consonants such as affricates, prenasalized stops and the like are also possible.

See also

References

  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Olson, Kenneth S. & John Hajek. 2003. Crosslinguistic insights on the labial flap. Linguistic Typology 7(2). 157–186. doi:10.1515/lity.2003.014
  • Vebæk, Mâliâraq. 2006. The Southernmost People of Greenland-Dialects and Memories (Vol. 337): Qavaat-Oqalunneri Eqqaamassaallu. Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN 978-87-635-1273-2

Further reading

Hungarian phonology

The phonology of the Hungarian language is notable for its process of vowel harmony, the frequent occurrence of geminate consonants and the presence of otherwise uncommon palatal stops.

Labial approximant

Labial approximant is the name of a class of consonants.

Lip

Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans and many animals.

Lips are soft, movable, and serve as the opening for food intake and in the articulation of sound and speech. Human lips are a tactile sensory organ, and can be an erogenous zone when used in kissing and other acts of intimacy.

Overbite

Overbite medically refers to the extent of vertical (superior-inferior) overlap of the maxillary central incisors over the mandibular central incisors, measured relative to the incisal ridges.The term overbite does not refer to a specific condition, nor is it a form of malocclusion. Rather an absent or excess overbite would be a malocclusion. Normal overbite is not measured in exact terms, but as a proportion (approximately 30–50% of the height of the mandibular incisors) and is commonly expressed as a percentage.

Yue Chinese

Yue or Yueh (English: or ; Cantonese pronunciation: [jyːt̚˧˥]) is one of the primary branches of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, collectively known as Liangguang.

The name Cantonese is often used for the whole branch, but linguists prefer to reserve that name for the variety of Guangzhou (Canton), Hong Kong and Macau, which is the prestige dialect. Taishanese, from the coastal area of Jiangmen located southwest of Guangzhou, was the language of most of the 19th-century emigrants from Guangdong to Southeast Asia and North America. Most later migrants have been speakers of Cantonese.

Yue varieties are not mutually intelligible with other varieties of Chinese. They are among the most conservative varieties with regard to the final consonants and tonal categories of Middle Chinese, but have lost several distinctions in the initial and medial consonants that other Chinese varieties have retained.

IPA topics

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