la Repubblica

la Repubblica (Italian: [la reˈpubblika]; the Republic) is an Italian daily general-interest newspaper. It was founded in 1976 in Rome by Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso (now known as GEDI Gruppo Editoriale) and led by Eugenio Scalfari, Carlo Caracciolo and Arnoldo Mondadori Editore. Born as a radical leftist newspaper,[1] it has since moderated to a milder centre-left political stance.[2][3]

la Repubblica
La repubblica frontpage 2007 11 07
Front page, 7 November 2007
TypeNational daily newspaper
Owner(s)GEDI Gruppo Editoriale
EditorCarlo Verdelli
Founded14 January 1976
Political alignmentSocial democracy
Cultural liberalism
HeadquartersRome, Italy
Circulation301,565 (May 2014)
OCLC number642673598
Venerdì - Cover Carla Bruni
Il Venerdì.



la Repubblica was founded by Eugenio Scalfari,[4] also director of the weekly magazine L'Espresso, and Italian politician Barbara Spinelli[5] in January 1976.[6][7]

The publisher Carlo Caracciolo and Mondadori had invested 2.3 billion lire (half each, approximately €1.3 million) and a break-even point was calculated at 150,000 copies. Scalfari invited a few trusted colleagues: Gianni Rocca, then Giorgio Bocca, Sandro Viola, Mario Pirani, Miriam Mafai, Barbara Spinelli, Natalia Aspesi and Giuseppe Turani. The cartoons were the prerogative of Giorgio Forattini until 1999.

Early life

The newspaper first went on sale on 14 January 1976. It was presented as the first Italian tabloid with some sections such as sports and business intentionally left out. When it was founded, it was intended to be a "second newspaper", with only major news at the national level, to an audience that has already read a local newspaper. It was composed of 20 pages and was published from Tuesday to Sunday. The paper defined itself as a “giornale-partito” (meaning "newspaper-party") in its initial stage.[7]

During the first two years, it built up a core-audience identified as members of the centre-left and the Italian Communist Party. In 1977, Scalfari decided to cater to the university student movement, so la Repubblica began its expansion. The strength of the newspaper lay particularly in the editorial comments section, which was always incisive and thought-provoking. In the meantime, Giampaolo Pansa from Corriere della Sera became Deputy Director, alongside Rocca and Pirani.

In early 1978, average sales amounted to 114,000 copies. During the 55 days of the Moro kidnapping, la Repubblica backed the policy of hardline non-negotiation while reporting on the pro-negotiation approach led by Bettino Craxi of the Italian Socialist Party (or PSI). The paper's stance proved popular and, by the end of the year, daily sales reached 140,000 copies. In 1979, with an average print run of 180,000 copies, it achieved a break-even point. The size of the newspaper increased with page count growing from 20 to 24. The newspaper decided to cover sports for the first time and veteran reporter Gianni Brera was added.

In 1981, the Corriere della Sera was hit by a scandal when chief editor Franco Di Bella was outed as a member of the secret masonic lodge Propaganda Due, or P2. This allowed La Repubblica to win extra readers and recruit a number of prestigious commentators such as Enzo Biagi and Alberto Ronchey from Corriere. Aiming to gain top circulation in Italy, chief editor Scalfari launched new reader-friendly initiatives. There were now 40 pages, including news sections, entertainment and sport. The newspaper was pitched as an "omnibus newspaper" (a paper catering to all types of readers).

Politically, while the paper kept backing the progressive left, its approach to governmental parties changed: its traditional opposition to Bettino Craxi's line was coupled with overtures to Ciriaco De Mita, one of the leading figures of the left wing of the Christian Democrats[5]. This seemed to pay off as in 1985 la Repubblica sold an average of 372,940 copies, about 150,000 more than in 1981[6].

1986 marked the newspaper's tenth birthday. A special issue was released in celebration, Ten years 1976/1985 consisting of 10 files in coated paper, one per each year, with the re-issuing of many original articles. The launch was backed by a successful advertising campaign featuring a young university student seen purchasing la Repubblica. Ten years later, the same student is pictured as an adult. He's holding the same newspaper, but in the meantime he's worked his way up to an important managerial position in a large company. The same year saw the launch of weekly financial supplement, Affari & finanza, edited by Giuseppe Turani. la Repubblica continued the game of catch up with Corriere della Sera and on (December 1986,) they actually managed to overtake their rivals.

In 1987, la Repubblica launched a prize competition called Portfolio, a type of stock market-based lottery. Readers were encouraged to buy the newspaper daily in order to check share value. The prize turned out to cost more than the supplements earned, the latter increasing sales for one or two days a week only. la Repubblica expanded by almost 200,000 copies within three months, stretching to a total daily average of nearly 700,000 [7]. At that point, "la Repubblica became the best-selling Italian newspaper.

The 1988 circulation of the paper was 730,000 copies, making it the most read newspaper in Italy.[8] At the end of the 1980s the paper reached a circulation of 800,000 copies.[4]

The Corriere della Sera hit back with a free Saturday magazine and la Repubblica reciprocated with their own magazine, Venerdì,[4] launched on 16 October 1987, the same day as Affari & Finanza. The via Solferino publishing group did not reclaim the top spot for two years.

"Segrate War" (Guerra di Segrate)

At the end of the Eighties, believing that a stronger financial support was needed for the growth of the group, Carlo Caracciolo and Eugenio Scalfari (main shareholders of the Espresso group) sold all their shares to Carlo De Benedetti.

Already a major shareholder of Mondadori, Benedetti took the Espresso group together with the Milan publisher, with the goal of becoming the main shareholder, buying the stock of Arnoldo Mondadori’s heirs. Silvio Berlusconi prevented it, starting the so called “Segrate War” (from the town of Segrate near Milan where the Mondadori main office is located). In 1991, after more than two years of legal and financial battles, the struggle was ended by the entrepreneur Giuseppe Ciarrapico on behalf of the prime minister of the time, Giulio Andreotti, who persuaded De Benedetti and Berlusconi to split the “Grande Mondadori”. De Benedetti received la Repubblica, L’Espresso and some local newspapers; Berlusconi received Mondadori minus the newspapers. The controversial operation was the main point of a lawsuit in which Berlusconi was charged with corruption of legal proceedings. This lawsuit became famous as the "Lodo Mondadori" (the Mondadori Decision). A verdict on 3 October 2009 by the Causa Civile (Civil Court of Milan) pronounced that Berlusconi’s Fininvest had to compensate the Carlo de Benedetti's CIR €750 million for financial losses due to "perdita di chance" (lost opportunities) from the Lodo Mondadori decision.[9][10]

In the following years, new publishing projects were added. La Repubblica, which up to then was not published on Monday, bought Lunedì di Repubblica for 50 million lire. This was a satirical magazine, and first "real fake" newspaper, published by Vincenzo Sparagna, author of Frigidaire.[11] The launch occurred on 10 January 1994: in this period the newspaper has an average circulation of 660,000 copies. 1995, besides being the year of the introduction of the supplements Musica! Rock & altro and Salute, was the year of a graphical change as colour was introduced on the first page and in advertisements.

On May 1996, after twenty years Eugenio Scalfari resigned as Editor in Chief, but remained an important contributor to the newspaper. He was succeeded by Ezio Mauro. The same year, the weekly women's supplement “D” (Donne) was launched.

la Repubblica after Scalfari


On 5 April 1996 the paper launched its website as a collaborative effort with Digital and Interbusiness (a unit of Telecom Italia), as an on-line trial version of the newspaper, created for the election of 21 April.

In August 1996, Mauro began a project Repubblica - lavori in corso (Repubblica - work in progress), with the objective of testing an on-line edition. The project was coordinated by Vittorio Zambardino, Gualtiero Pierce and Ernesto Assante, with technical direction by Alessandro Canepa.

On 14 January 1997 the online version of the newspaper was launched.[6] It became the main Italian information website with over 10.6 million users in October 2007.[12] In 2010 it was the tenth most visited website in the country being ahead of Google, Yahoo!, Facebook, YouTube and MSN.[13]


In 2004, through a gradual process, the newspaper introduced colour in every page. This decision forced the whole Italian newspaper market to adopt similar measures.

On 19 October 2007, the newspaper's graphics and layout were renovated. La Repubblica split in two newspapers: one dedicated to the news and the other (Called “R2”) to analysis of current events.[14]

Current position

The newspaper used to be regarded as on the moderate left wing of the political spectrum, with a very critical line towards the former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi,[15] especially criticizing his conflict of interest as both entrepreneur and politician. In August 2009, Berlusconi sued the newspaper[16] after it published ten questions addressed to him (which he refused to answer).

La Repubblica used to be known for its critical stand vis-à-vis the Catholic Church, but this position has drastically changed after the onset of the papacy of Pope Francis.

On 20 November 2007, the newspaper revealed wiretapping transcripts between certain RAI and Mediaset directors, aimed at modifying some parts of the TV scheduling of 2005 (regarding the death of the Pope and the regional elections of 2005).[17]

Supplements and features

  • La Domenica di Repubblica: Started in November 2004 and published every Sunday, it is composed of 20 pages dedicated to current events, show business, lifestyle and leisure. La Domenica di Repubblica was inspired by Sunday editions of the main British newspapers.
  • L'Almanacco dei libri: Published since 2004 every Saturday with 8 pages of reviews and charts of book sales.
  • Il Venerdì: Weekly magazine.
  • Diario di Repubblica: Twice-weekly (Tuesday and Friday) of 4 pages with insights into important topics of the day by analyzing one key word. At the end of the year, the pages of the "Diary" are collected and published in a bound book sold with the newspaper.
  • Album di Repubblica: special feature of the journal.
  • D – La repubblica delle Donne: Weekly magazine primarily aimed at women, which can be downloaded free of charge from its website.[18]
    • DCasa: weekly supplement devoted to housing issues, which can be downloaded free of charge from its website.[19]
  • Velvet Monthly magazine devoted to fashion since November 2006.
  • xL Monthly magazine aimed at the youth market since August 2005.
  • Metropoli: Weekly feature on multi-cultural Italy.
  • Viaggi: Weekly feature devoted to travel.
  • Salute: Weekly feature devoted to health issues.
  • Il Lavoro, formerly a Genoese socialist newspaper, nowadays a feature published only in the local Ligurian edition.

The newspaper has also published The New York Times International Weekly on Mondays since 2004. This English language supplement features articles selected from The New York Times and can be downloaded free of charge from La Repubblica's website.[20]

Current editorial staff



Previous editorial staff



Year Average daily copies sold
2014 301,565[21]
2013 323,469
2009 504,098
2008 518,907
2007 580,966
2006 588,275
2005 587,268
2004 586,419
2003 581,102
2002 579,269
2001 574,717
2000 566,811
1999 562,494
1998 562,857
1997 594,213
1996 575,447

Source Ads – Accertamenti Diffusione Stampa

Notizie oggi

See also


  1. ^ "La Storia siamo noi - \'\'la Repubblica\'\". La Storia siamo noi (in Italian). 2006.
  2. ^ Rachel Donadio (3 May 2009). "Italy Premier's Drama Unfolds in Press". The New York Times. I’d like to close the curtain on our married life,' Veronica Lario, 52, told La Repubblica, the center-left daily despised by Mr. Berlusconi
  3. ^ John Hooper (16 February 2011). "Silvio Berlusconi says he's not worried about standing trial". The Guardian. London.
  4. ^ a b c Mark Gilbert; Robert K. Nilsson (19 September 2007). Historical Dictionary of Modern Italy. Scarecrow Press. p. 356. ISBN 978-0-8108-6428-3. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  5. ^ David Broder (6 October 2015). "Resurrecting the Italian Left". Jacobin Mag. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  6. ^ a b Lapo Filistrucchi (February 2006). "The Impact of Internet on the Market for Daily Newspapers in Italy" (PDF). EUI Working Paper. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  7. ^ a b Eugénie Saitta (April 2006). "The Transformations of Traditional Mass Media Involvement in the Political and Electoral Process" (Conference Paper). Nicosia, Cyprus: ECPR. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
  8. ^ Peter Humphreys (1996). Mass Media and Media Policy in Western Europe. Manchester University Press. p. 90. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
  9. ^ Lodo Mondadori (Civil Court of Milan)
  10. ^ "Adnkronos".
  11. ^ The Espresso Editorial Group at first sued Sparagna for plagiarism, but lost when the court acknowledged Lunedì di Repubblica as an "original masthead".
  12. ^ Report of Nielsen Netratings October 2007
  13. ^ Gianpietro Mazzoleni; Giulio Vigevani (10 August 2011). "Mapping Digital Media: Italy" (Report). Open Society Foundation. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
  14. ^ Massimo Razzi (April 24, 2008). "Repubblica, history with a click Online the free archive since 1984". (in Italian).
  15. ^ Alexander Stille (31 July 2007). The Sack of Rome: Media + Money + Celebrity = Power = Silvio Berlusconi. Penguin Group US. p. 308. ISBN 978-1-101-20168-8. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  16. ^ "Berlusconi fa causa a repubblica". La stampa. Archived from the original on 31 August 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
  17. ^ Consulto Del Noce-Rossella sulle elezioni. Dati brutti, Cattaneo ora tenta di ritardarli La Repubblica
  18. ^ "la Repubblica+ - Il tuo quotidiano in digitale -". la Repubblica+ - Il tuo quotidiano in digitale.
  19. ^ "Dcasa - D - la Repubblica".
  20. ^ "Repubblica » The New York Times di Repubblica".
  21. ^ Data from Accertamenti Diffusione Stampa
1987–88 Serie A

The 1987–88 Serie A was won by Milan.

Diego Fabbrini

Diego Fabbrini (Italian pronunciation: [ˈdjɛːɡo fabˈbriːni]; born 31 July 1990) is an Italian professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for Bulgarian First League club CSKA Sofia.

He previously played for Empoli, where his career began, Udinese, Watford, Birmingham City and Botoșani, with loan spells at Palermo, Siena, Millwall, Middlesbrough, Spezia and Oviedo. He has been capped once for Italy.

Direction Italy

Direction Italy (Italian: Direzione Italia, DI) is a liberal-conservative political party in Italy.

The party is led by Raffaele Fitto, a MEP in the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) group.

Five Star Movement

The Five Star Movement (Italian: Movimento 5 Stelle [moviˈmento ˈtʃiŋkwe ˈstelle], M5S) is a political party in Italy. The M5S was founded on 4 October 2009 by Beppe Grillo, a comedian and blogger, and Gianroberto Casaleggio, a web strategist. In 2014 Grillo appointed a directorate composed of five leading MPs (Alessandro Di Battista, Luigi Di Maio, Roberto Fico, Carla Ruocco and Carlo Sibilia), which lasted until the following October when he dissolved it and proclaimed himself the "political head" of the M5S. Grillo is also formally president of the association named the Five Star Movement; his nephew, Enrico Grillo, serves as vice president; and his accountant, Enrico Maria Nadasi, as secretary. Davide Casaleggio, Gianroberto's son, has an increasingly important albeit unofficial role.The M5S is variously considered populist, anti-establishment, environmentalist, anti-globalist, and Eurosceptic. The party has also been described as New Right and described by some as being right-wing due to its anti-immigration stance despite its promotion of policies usually advocated by the Italian left-wing, such as citizen's income and green-inspired policies. Grillo himself once provocatively referred to the movement as "populist". Its members stress that the M5S is not a party but a "movement", and it may not be included in the traditional left–right paradigm. The "five stars" are a reference to five key issues for the party: public water, sustainable transport, sustainable development, right to Internet access, and environmentalism. The party also advocates e-democracy, direct democracy, the principle of "zero-cost politics", degrowth and nonviolence.In the 2013 general election, the M5S won the most votes of all parties (excluding votes from Italians abroad) for the Chamber of Deputies. However, its deputies only held 109 of 630 positions as M5S refused to join a coalition. Since the 2014 European Parliament election, the M5S has been part of the Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy (EFDD) group in the European Parliament, along with the UK Independence Party and minor right-wing parties. In January 2017, M5S members voted in favor of Grillo's proposal to join the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) group, but the party was eventually refused, and M5S continues to be part of the EFDD group.

In 2016, two party members, Virginia Raggi and Chiara Appendino, were elected mayors of Rome and Turin, respectively. On 21–22 September 2017, the Vice President of the Chamber of Deputies Luigi Di Maio was elected with 82% of votes in an online primary election as candidate to the premiership and "political head" of the movement, replacing Grillo as leader of the M5S, but not as the M5S's "guarantor". In January 2018, Grillo separated his own blog from the movement, which was used in the previous years as an M5S online newspaper and the main propaganda tool.In the 2018 general election, the M5S became the largest individual party in the Italian Parliament and entered government.

Francesco Totti

Francesco Totti (Italian pronunciation: [franˈtʃesko ˈtɔtti]; born 27 September 1976) is an Italian former professional footballer who played for Roma and the Italy national team. He is often referred to as Er Bimbo de Oro (The Golden Boy), L'Ottavo Re di Roma (The Eighth King of Rome), Er Pupone (The Big Baby), Il Capitano (The Captain), and Il Gladiatore (The Gladiator) by the Italian sports media. He played primarily as an attacking midfielder or second striker, but could also play as a lone striker or winger.

Totti spent his entire career at Roma, winning a Serie A title, two Coppa Italia titles, and two Supercoppa Italiana titles. He is the second-highest scorer of all time in Italian league history with 250 goals, and is the sixth-highest scoring Italian in all competitions with 316 goals. Totti is the top goalscorer and the most capped player in the club's history, holds the record for the most goals scored in Serie A while playing for a single club, and also holds the record for the youngest club captain in the history of Serie A.

A creative offensive playmaker renowned for his vision, technique, and goalscoring ability, Totti is considered to be one of the greatest Italian players of all time, one of the most talented players of his generation, and Roma's greatest ever player. He won a record eleven Oscar del Calcio awards from the Italian Footballers' Association: five Serie A Italian Footballer of the Year awards, two Serie A Footballer of the Year awards, two Serie A Goal of the Year awards, one Serie A Goalscorer of the Year award, and one Serie A Young Footballer of the Year award.

A 2006 FIFA World Cup winner and UEFA Euro 2000 finalist with Italy, Totti was selected in the All-Star team for both tournaments; he also represented his country at the 2002 World Cup and Euro 2004. He also won several individual awards, notably the 2007 European Golden Shoe and the 2010 Golden Foot. Totti was selected in the European team of the season for three times. In 2004, he was named in the FIFA 100, a list of the world's greatest living players as selected by Pelé, as part of FIFA's centenary celebrations. In 2011, Totti was recognised by IFFHS as the most popular footballer in Europe. In November 2014, Totti extended his record as the oldest goalscorer in UEFA Champions League history, aged 38 years and 59 days. In 2015, France Football rated him as one of the ten-best footballers in the world who are over age 36. Following his retirement in 2017, Totti was awarded the Player's Career Award and the UEFA President's Award.

Giuseppe Conte

Giuseppe Conte (Italian pronunciation: [dʒuˈzɛppe ˈkonte]; born 8 August 1964) is an Italian jurist and politician serving as the 58th and current Prime Minister of Italy since 1 June 2018.A professor of private law, Conte was first proposed on 21 May 2018 for the role of Prime Minister as the head of a coalition government between the Five Star Movement and the League, but he relinquished his role when Paolo Savona, who was picked for Minister of Economy and Finance, was vetoed by President Sergio Mattarella. On 31 May, the two parties reached an agreement, proposing Giovanni Tria as Minister of Economy and Finances, and Conte was called to take the oath of office on the following day.Conte's cabinet, which includes Five Star Movement leader Luigi Di Maio and the League leader Matteo Salvini, is considered by many newspapers such as The New York Times and la Repubblica as the first populist government in modern Western Europe. Moreover, he was the first person to assume the premiership without prior government or administrative service since Silvio Berlusconi in 1994 and the first Prime Minister from Southern Italy since the Christian Democrat Ciriaco De Mita in 1989.

Liberal Populars

The Liberal Populars (Popolari Liberali) were a short-lived Christian-democratic political party in Italy (2008–2009), which currently functions as an internal faction of Identity and Action (IdeA).

List of Sicilian Mafia members by city

This is a list of prominent Sicilian mobsters by city.

List of most wanted fugitives in Italy

The list of most wanted fugitives in Italy is a most wanted list published by the Italian Interior Ministry. It includes criminals who are considered extremely dangerous by the Polizia di Stato. The list was started in July 1992. There are also lists of 100 and 500 most wanted fugitives of lesser importance. When a fugitive is caught, they are promptly removed from the list and replaced by another individual.

Popular Alliance (San Marino)

The Popular Alliance (Italian: Alleanza Popolare, AP) was a liberal-centrist political party in San Marino. The party formed a coalition with the Union for the Republic for the Sammarinese election of 2016 and following their electoral success, the two parties created a new party, Future Republic.

Sanremo Music Festival

The Festival della canzone italiana di Sanremo (in English: Italian song festival of Sanremo) is the most popular Italian song contest and awards, held annually in the town of Sanremo, Liguria, and consisting of a competition amongst previously unreleased songs. Usually referred to as Festival di Sanremo, or outside Italy as Sanremo Music Festival or Sanremo Music Festival Award, it was the inspiration for the Eurovision Song Contest.It is the music equivalent to the Premio Regia Televisiva for television, the Premio Ubu for stage performances, and the Premio David di Donatello for motion pictures, but with a longer history and contest associated with.

The first edition of the Sanremo Music Festival, held between 29 and 31 January 1951, was broadcast by RAI's radio station Rete Rossa and its only three participants were Nilla Pizzi, Achille Togliani and Duo Fasano. Starting from 1955 all the editions of the Festival have been broadcast live by the Italian TV station Rai 1.From 1951 to 1976, the Festival took place in the Sanremo Casino, but starting from 1977, all the following editions were held in the Teatro Ariston, except 1990's one, held at the Nuovo Mercato dei Fiori.Between 1953 and 1971, except in 1956, each song was sung twice by two different artists, each one using an individual orchestral arrangement, to illustrate the meaning of the festival as a composers' competition, not a singers' competition. During this era of the festival, it was custom that one version of the song was performed by a native Italian artist while the other version was performed by an international guest artist., and that was the way for many international artists to debut with hits in Italian market in those years, such a case for Louis Armstrong, Stevie Wonder, Jose Feliciano, Roberto Carlos, Paul Anka, Yardbirds, Marianne Faithfull, Shirley Bassey, Mungo Jerry and many others.

The festival is used as the way of choosing the Italian entry to the Eurovision Song Contest and it has launched the careers of some of Italy's most successful singers, including Andrea Bocelli, Paola e Chiara, Il Volo, Giorgia, Laura Pausini, Eros Ramazzotti, and Gigliola Cinquetti.

Serie A Footballer of the Year

The Footballer of the Year AIC (Italian: Migliore calciatore assoluto AIC) is a yearly award organized by the Italian Footballers' Association (AIC) given to the footballer who has been considered to have performed the best over the previous Serie A season.

Until 2010, the award was elected among the winner of the Best Italian Footballer and the winner of the Best Foreign Footballer to determine the best overall footballer.

The award is part of the Gran Galà del Calcio (formerly known as Oscar del Calcio) awards event and is considered amongst the most prestigious football awards in Italy.

Tommaso Buscetta

Tommaso Buscetta (Italian pronunciation: [tomˈmaːzo buʃˈʃetta]; 13 July 1928 – 2 April 2000) was an Italian gangster, a member of the Sicilian Mafia, who became the first Mafia boss to turn informant (pentito) and explain the inner workings of the organisation.

Buscetta participated in criminal activity in Italy, the United States and Brazil before being extradited to Italy, where he provided important testimony at the Maxi Trial, the largest anti-Mafia trial in history. After the murder of the judges Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino, Buscetta gave further testimony to the Antimafia Commission linking Italian politicians to the Mafia. Buscetta entered the Witness Protection Program in the United States, where he remained until his death in 2000.

Union for the Republic (Italy)

The Union for the Republic (Italian: Unione per la Repubblica, UpR) was a centrist political party in Italy.

It was formed by Francesco Cossiga and his followers after the break-up of the Democratic Union for the Republic (UDR) in November 1999.

Right after, the UpR formed a short-lived centrist alliance called The Clover with the Italian Democratic Socialists (SDI) and Italian Republican Party (PRI), which was responsible for the fall of the D'Alema I Cabinet on 18 December. Consequently, the UpR did not enter in D'Alema II Cabinet.

Most of UpR members, with the notable exception of Carlo Scognamiglio, joined Forza Italia prior to the 2001 general election.

Viareggio Prize

The Viareggio Prize (Italian: Premio Viareggio or Premio Letterario Viareggio-Rèpaci) is an Italian literary prize, first awarded in 1930. Named after the Tuscan city of Viareggio, it was conceived by three friends, Alberto Colantuoni, Carlo Salsa and Leonida Rèpaci, to rival the Milanese Bagutta Prize.

Víctor Ibarbo

Segundo Víctor Ibarbo Guerrero (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈbiktoɾ iˈβaɾβo]; born 19 May 1990) is a Colombian footballer who plays as a winger or forward for J-League side V-Varen Nagasaki on loan from Sagan Tosu.

After starting his career at Atlético Nacional, he moved to Cagliari in 2011, where he made over 100 Serie A appearances. He also had unsuccessful loans at Roma, Watford, back at Atlético Nacional and Panathinaikos.

A full international for Colombia since 2010, he was part of their teams that reached the quarter-finals at the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2015 Copa América.

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