London and North Eastern Railway locomotive numbered 4468 Mallard is a Class A4 4-6-2 Pacific steam locomotive built at Doncaster Works, England in 1938. It is historically significant as the holder of the world speed record for steam locomotives at 126 mph (203 km/h).
The A4 class was designed by Sir Nigel Gresley to power high-speed streamlined trains. The wind-tunnel-tested, aerodynamic body and high power allowed the class to reach speeds of over 100 miles per hour (160 km/h), although in everyday service it rarely attained this speed. While in British Railways days regular steam-hauled rail services in the UK were officially limited to a 90 mph 'line speed', pre-war, the A4s had to run significantly above 90 mph just to keep schedule on trains such as the Silver Jubilee and The Coronation, with the engines reaching 100 mph on many occasions. Mallard covered almost one and a half million miles (2.4 million km) before it was retired in 1963.
Mallard is the holder of the world speed record for steam locomotives at 126 mph (203 km/h). The record was achieved on 3 July 1938 on the slight downward grade of Stoke Bank south of Grantham on the East Coast Main Line, and the highest speed was recorded at milepost 90¼, between Little Bytham and Essendine. It broke the 1936 German (DRG Class 05) 002's record of 124.5 mph (200.4 km/h). The record attempt was carried out during the trials of a new quick-acting brake (the Westinghouse "QSA" brake).
Mallard was a very good vehicle for such an endeavour. The A4 class was designed for sustained 100+ mph (160+ km/h) running, and Mallard was one of a few of the class that were built with a double chimney and double Kylchap blastpipe, which made for improved draughting and better exhaust flow at speed. (The remainder of the class were retro-fitted in the late 1950s.) The A4's three-cylinder design made for stability at speed, and the large 6 ft 8 in (2.03 m) driving wheels meant that the maximum revolutions per minute was within the capabilities of the technology of the day. Mallard was four months old, meaning that it was sufficiently broken-in to run freely, but not overly worn. Selected to crew the locomotive on its record attempt were driver Joseph Duddington (a man renowned within the LNER for taking calculated risks) and fireman Thomas Bray.
In the words of Rob Gwynne, assistant curator of rail vehicles at the National Railway Museum:
Duddington, then aged 61, climbed into the cab, turned his cap around (as had George Formby in the contemporary film No Limit), and drove Mallard into the history books. He had 27 years on the footplate, and had once driven the Scarborough Flyer for 144 miles at over 74 mph (average speed), considered at the time to be the highest speed ever maintained by steam in the UK.
The A4 class had previously had problems with the big end bearing for the middle cylinder, so the big end was fitted with a "stink bomb" of aniseed oil which would be released if the bearing overheated. Shortly after attaining the record speed, the middle big end did overheat and Mallard reduced speed, running at 70–75 miles an hour onwards to Peterborough. It then travelled to Doncaster for repair. This had been foreseen by the publicity department, who had many pictures taken for the press, in case Mallard did not make it back to Kings Cross. The (Edwardian period) Ivatt Atlantic that replaced Mallard at Peterborough was only just in sight when the head of publicity started handing out the pictures.
Stoke Bank has a gradient of between 1:178 and 1:200. Mallard, pulling a dynamometer car and six coaches, topped Stoke Summit at 75 mph (121 km/h) and accelerated downhill. The speeds at the end of each mile (1.6 km) from the summit were recorded as: 87½, 96½, 104, 107, 111½, 116 and 119 mph (141, 155, 167, 172, 179, 187 and 192 km/h); half-mile (800 m) readings after that gave 120¾, 122½, 123, 124¼ and finally 125 mph (194, 197, 198, 200 and 201 km/h). The speed recorded by instruments in the dynamometer car, marks were made every half second on a paper roll moving 24 inches for every mile travelled. Speeds could be calculated by measuring the distance between the timing marks. Immediately after the run staff in the dynamometer car calculated the speed over five second intervals, finding a maximum of 125 mph. 126 mph was seen for a single second but Gresley would not accept this as a reliable measurement and 125 miles an hour was the figure published. Ten years later, at the time of the 1948 Locomotive Exchanges, plaques were fixed to the sides of the locomotive, these stated 126 miles an hour, which has been the speed generally accepted ever since. Some writers have commented on the implausibility of the rapid changes in speed . A recent analysis has claimed that the paper roll in the dynamometer car was not moving at a constant rate and the peaks and troughs in the speed curve were just a result of this, the maximum speed being a sustainted 124 mph for almost a mile.
On arrival at King's Cross (just after the run), driver Joe Duddington and inspector Sid Jenkins were quoted as saying that they thought a speed of 130 mph would have been possible if the train had not had to slow for the junctions at Essendine. In addition, at the time of the run there was a permanent way restriction to 15 mph just north of Grantham which slowed the train as they sought to build up maximum speed before reaching the high-speed downhill section just beyond Stoke tunnel.
On 3 July 2013, Mallard celebrated 75 years since achieving the world speed record, and to help commemorate this date all six surviving Class A4 locomotives were brought together around the turntable in the Great Hall of the National Railway Museum at York for a two-week 'great gathering'. The visitors include three UK-based, privately owned engines in 4464 Bittern, 60007 Sir Nigel Gresley and 60009 Union of South Africa (formerly Osprey). Mallard's two internationally based sisters, 60008 Dwight D. Eisenhower and 60010 Dominion of Canada, were present after completing extensive transatlantic journeys, and undergoing cosmetic restoration at the NRM's workshops.
Mallard's world record has never been officially exceeded by a steam locomotive, though the German Class 05 was at least very close: in 1936, two years before Mallard's run, 05 002 had reached 200.4 km/h (124.5 mph) between Hamburg and Berlin. Stoke Bank is long, straight and slightly downhill, whereas the 1936 run of 05 002 took place on a horizontal stretch of track. Unlike world records for cars and aircraft, there is no requirement for an average of two runs in both directions, and assistance from gradient or wind has always been acceptable in rail speed records. Also, unlike Mallard, 05 002 survived the attempt undamaged: on the other hand, its train was only four coaches long (197 tons), whereas Mallard's train was seven coaches (240 tons). In terms of rival claims, Gresley and the LNER had just one serious attempt at the record, which was far from a perfect run with a 15 mph (24 km/h) permanent way check just North of Grantham. Despite this a record was set. Gresley planned to have another attempt in September 1939, but this was prevented by the outbreak of World War II. Before the record run on 3 July 1938, it was calculated that 130 mph (210 km/h) was possible, and in fact Driver Duddington and LNER Inspector Sid Jenkins both said they might well have achieved this figure had they not had to slow for the Essendine junctions. There are claims that the Milwaukee Road class F7 and PRR S1 locomotives attained service speeds faster than Mallard's record. However, such claims were not officially verified, thus Mallard continues to hold the official record. The LNER A4 and PRR T1 classes had the same piston stroke and driving wheel diameter, which gave both locomotives the same piston speed for the same track speed.
Thus, Mallard still officially holds the record; plaques affixed to each side of the locomotive commemorate the feat. The plaques were proposed and designed by Morley headmaster Harry Underwood, a keen steam enthusiast, in 1948.
In 1948, shortly after the formation of British Railways, the decision was taken to test locomotives from all of the former 'Big Four' companies to find the best attributes of speed, power and efficiency with coal and water. There were two ways of testing and comparing locomotives: either at the Rugby Locomotive testing plant, which was not ready until late 1948 or by testing in the field itself. The results of these trials would be used to help design the British Railways Standard locomotives.
The express passenger locomotive designs which would be compared were: London Midland Region (former LMS) Princess Coronation class, Eastern Region (former LNER) Class A4, Southern Region (former Southern) Merchant Navy class and Western Region (former GWR) 6000 Class or King class.
Three Gresley A4 locomotives were chosen to represent the Eastern Region: E22 Mallard, 60033 Seagull and 60034 Lord Faringdon. All of the locomotives had the Kylchap double blastpipe chimney arrangement and were fresh from Doncaster works. Mallard had emerged from Doncaster with a fresh coat of post-war garter blue livery, stainless steel numbers 22 with a small 'E' painted above them (for Eastern region), new boiler (its fourth) and third tender of its career.
E22 Mallard was used on 8 June 1948 on the Waterloo-Exeter route. Driver Marrable took the famous A4 with a load of 481 tons tare, 505 tons full, the same that had been used on the previous trip by 35018 British India Line. Mallard reached Clapham Junction in 6 minutes 57 seconds and Woking in 28 minutes 47 seconds. At Hook there were adverse signals, causing Mallard to slow to a crawl. Even so, Salisbury was reached in 108 minutes and 28 seconds. Despite the signals earlier, the train was only 5-and-a-half minutes late. The net time was 95.5 minutes.
Mallard failed after this trial and 60033 Seagull took over. On 10 June Seagull achieved the run in 96 minutes 22 seconds, but had departed 3 minutes late, meaning Seagull had arrived with the same load 3.5 minutes early. For Mallard, the 1948 Locomotive Exchange Trials were over, but Mallard returned to the Waterloo-Exeter line for a Locomotive Club of Great Britain (LCGB) railtour on 24 February 1963.
The "Elizabethan" was a flagship express that ran non-stop over the 393 miles (632 km) between London King's Cross and Edinburgh Waverley from 1953 to the mid-1960s. Until September 1961 it was steam-hauled. In its day it was the longest non-stop run in the world. Two crews were needed for the six-and-a-half-hour run. They were able to change over mid-journey by using a corridor tender. Only a few locomotives other than Mallard had such a tender.
The last steam-hauled Elizabethans ran on 8 September 1961, the northbound ("Down" in British railway parlance) train was accompanied by photographers, journalists and performance recorders. Their outputs were uncoordinated and have only come to light over many years. Mallard hauled the train, with sister loco 60009 Union of South Africa hauling the corresponding "Up" train.
The journalists wrote a valedictory piece in The Sunday Telegraph of 10 September 1961. This has recently been reproduced in a compendium of railway-related pieces from The Daily Telegraph and The Sunday Telegraph over the years. This names the driver and fireman from Kings Cross to York as Harold Birkett and John Thorne. They were replaced north of York by driver Bob Currie and fireman Alec Mackay. Chief Motive Power Inspector Bert Dixon stayed on the footplate for the whole trip.
The photographers appear to have been from British Railway's own photography unit. Some of the photographs of the trip have survived in the "Liverpool Street Collection" at the National Railway Museum. Four of them were reproduced in a minority publication in 1971, one of them – showing Driver Birkett using the corridor tender – has been used in magazines since.
Triangulation occurred in Railway Magazine in 2013 when a log of the run was published, with narrative, taken from Railway Performance Society's archives. The original log was compiled by Mr C. Hudson. The train arrived three minutes early after a run involving several speed checks and was interpreted as a credit to men, system and machine.
Mallard was released into traffic for the first time on 3 March 1938. It was the first A4 to be fitted with a Kylchap double blast pipe from new. This was one of the factors that led to its selection for the attempt on the world rail speed record in July of that year.
Mallard wore a variety of liveries throughout its career. These were: garter blue as 4468, LNER wartime black from 13 June 1942, later wartime black with the tender marked as "NE" from 21 October 1943 as 22 with yellow small stencilled numbers, post-war garter blue with white and red lining from 5 March 1948 with stainless steel cabside number 22, British railways dark blue as 60022 from 16 September 1949, Brunswick green from 4 July 1952 and its original LNER garter blue for preservation in 1963.
The A4 class was built with streamlined valances, or side skirting, but this was removed during the war to ease maintenance. Mallard lost its valances during a works visit 13 June 1942, regaining them in preservation in 1963.
Mallard was fitted with twelve boilers during its 25-year career. These boilers were: 9024 (from construction), 8959 (from 4496 Golden Shuttle, 13 June 1942), 8907 (from 2511 Silver King, 1 August 1946), 8948 (from 31 Golden Plover, Walter K Whigham, 10 January 1951), 29301 (from 60019 Bittern, 4 July 1952), 29315 (from 60014 Silver Link, 23 April 1954), 29328 (new-build boiler, 7 June 1957), 29308 (from 60008 Dwight D. Eisenhower, 27 August 1958), 29310 (from 60009 Union of South Africa, 9 March 1960) and 27965 (from 60009 Union of South Africa, 10 August 1961).
Mallard has had seven tenders throughout its career. It started off with a non-corridor tender in 1938, had corridor design tenders during its British Railways days and was fitted with a non-corridor tender in 1963 to recreate its original appearance. The tenders it has been fitted with are: 5642 (3 March 1938 – 14 March 1939), 5639 (5 May 1939 – 16 January 1948), 5323 (5 March 1948 – 12 March 1953), 5648 (12 March 1953 – 21 July 1958), 5330 (27 August 1958 – 30 May 1962), 5651 (30 May 1962 – 25 April 1963) and 5670 (current tender, masquerading as original tender 5642).
The original non-corridor tender 5642 was later coupled to sister locomotive 60026 Miles Beevor when it was withdrawn on 21 December 1965 but later came into the possession of the A4 Preservation Society who had purchased this locomotive from the scrapyard to assist the restoration of classmate 4498 Sir Nigel Gresley. It was scrapped in 1973 as being surplus to requirements, by which time it had also donated parts to the restoration of A3 class locomotive 4472 Flying Scotsman, which had recently returned from America and was being restored at Derby Workshops.
Two A4s were exported after retirement, one to the USA (No. 60008 (LNER No. 4496) Dwight D. Eisenhower) and the other to Canada (No. 60010 (LNER No. 4489) Dominion of Canada). In October 2012, they came back to prepare for the 75th anniversary celebrations in 2013 of the record run. They and Mallard were joined at the National Railway Museum by No. 4464 (BR. No. 60019) Bittern, No. 60007 (LNER No. 4498) Sir Nigel Gresley and No. 60009 (LNER No. 4488, formerly Osprey) Union of South Africa. No. 60008 had its BR Brunswick Green livery refreshed and No. 60010 was re-painted in LNER Garter Blue with stainless steel lettering and number 4489 and fitted with the Canadian bell and whistle. In early 2014, the six A4s were displayed at the National Railway Museum Shildon, which was the final exhibition of the six engines together. In March 2014, the Mallard returned to York, and the 4464, 60007, and 60009 all returned to their owners. 60008 and 4489 remained at Shildon until April, and were returned respectively to the US and Canada from April–June 2014.
It was restored to working order in the 1980s, but has not operated since, apart from hauling some specials between York and Scarborough in July 1986 and a couple of runs between York and Harrogate/Leeds around Easter 1987.
On the weekend of 5 July 2008, Mallard was taken outside for the first time in years and displayed beside the three other A4s that are resident in the UK, thus reuniting them for the first time since preservation. It departed the museum for Locomotion, the NRM's outbase at Shildon on 23 June 2010, where it was a static exhibit, until it was hauled back to York on 19 July 2011 and put back on display in its original location in the Great Hall.
Bachmann and Hornby released models of Mallard several times in Garter Blue. Hornby released a model of Mallard in BR Express Passenger Blue and a limited edition model in BR Dark Loco Green. Hornby has also released a limited edition model of 4468 in LNER form along with the other five surviving A4s in 2013.
A Corgi 1:120 scale model in Garter Blue as part of a series entitled "Rail Legends" is available.
Hachette Publications have also released an 'O' Gauge 'Build-It-Yourself' model in Partwork format. This series is still current in June 2016.
André Chapelon (26 October 1892 – 22 July 1978) was a noted French mechanical engineer and designer of advanced steam locomotives. A graduate engineer of Ecole Centrale Paris, he was one of very few locomotive designers who brought a rigorous scientific method to their design, and he sought to apply up-to-date knowledge and theories in subjects such as thermodynamics and gas/fluid flow to the field. Chapelon's work was an early example of what would later be called modern steam and influenced the work of many later designers of such locomotives (such as that of Livio Dante Porta).Cab forward
The term cab forward refers to various rail and road vehicle designs that place the driver's compartment substantially farther towards the front than is common practice.DRG Class 05
The Deutsche Reichsbahn's Class 05 was a German class of three express passenger steam locomotives of 4-6-4 wheel arrangement in the Whyte notation, or 2'C2' in the UIC notation used in continental Europe. They were part of the DRG's standard locomotive (Einheitslokomotive) series.Don Hale
Don Hale OBE (born July 1952) is a British author and journalist known for his investigative work and campaigning against miscarriage of justice in specific legal cases.Essendine railway station
Essendine railway station was a station in Essendine, Rutland. It was situated on the East Coast Main Line of the Great Northern Railway.Gresley conjugated valve gear
The Gresley conjugated valve gear is a valve gear for steam locomotives designed by Sir Nigel Gresley, chief mechanical engineer of the LNER, assisted by Harold Holcroft. It enables a three-cylinder locomotive to operate with only the two sets of valve gear for the outside cylinders, and derives the valve motion for the inside cylinder from them by means of levers (the "2 to 1 lever" and "equal lever"). The gear is sometimes known as the Gresley-Holcroft gear, acknowledging Holcroft's major contributions to its development.List of locomotives
This is a list of locomotives (classes, or individual locomotives) that currently have articles in Wikipedia.
ALCOSee List of ALCO diesel locomotivesBaldwin Locomotive WorksSee List of Baldwin diesel locomotivesBritish Rail
British Rail Class 9F
92220 Evening StarDiesel and electric
British Rail Class 53
British Rail Class 55Fairbanks-MorseSee List of Fairbanks-Morse locomotivesGE Transportation SystemsSee List of GE locomotivesElectro-Motive Diesel (formerly General Motors Electro-Motive Division.)See List of GM-EMD locomotivesElectroputereSee List of Electroputere locomotivesGreat Western Railway
3440 City of Truro
The Great BearIndian RailwaysIndian Locomotive Class WDM-2
Indian locomotive class WAP-4
Indian locomotive class WAP-5
Indian locomotive class WAP-7
Indian locomotive class WAG-9
Indian locomotive class WDG-4
Indian locomotive class WDP-4
Indian locomotive class WAG-12
Indian locomotives class WDG-4G
See Locomotives in IndiaIngalls ShipbuildingIngalls 4-SLima-HamiltonSee List of Lima-Hamilton diesel locomotivesLondon and North Eastern Railway
LNER Class A3
4472 Flying Scotsman
LNER Class A4
4488 Union of South AfricaLondon Brighton and South Coast Railway
LBSCR K ClassMontreal Locomotive WorksSelkirk locomotive
See List of MLW diesel locomotivesNew Zealand RailwaysA class of 1873
A class of 1906
B class of 1874
B class of 1899
C class of 1873
C class of 1930
DF class of 1954
DF class of 1979
E class of 1872
E class of 1906
E class of 1922
EO class of 1923
J class of 1874
J class of 1939
K class of 1877
K class of 1932
P class of 1876
P class of 1885
X classNorwegian State RailwaysNSB Class XXI
NSB Class XXIIVictorian RailwaysSteam
X Class Diesel
F Class Norfolk and Western RailwayA Class
J ClassList of vehicle speed records
The following is a list of speed records for various types of vehicles. This list only presents the single greatest speed achieved in each broad record category; for more information on records under variations of test conditions, see the specific article for each record category. As with many world records, there may be some dispute over the criteria for a record-setting event, the authority of the organization certifying the record, and the actual speed achieved.Little Bytham
Little Bytham is a village and civil parish in the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England. The population of the civil parish at the 2011 census was 384. It lies on the B1176 road, 4 miles (6 km) south from Corby Glen and 6 miles (10 km) north from Stamford .
The East Coast Main Line railway cuts through the eastern side of the village over viaducts. On the edge of Little Bytham to the east is the West Glen River. Further east lie Witham on the Hill and Grimsthorpe Castle estate. To the west is Castle Bytham and, over the Rutland county boundary, is Clipsham. Careby is just to the south.
The name 'Bytham' is first recorded in 1067 (as a monastery that rapidly translated to Vaudey Abbey), and comes from the Old English word bythme meaning Valley bottom, broad valley.London and North Eastern Railway
The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) was the second largest (after LMS) of the "Big Four" railway companies created by the Railways Act 1921 in Britain. It operated from 1 January 1923 until nationalisation on 1 January 1948. At that time, it was divided into the new British Railways' Eastern Region, North Eastern Region, and partially the Scottish Region.Milwaukee Road class F7
The Milwaukee Road's class F7 comprised six (#100–#105) high-speed, streamlined 4-6-4 "Baltic" or "Hudson" type steam locomotives built by Alco in 1937–38 to haul the Milwaukee's Hiawatha express passenger trains. Following on from the success of the road's class A 4-4-2s, the F7s allowed the road to haul heavier trains on the popular Chicago–Twin Cities routes.
The F7s are major contenders for the fastest steam locomotives ever built, as they ran at over 100 miles per hour (160 km/h) daily. One run in January 1941 recorded by a reporter for Trains magazine saw 110 miles per hour (180 km/h) achieved twice—in the midst of a heavy snowstorm. Baron Gérard Vuillet, a French railroading expert, once recorded a run between Chicago and Milwaukee where the locomotive reached 125 mph (201 km/h) and sustained an average 120 mph (190 km/h) for 4.5 miles (7.2 km). However, the British locomotive LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard is officially accepted to be the world's fastest, with a run recorded at 125.88 mph (202.58 km/h) but authenticated at 126 mph in 1938.
The Milwaukee F7s are accepted as the fastest steam locomotives by a different measure—scheduled speed between stations. In 1939, shortly after they were introduced into passenger service, the Twin Cities Hiawatha schedule was modified such that the engines would need to run the 78.3 mi (126.0 km) between Portage and Sparta, Wisconsin in 58 minutes—a start-to-stop average of 81 mph (130 km/h).On July 27, 1950, F7 #102 was on a run between Chicago and Milwaukee on the "North Woods Hiawatha." 73 miles from Milwaukee, the right main crosshead overheated, broke, and dropped from the guide while the train was traveling at an estimated speed of over 100 mph. The engine was severely damaged, broken drive gear tore up ties and roadbed, two railroad employees were injured, and debris (including the main rod) was found as far as 1400 feet west of Edgebrook Station. The train itself continued to over 10,560 feet from the station until coming to a complete stop.
The first one built, #100, was also the first withdrawn from service, on November 10, 1949; and the last one built #105 was the final one in service and was withdrawn August 10, 1951. All were scrapped.National Railway Museum Shildon
Locomotion, also known as Locomotion: the National Railway Museum at Shildon or Shildon Locomotion Museum is a railway museum in Shildon, County Durham, England. The museum is part of the Science Museum Group.Pennsylvania Railroad class T1
The Pennsylvania Railroad's 52 T1 class duplex-drive 4-4-4-4 steam locomotives, introduced in 1942 (2 prototypes) and 1945-1946 (50 production), were their last steam locomotives built and their most controversial. They were ambitious, technologically sophisticated, powerful, fast and distinctively streamlined by Raymond Loewy. However, they were also prone to wheelslip both when starting and at speed, complicated to maintain and expensive to run. The PRR vowed in 1948 to place diesel locomotives on all express passenger trains, leaving unanswered questions as to whether the T1's flaws were solvable, especially taking into account that the two prototypes did not have the problems inherent to the production unit. An article appearing in a 2008 issue of the Pennsylvania Railroad Technical and Historical Society Magazine showed that inadequate training for engineers transitioning to the T1 may have led to excessive throttle applications, resulting in driver slippage. Another root cause of wheelslip was faulty spring equalization. The drivers were equalized together and not equalized with the engine truck. In the production fleet the PRR equalized the engine truck with the front engine and the trailing truck with the rear engine, which helped to solve the wheelslip problem.Railfest
Railfest (or Railway Festival) is a term used by railway museums and heritage railways around the world on open days and special annual events.
The events are usually fund raising oriented, and also involved with showing features of museums and their contents not always available in normal visiting times. The term is found in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia for such events.Rutland
Rutland is a landlocked county in the East Midlands of England, bounded to the west and north by Leicestershire, to the northeast by Lincolnshire and the southeast by Northamptonshire.
Its greatest length north to south is only 18 miles (29 km) and its greatest breadth east to west is 17 miles (27 km). It is the smallest historic county in England and the fourth smallest in the UK as a whole. Because of this, the Latin motto Multum in Parvo or "much in little" was adopted by the county council in 1950. It has the smallest population of any normal unitary authority in England. Among the current ceremonial counties, the Isle of Wight, City of London and City of Bristol are smaller in area. The former County of London, in existence 1889 to 1965, also had a smaller area. It is 323rd of the 326 districts in population.
The only towns in Rutland are Oakham, the county town, and Uppingham. At the centre of the county is Rutland Water, a large artificial reservoir that is an important nature reserve serving as an overwintering site for wildfowl and a breeding site for ospreys.
Rutland's older cottages are built from limestone or ironstone and many have roofs of Collyweston stone slate or thatch.Steam Days
Steam Days is a 1986 BBC 2 television documentary series written and presented by Miles Kington. Each episode is themed around the history of British steam locomotives and railways, particularly highlighting preserved locomotives operating at the time of its filming. The series consists of six half-hour episodes. It aired on Public Television stations in the United States under the title Great Steam Trains. Two episodes, "Going Great Western" and "The Fishing Line" are available to watch on the BBC Archive website. The whole series subsequently became available to watch on the BBC iPlayer. but until 8 December 2017 and is currently not available.Steam locomotive
A steam locomotive is a type of railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine. These locomotives are fueled by burning combustible material – usually coal, wood, or oil – to produce steam in a boiler. The steam moves reciprocating pistons which are mechanically connected to the locomotive's main wheels (drivers). Both fuel and water supplies are carried with the locomotive, either on the locomotive itself or in wagons (tenders) pulled behind.
Steam locomotives were first developed in Great Britain during the early 19th century and used for railway transport until the middle of the 20th century. The first steam locomotive, made by Richard Trevithick, first operated on 21 February 1804, three years after the road locomotive he made in 1801. The first commercially successful steam locomotive was created in 1812–13 by John Blenkinsop. Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert's company Robert Stephenson and Company, the Locomotion No. 1 was the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. George also built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use locomotives, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, which opened in 1830. Stephenson established his company as the pre-eminent builder of steam locomotives for railways in the United Kingdom, the United States, and much of Europe.In the 20th century, Chief Mechanical Engineer of the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) Nigel Gresley designed some of the most famous locomotives, including the Flying Scotsman, the first steam locomotive officially recorded over 100 mph in passenger service, and a LNER Class A4, 4468 Mallard, which still holds the record for being the fastest steam locomotive in the world (126 mph).From the early 1900s steam locomotives were gradually superseded by electric and diesel locomotives, with railways fully converting to electric and diesel power beginning in the late 1930s. The majority of steam locomotives were retired from regular service by the 1980s, though several continue to run on tourist and heritage lines.Timeline of English history
This is a timeline of English history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in England and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of England.
|Type and origin|
|Designer||Sir Nigel Gresley|
|Builder||LNER Doncaster Works|
|Build date||3 March 1938|
|Gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge|
|Leading dia.||3 ft 2 in (0.965 m)|
|Driver dia.||6 ft 8 in (2.032 m)|
|Trailing dia.||3 ft 8 in (1.118 m)|
|Length||70 ft (21.34 m)|
|Loco weight||102.95 long tons (104.6 t; 115.3 short tons)|
|Total weight||165 long tons (167.6 t; 184.8 short tons)|
|Boiler pressure||250 psi (1.72 MPa)|
|Cylinder size||18.5 in × 26 in (470 mm × 660 mm)|
|Tractive effort||35,455 lbf (157.7 kN)|
|Withdrawn||25 April 1963|
|Restored||1986 until 1988|
|Disposition||Displayed at the National Railway Museum, York|
Preserved LNER Class A4 locomotives