LGBT

LGBT, or GLBT, is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender. In use since the 1990s, the term is an adaptation of the initialism LGB, which was used to replace the term gay in reference to the LGBT community beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s.[1] Activists believed that the term gay community did not accurately represent all those to whom it referred.

The initialism has become adopted into the mainstream as an umbrella term for use when labeling topics pertaining to sexuality and gender identity. For example, the LGBT Movement Advancement Project termed community centres, which have services specific to those member of the LGBT community, as "LGBT community centers", in a comprehensive studies of such centres around the United States.[2]

The initialism LGBT is intended to emphasize a diversity of sexuality and gender identity-based cultures. It may be used to refer to anyone who is non-heterosexual or non-cisgender, instead of exclusively to people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender.[3] To recognize this inclusion, a popular variant adds the letter Q for those who identify as queer or are questioning their sexual identity; "LGBTQ" has been recorded since 1996.[4][5] Those who add intersex people to LGBT groups or organizing use an extended initialism LGBTI.[6][7] The two acronyms are sometimes combined to form the terms LGBTIQ or LGBT+ to encompass spectrums of sexuality and gender.[8] Other, less common variants also exist, motivated by a desire for inclusivity, including those over twice as long which have prompted criticism.[9]

Gay Pride Flag
A six-band rainbow flag representing LGBT

History of the term

Palco BolognaPride08
LGBT publications, pride parades, and related events, such as this stage at Bologna Pride 2008 in Italy, increasingly drop the LGBT initialism instead of regularly adding new letters, and dealing with issues of placement of those letters within the new title.[10]

The first widely used term, homosexual, originally carried negative connotations. It was replaced by homophile in the 1950s and 1960s,[11] and subsequently gay in the 1970s; the latter term was adopted first by the homosexual community.[12] Lars Ullerstam promoted use of the term sexual minority in the 1960s, as an analogy to the term ethnic minority for non-whites.[13]

As lesbians forged more public identities, the phrase "gay and lesbian" became more common.[14] A dispute as to whether the primary focus of their political aims should be feminism or gay rights led to the dissolution of some lesbian organizations, including the Daughters of Bilitis, which disbanded in 1970 following disputes over which goal should take precedence.[15] As equality was a priority for lesbian feminists, disparity of roles between men and women or butch and femme were viewed as patriarchal. Lesbian feminists eschewed gender role play that had been pervasive in bars, as well as the perceived chauvinism of gay men; many lesbian feminists refused to work with gay men, or take up their causes.[16]

Lesbians who held the essentialist view, that they had been born homosexual and used the descriptor "lesbian" to define sexual attraction, often considered the separatist opinions of lesbian-feminists to be detrimental to the cause of gay rights.[17] Bisexual and transgender people also sought recognition as legitimate categories within the larger minority community.[14]

After the elation of change following group action in the 1969 Stonewall riots in New York City, in the late 1970s and the early 1980s, some gays and lesbians became less accepting of bisexual or transgender people.[18][19] Critics said that transgender people were acting out stereotypes and bisexuals were simply gay men or lesbian women who were afraid to come out and be honest about their identity.[18] Each community has struggled to develop its own identity including whether, and how, to align with other gender and sexuality-based communities, at times excluding other subgroups; these conflicts continue to this day.[19] LGBTQ activists and artists have created posters to raise consciousness about the issue since the movement began.[20]

From about 1988, activists began to use the initialism LGBT in the United States.[21] Not until the 1990s within the movement did gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people gain equal respect .[19] Although the LGBT community has seen much controversy regarding universal acceptance of different member groups (bisexual and transgender individuals, in particular, have sometimes been marginalized by the larger LGBT community), the term LGBT has been a positive symbol of inclusion.[3][19]

Despite the fact that LGBT does not nominally encompass all individuals in smaller communities (see Variants below), the term is generally accepted to include those not specifically identified in the four-letter initialism.[3][19] Overall, the use of the term LGBT has, over time, largely aided in bringing otherwise marginalized individuals into the general community.[3][19] Transgender actress Candis Cayne in 2009 described the LGBT community "the last great minority", noting that "We can still be harassed openly" and be "called out on television".[22]

In response to years of lobbying from users and LGBT groups to eliminate discrimination, the online social networking service Facebook, in February 2014, widened its choice of gender variants for users.[23][24][25]

In 2016, GLAAD's Media Reference Guide states that LGBTQ is the preferred initialism, being more inclusive of younger members of the communities who embrace queer as a self-descriptor.[26] However, some people consider queer to be a derogatory term originating in hate speech and reject it, especially among older members of the community.[27]

Variants

General

Plaza de Mayo LGBT
2010 pride parade in Plaza de Mayo, Buenos Aires, which uses the LGBTIQ initialism.[28]

Many variants exist including variations that change the order of the letters; LGBT or GLBT are the most common terms.[19] Although identical in meaning, LGBT may have a more feminist connotation than GLBT as it places the "L" (for "lesbian") first.[19] LGBT may also include additional Qs for "queer" or "questioning" (sometimes abbreviated with a question mark and sometimes used to mean anybody not literally L, G, B or T) producing the variants "LGBTQ" and "LGBTQQ".[29][30][31] In the United Kingdom, it is sometimes stylized as "LGB&T",[32][33] whilst the Green Party of England and Wales uses the term LGBTIQ in its manifesto and official publications.[34][35][36]

The order of the letters has not been standardized; in addition to the variations between the positions of the initial "L" or "G", the mentioned, less common letters, if used, may appear in almost any order.[19] Longer initialisms based on LGBT are sometimes referred to as "alphabet soup".[37][38] Variant terms do not typically represent political differences within the community, but arise simply from the preferences of individuals and groups.[39]

The terms pansexual, omnisexual, fluid and queer-identified are regarded as falling under the umbrella term bisexual (and therefore are considered a part of the bisexual community).

Transgender inclusion

The gender identity "transgender" has been recategorized to trans* by some groups, where trans (without the asterisk) has been used to describe trans men and trans women, while trans* covers all non-cisgender (genderqueer) identities, including transgender, transsexual, transvestite, genderqueer, genderfluid, non-binary, genderfuck, genderless, agender, non-gendered, third gender, two-spirit, bigender, and trans man and trans woman.[40][41] Likewise, the term transsexual commonly falls under the umbrella term transgender, but some transsexual people object to this.[19]

When not inclusive of transgender people, the shorter term LGB is used instead of LGBT.[19][42]

Intersex inclusion

The relationship of intersex to lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans, and queer communities is complex,[43] but intersex people are often added to the LGBT category to create an LGBTI community. Some intersex people prefer the initialism LGBTI, while others would rather that they not be included as part of the term.[7][44] LGBTI is used in all parts of "The Activist's Guide" of the Yogyakarta Principles in Action.[45] Emi Koyama describes how inclusion of intersex in LGBTI can fail to address intersex-specific human rights issues, including creating false impressions "that intersex people's rights are protected" by laws protecting LGBT people, and failing to acknowledge that many intersex people are not LGBT.[46] Organisation Intersex International Australia states that some intersex individuals are same sex attracted, and some are heterosexual, but "LGBTI activism has fought for the rights of people who fall outside of expected binary sex and gender norms."[47][48] Julius Kaggwa of SIPD Uganda has written that, while the gay community "offers us a place of relative safety, it is also oblivious to our specific needs".[49]

Numerous studies have shown higher rates of same sex attraction in intersex people,[50][51] with a recent Australian study of people born with atypical sex characteristics finding that 52% of respondents were non-heterosexual,[52][53] thus research on intersex subjects has been used to explore means of preventing homosexuality.[50][51] As an experience of being born with sex characteristics that do not fit social norms,[54] intersex can be distinguished from transgender,[55][56][57] while some intersex people are both intersex and transgender.[58]

Other variants

Some use LGBT+ to mean "LGBT and related communities".[8] LGBTQIA is sometimes used and adds "queer, intersex, and asexual" to the basic term.[59] Other variants may have a "U" for "unsure"; a "C" for "curious"; another "T" for "transvestite"; a "TS", or "2" for "two-spirit" persons; or an "SA" for "straight allies".[60][61][62][63][64] However, the inclusion of straight allies in the LGBT acronym has proven controversial as many straight allies have been accused of using LGBT advocacy to gain popularity and status in recent years,[65] and various LGBT activists have criticised the heteronormative worldview of certain straight allies.[66] Some may also add a "P" for "polyamorous", an "H" for "HIV-affected", or an "O" for "other".[19][67] Furthermore, the initialism LGBTIH has seen use in India to encompass the hijra third gender identity and the related subculture.[68][69]

The initialism LGBTTQQIAAP (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, transsexual, queer, questioning, intersex, asexual, ally, pansexual) has also resulted, although such initialisms are sometimes criticized for being confusing and leaving some people out, as well as issues of placement of the letters within the new title.[37] However, adding the term "allies" to the initialism has sparked controversy,[70] with some seeing the inclusion of "ally" in place of "asexual" as a form of asexual erasure.[71] There is also the acronym QUILTBAG (queer and questioning, intersex, lesbian, transgender and two-spirit, bisexual, asexual and ally, and gay and genderqueer).[72]

Similarly LGBTIQA+ stands for "lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer/questioning, asexual and many other terms (such as non-binary and pansexual)".[73]

In Canada, the community is sometimes identified as LGBTQ2 (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer and Two Spirit).[74] . Depending on the which organization is using the acronym the choice of acronym changes. Businesses and the CBC often simply employ "LGBT" as a proxy for any longer acronym, private activist groups often employ LGBTQ+,[75] whereas public health providers favour the more inclusive LGBT2Q+ to accommodate twin spirited indigenous peoples.[76] For a time the Pride Toronto organization used the much lengthier acronym LGBTTIQQ2SA, but appears to have dropped this in favour of simpler wording.[77]

Criticism of the term

Were a gay and happy family wagon
LGBT families, like these in a 2007 Boston pride parade, are labeled as non-heterosexual by researchers for a variety of reasons.[78]

The initialisms LGBT or GLBT are not agreed to by everyone that they encompass.[79] For example, some argue that transgender and transsexual causes are not the same as that of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people.[80] This argument centers on the idea that transgenderism and transsexuality have to do with gender identity, or a person's understanding of being or not being a man or a woman irrespective of their sexual orientation.[19] LGB issues can be seen as a matter of sexual orientation or attraction.[19] These distinctions have been made in the context of political action in which LGB goals, such as same-sex marriage legislation and human rights work (which may not include transgender and intersex people), may be perceived to differ from transgender and transsexual goals.[19]

A belief in "lesbian & gay separatism" (not to be confused with the related "lesbian separatism"), holds that lesbians and gay men form (or should form) a community distinct and separate from other groups normally included in the LGBTQ sphere.[81] While not always appearing of sufficient number or organization to be called a movement, separatists are a significant, vocal, and active element within many parts of the LGBT community.[82][81][83] In some cases separatists will deny the existence or right to equality of bisexual orientations and of transsexuality,[82] sometimes leading public biphobia and transphobia.[82][81] In contrasts to separatists, Peter Tatchell of the LGBT human rights group OutRage! argues that to separate the transgender movement from the LGB would be "political madness", stating that:

Queers are, like transgender people, gender deviant. We don't conform to traditional heterosexist assumptions of male and female behaviour, in that we have sexual and emotional relationships with the same sex. We should celebrate our discordance with mainstream straight norms.[...] [84]

The portrayal of an all-encompassing "LGBT community" or "LGB community" is also disliked by some lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people.[85][86] Some do not subscribe to or approve of the political and social solidarity, and visibility and human rights campaigning that normally goes with it including gay pride marches and events.[85][86] Some of them believe that grouping together people with non-heterosexual orientations perpetuates the myth that being gay/lesbian/bi/asexual/pansexual/etc. makes a person deficiently different from other people.[85] These people are often less visible compared to more mainstream gay or LGBT activists.[85][86] Since this faction is difficult to distinguish from the heterosexual majority, it is common for people to assume all LGBT people support LGBT liberation and the visibility of LGBT people in society, including the right to live one's life in a different way from the majority.[85][86][87] In the 1996 book Anti-Gay, a collection of essays edited by Mark Simpson, the concept of a 'one-size-fits-all' identity based on LGBT stereotypes is criticized for suppressing the individuality of LGBT people.[88]

Writing in the BBC News Magazine in 2014, Julie Bindel questions whether the various gender groupings now, "bracketed together" ... "share the same issues, values and goals?" Bindel refers to a number of possible new initialisms for differing combinations and concludes that it may be time for the alliances to be reformed or finally go "our separate ways".[89]

Alternative terms

Many people have looked for a generic term to replace the numerous existing initialisms.[82] Words such as queer (an umbrella term for sexual and gender minorities that are not heterosexual, or gender-binary) and rainbow have been tried, but most have not been widely adopted.[82][90] Queer has many negative connotations to older people who remember the word as a taunt and insult and such (negative) usage of the term continues.[82][90] Many younger people also understand queer to be more politically charged than LGBT.[90][91] "Rainbow" has connotations that recall hippies, New Age movements, and groups such as the Rainbow Family or Jesse Jackson's Rainbow/PUSH Coalition. SGL ("same gender loving") is sometimes favored among gay male African Americans as a way of distinguishing themselves from what they regard as white-dominated LGBT communities.[92]

Some people advocate the term "minority sexual and gender identities" (MSGI, coined in 2000), or gender and sexual/sexuality minorities (GSM), so as to explicitly include all people who are not cisgender and heterosexual; or gender, sexual, and romantic minorities (GSRM), which is more explicitly inclusive of minority romantic orientations and polyamory; but those have not been widely adopted either.[93][94][95][96][97] Other rare umbrella terms are Gender and Sexual Diversities (GSD),[98] MOGII (Marginalized Orientations, Gender Identities, and Intersex) and MOGAI (Marginalized Orientations, Gender Alignments and Intersex).[99][100]

The National Institutes of Health have framed LGBT, others "whose sexual orientation and/or gender identity varies, those who may not self-identify as LGBT" and also intersex populations (as persons with disorders of sex development) as "sexual and gender minority" (SGM) populations. This has led to the development of an NIH SGM Health Research Strategic Plan.[101] The Williams Institute has used the same term in a report on an international sustainable development goals, but excluding intersex populations.[102]

In public health settings, MSM ("men who have sex with men") is clinically used to describe men who have sex with other men without referring to their sexual orientation, with WSW ("women who have sex with women") also used as a corollary.[103][104]

See also

Notes

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References

External links

Aubrey Plaza

Aubrey Christina Plaza (born June 26, 1984) is an American actress, comedian and producer. She is known for her role as April Ludgate on the NBC sitcom Parks and Recreation. After appearing in supporting roles in several feature films, Plaza had her first leading role as Darius Britt in the 2012 film Safety Not Guaranteed. Since 2017, she has starred as Lenny Busker in the FX drama series Legion.

Plaza began her career performing improv and sketch comedy at the Upright Citizens Brigade Theater. She later appeared in films such as Mystery Team (2008), Funny People (2009), Scott Pilgrim vs. the World (2010), Monsters University (2013), Life After Beth (2014), Dirty Grandpa (2016), Mike and Dave Need Wedding Dates (2016), The Little Hours (2017), and Ingrid Goes West (2017), the latter two of which she also produced.

Caitlyn Jenner

Caitlyn Marie Jenner (born William Bruce Jenner; October 28, 1949) is an American television personality and retired Olympic gold medal–winning decathlete.

Jenner was a college football player for the Graceland Yellowjackets before incurring a knee injury that required surgery. Convinced by Olympic decathlete Jack Parker's coach, L. D. Weldon, to try the decathlon, Jenner won the men's decathlon event at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, setting a third successive world record and gaining fame as "an all-American hero". Given the unofficial title of "world's greatest athlete", Jenner established a career in television, film, writing, auto racing, business and as a Playgirl cover model.Jenner has six children with three successive wives—Chrystie Crownover, Linda Thompson and Kris Jenner—and has since 2007 appeared on the reality television series Keeping Up with the Kardashians with Kris, their daughters Kendall and Kylie Jenner, and Kris's other children Kourtney, Kim, Khloé, and Rob Kardashian. Assigned male at birth, Caitlyn Jenner publicly came out as a trans woman in April 2015. Her new name was publicly announced in July of that year, with her name and gender being legally changed the following September. From 2015 to 2016, Jenner starred in the reality television series I Am Cait, which focused on her gender transition. In January 2017, she underwent sex reassignment surgery. Jenner has been called the most famous openly transgender woman in the world.

Don Lemon

Don Carlton Lemon (born March 1, 1966) is an American journalist and author. He is an award winning news anchor for CNN based in New York City, and hosts CNN Tonight.

Drew Barrymore

Drew Blythe Barrymore (born February 22, 1975) is an American actress, producer, director, author, model and entrepreneur. She is a member of the Barrymore family of actors, and the granddaughter of John Barrymore. She achieved fame as a child actress with her role in E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982). She is the recipient of several accolades, including a Golden Globe, a Screen Actors Guild Award, and a BAFTA nomination.

Following a highly publicized childhood marked by drug and alcohol abuse, Barrymore released an autobiography, Little Girl Lost, in 1991. She went on to appear in a string of successful films throughout the decade, including Poison Ivy (1992), Boys on the Side (1995), Mad Love (1995), Scream (1996), Ever After (1998) and The Wedding Singer (1998). The latter was her first collaboration with Adam Sandler; they have since starred together in 50 First Dates (2004) and Blended (2014).

Barrymore's other films include Never Been Kissed (1999), Charlie's Angels (2000), Donnie Darko (2001), Riding in Cars with Boys (2001), Confessions of a Dangerous Mind (2002), Fever Pitch (2005), Music and Lyrics (2007), Going the Distance (2010), Big Miracle (2012) and Miss You Already (2015). Barrymore made her directorial debut with Whip It (2009), in which she also starred, and received a SAG Award and a Golden Globe for her performance in Grey Gardens (2009). She currently stars on the Netflix series Santa Clarita Diet.

In 1995, Barrymore and Nancy Juvonen formed the production company Flower Films. The pair have produced several projects in which Barrymore has starred. In 2013, Barrymore launched a range of cosmetics under the Flower banner, which has grown to include lines in makeup, perfume and eyewear. Her other business ventures include a range of wines and a clothing line. In 2015, she released her second memoir, Wildflower. Barrymore received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2004.

Ellen DeGeneres

Ellen Lee DeGeneres ( də-JEN-ər-əs; born January 26, 1958) is an American comedian, television host, actress, writer, and producer.

She starred in the popular sitcom Ellen from 1994 to 1998 and has hosted her syndicated TV talk show, The Ellen DeGeneres Show, since 2003.

Her stand-up career started in the early 1980s, and included a 1986 appearance on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. As a film actress, DeGeneres starred in Mr. Wrong (1996), EDtv (1999), and The Love Letter (1999), and provided the voice of Dory in the Pixar animated films Finding Nemo (2003) and Finding Dory (2016); for Nemo, she was awarded the Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actress, the first time an actress won a Saturn Award for a voice performance. In 2010, she was a judge on American Idol for its ninth season.

She starred in two television sitcoms, Ellen from 1994 to 1998, and The Ellen Show from 2001 to 2002. During the fourth season of Ellen in 1997, she came out as a lesbian in an appearance on The Oprah Winfrey Show. Her character, Ellen Morgan, also came out to a therapist played by Winfrey, and the series went on to explore various LGBT issues, including the coming-out process. In 2008, she married her longtime girlfriend Portia de Rossi.

DeGeneres has hosted the Academy Awards, Grammy Awards, and the Primetime Emmys. She has authored four books and started her own record company, Eleveneleven, as well as a production company, A Very Good Production. She also launched a lifestyle brand, ED Ellen DeGeneres, which comprises a collection of apparel, accessories, home, baby, and pet items. She has won 30 Emmys, 20 People's Choice Awards (more than any other person), and numerous other awards for her work and charitable efforts. In 2016, she received the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Fergie (singer)

Fergie Duhamel (; born Stacy Ann Ferguson; March 27, 1975) is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, and actress. She originally achieved chart success as part of the hip hop group The Black Eyed Peas. Her debut solo album, The Dutchess (2006), saw commercial success and spawned three Billboard Hot 100 number one singles; "London Bridge", "Glamorous", and "Big Girls Don't Cry".Fergie was originally a member of the children's television series Kids Incorporated and the girl group Wild Orchid. In 2001, she left the group and in the subsequent year joined The Black Eyed Peas. She worked with The Black Eyed Peas on two albums before releasing her debut solo album The Dutchess in September 2006. She continued her collaboration with The Black Eyed Peas, and released a further two albums with them, The E.N.D. (2009) and The Beginning (2010). Fergie began touring with her own group in 2009. Her second solo album, Double Dutchess, was released on September 22, 2017.

Fergie launched her first fragrance, Outspoken, under Avon in May 2010, and has since released four more fragrances.

Gay

Gay is a term that primarily refers to a homosexual person or the trait of being homosexual. The term was originally used to mean "carefree", "cheerful", or "bright and showy".The term's use as a reference to homosexuality may date as early as the late 19th century, but its use gradually increased in the mid-20th century. In modern English, gay has come to be used as an adjective, and as a noun, referring to the community, practices and cultures associated with homosexuality. In the 1960s, gay became the word favored by homosexual men to describe their sexual orientation. By the end of the 20th century, the word gay was recommended by major LGBT groups and style guides to describe people attracted to members of the same sex.At about the same time, a new, pejorative use became prevalent in some parts of the world. Among younger speakers, the word has a meaning ranging from derision (e.g., equivalent to rubbish or stupid) to a light-hearted mockery or ridicule (e.g., equivalent to weak, unmanly, or lame). In this use, the word rarely means "homosexual", as it is often used, for example, to refer to an inanimate object or abstract concept of which one disapproves. The extent to which these usages still retain connotations of homosexuality has been debated and harshly criticized.

Gay pride

Gay pride or LGBT pride is the positive stance against discrimination and violence toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people to promote their self-affirmation, dignity, equality rights, increase their visibility as a social group, build community, and celebrate sexual diversity and gender variance. Pride, as opposed to shame and social stigma, is the predominant outlook that bolsters most LGBT rights movements throughout the world. Pride has lent its name to LGBT-themed organizations, institutes, foundations, book titles, periodicals and even a cable TV station and the Pride Library.

Ranging from solemn to carnivalesque, pride events are typically held during LGBT Pride Month or some other period that commemorates a turning point in a country's LGBT history, for example Moscow Pride in May for the anniversary of Russia's 1993 decriminalization of homosexuality. Some pride events include LGBT pride parades and marches, rallies, commemorations, community days, dance parties, and large festivals.

As of 2017, plans were advancing by the State of New York to host in 2019 the largest international celebration of LGBT pride in history, known as Stonewall 50 / WorldPride, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots. In New York City, the Stonewall 50 / WorldPride events produced by Heritage of Pride will be enhanced through a partnership made with the I LOVE NY program's LGBT division and shall include a welcome center during the weeks surrounding the Stonewall 50 / WorldPride events that will be open to all. Additional commemorative arts, cultural, and educational programming to mark the 50th anniversary of the rebellion at the Stonewall Inn will be taking place throughout the city and the world.Common symbols of pride are the rainbow or pride flag, the lowercase Greek letter lambda (λ), the pink triangle and the black triangle, these latter two reclaimed from use as badges of shame in Nazi concentration camps.

Genderqueer

Genderqueer, also known as non-binary, is a catch-all category for gender identities that are not exclusively masculine or feminine‍—‌identities that are outside the gender binary and cisnormativity. Genderqueer people may express a combination of masculinity and femininity, or neither, in their gender expression.

Genderqueer people may identify as either having an overlap of, or indefinite lines between, gender identity; having two or more genders (being bigender, trigender, or pangender); having no gender (being agender, nongendered, genderless, genderfree or neutrois); moving between genders or having a fluctuating gender identity (genderfluid); or being third gender or other-gendered, a category that includes those who do not place a name to their gender.Gender identity is separate from sexual or romantic orientation, and genderqueer people have a variety of sexual orientations, just as transgender and cisgender people do.

Jason Mraz

Jason Thomas Mraz (; born June 23, 1977) is an American singer-songwriter who first came to prominence in the San Diego coffee shop scene in 2000. In 2002 he released his debut studio album, Waiting for My Rocket to Come, which contained the hit single "The Remedy (I Won't Worry)". With the release of his second album, Mr. A-Z, in 2005, Mraz achieved major commercial success. The album peaked at number 5 on the Billboard 200 and sold over 100,000 copies in the US. In 2008 Mraz released his third studio album, We Sing. We Dance. We Steal Things. It debuted at number 3 on the Billboard 200 and was an international commercial success primarily due to the hit "I'm Yours". The song peaked at number 6 on the Billboard Hot 100, giving him his first top ten single, and spent a then-record 76 weeks on the Hot 100. His fourth album, Love Is a Four Letter Word, peaked at number 2 on the Billboard 200, his highest-charting album to date.

Mraz has won two Grammy Awards and received two additional nominations, and has also won two Teen Choice Awards, a People's Choice Award and the Hal David Songwriters Hall of Fame Award. He has earned Platinum and multi-Platinum certifications in over 20 countries, and has toured in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East and parts of Africa. As of July 2014 Mraz has sold over seven million albums, and over 11.5 million downloaded singles. His musical style, from rhythmic feeling to his use of nylon string guitars, has been heavily influenced by Brazilian music.

LGBT community

The LGBT community or GLBT community, also referred to as the gay community, is a loosely defined grouping of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, LGBT organizations, and subcultures, united by a common culture and social movements. These communities generally celebrate pride, diversity, individuality, and sexuality. LGBT activists and sociologists see LGBT community-building as a counterbalance to heterosexism, homophobia, biphobia, transphobia, sexualism, and conformist pressures that exist in the larger society. The term pride or sometimes gay pride is used to express the LGBT community's identity and collective strength; pride parades provide both a prime example of the use and a demonstration of the general meaning of the term. The LGBT community is diverse in political affiliation. Not all people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender consider themselves part of the LGBT community.

Groups that may be considered part of the LGBT community include gay villages, LGBT rights organizations, LGBT employee groups at companies, LGBT student groups in schools and universities, and LGBT-affirming religious groups.

LGBT communities may organize themselves into, or support, movements for civil rights promoting LGBT rights in various places around the world.

LGBT rights by country or territory

Laws affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people vary greatly by country or jurisdiction — encompassing everything from the legal recognition of same-sex marriage to the death penalty for homosexuality.

Laws that affect LGBT people include, but are not limited to, the following:

laws concerning the recognition of same-sex relationships, including same-sex marriage, civil unions, and domestic partnerships

laws concerning LGBT parenting, including adoption by LGBT people

anti-discrimination laws in employment, housing, education, public accommodations

anti-bullying legislation to protect LGBT children at school

hate crime laws imposing enhanced criminal penalties for prejudice-motivated violence against LGBT people

bathroom bills affecting access to sex-segregated facilities by transgender people

laws related to sexual orientation and military service

laws concerning access to assisted reproductive technology

sodomy laws that penalize consensual same-sex sexual activity

age of consent laws that may impose higher ages for same-sex sexual activity

laws regarding donation of blood by men who have sex with men

laws concerning access to sex reassignment surgery and hormone replacement therapy

legal recognition and accommodation of reassigned gender.Notably, as of 2018, 25 countries, all of which being developed or developing democracies, recognized same-sex marriage. By contrast, as at 5 April 2019, 14 countries or jurisdictions, all of which are Islamic and ruled by sharia, impose the death penalty for homosexuality. These include Afghanistan, Brunei, Iran, Mauritania, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, parts of Nigeria, parts of Somalia, parts of Syria and parts of Iraq.In 2011, the United Nations Human Rights Council passed its first resolution recognizing LGBT rights, following which the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights issued a report documenting violations of the rights of LGBT people, including hate crimes, criminalization of homosexual activity, and discrimination. Following the issuance of the report, the United Nations urged all countries which had not yet done so to enact laws protecting basic LGBT rights.

LGBT social movements

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) social movements are social movements that advocate for LGBT+ people in society. Social movements may focus on equal rights, such as the 2000s movement for marriage equality, or they may focus on liberation, as in the gay liberation movement of the 1960s and 1970s. Earlier movements focused on self-help and self-acceptance, such as the homophile movement of the 1950s. Although there is not a primary or an overarching central organization that represents all LGBT+ people and their interests, numerous LGBT rights organizations are active worldwide. The earliest organizations to support LGBT+ rights were formed in the 19th century.A commonly stated goal among these movements is social equality for LGBT people, but there is still denial of full LGBT+ rights. Some have also focused on building LGBT+ communities or worked towards liberation for the broader society from biphobia, homophobia, and transphobia. There is a struggle for LGBT rights today. LGBT movements organized today are made up of a wide range of political activism and cultural activity, including lobbying, street marches, social groups, media, art, and research.

LGBT symbols

The LGBT community has adopted certain symbols for self-identification to demonstrate unity, pride, shared values, and allegiance to one another. LGBT symbols communicate ideas, concepts, and identity both within their communities and to mainstream culture. The two most-recognized international LGBT symbols are the pink triangle and the rainbow flag. The pink triangle, employed by the Nazis in World War II as a badge of shame, was re-appropriated but retained negative connotations. The rainbow flag, previously used as a symbol of unity among all people, was adopted to be a more organic and natural replacement without any negativity attached to it.

Neil Patrick Harris

Neil Patrick Harris (born June 15, 1973) is an American actor, writer, producer, magician, and singer. He is known primarily for his comedy roles on television and his dramatic and musical stage roles. On television, he is known for playing the title character on Doogie Howser, M.D. (1989–1993), Barney Stinson on How I Met Your Mother (2005–2014, for which he was nominated for four Emmy Awards), and Count Olaf in A Series of Unfortunate Events (2017–2019).

Harris is also known for his role as the title character in Joss Whedon's musical Dr. Horrible's Sing-Along Blog (2008) and a fictional version of himself in the Harold & Kumar film series (2004–2011). His other films include Starship Troopers (1997), Beastly (2011), The Smurfs (2011), The Smurfs 2 (2013), A Million Ways to Die in the West (2014), and Gone Girl (2014). In 2014, he starred in the title role in Hedwig and the Angry Inch on Broadway, for which he won the 2014 Tony Award for Best Leading Actor in a Musical.

Harris has hosted the Tony Awards in 2009, 2011, 2012, and 2013, for which he won four special class Emmy Awards. He also hosted the Primetime Emmy Awards in 2009 and 2013, and hosted the 87th Academy Awards in 2015, thus making him the first openly gay man to host the Academy Awards.Harris was named one of Time magazine's 100 Most Influential People in 2010. He is married to David Burtka. In 2010, they had twins via surrogacy.

Pansexuality

Pansexuality, or omnisexuality, is the sexual, romantic or emotional attraction towards people regardless of their sex or gender identity. Pansexual people may refer to themselves as gender-blind, asserting that gender and sex are not determining factors in their romantic or sexual attraction to others.Pansexuality may be considered a sexual orientation in its own right or a branch of bisexuality, to indicate an alternative sexual identity. Because pansexual people are open to relationships with people who do not identify as strictly men or women, and pansexuality therefore rejects the gender binary, it is often considered a more inclusive term than bisexual. To what extent the term bisexual is inclusive when compared with the term pansexual is debated within the LGBT community, especially the bisexual community.

Pete Buttigieg

Peter Paul Montgomery Buttigieg ( BOOT-ih-jəj; born January 19, 1982) is an American politician and former Naval Intelligence Officer who has served as the mayor of the city of South Bend, Indiana since 2012.

Buttigieg is a graduate of Harvard University and Oxford University, having attended Pembroke College, Oxford on a Rhodes Scholarship. From 2007 to 2010 he worked at McKinsey and Company, a management strategy consulting firm. From 2009 to 2017 Buttigieg served as an intelligence officer in the United States Navy Reserve, attaining the rank of lieutenant and deploying for the War in Afghanistan in 2014.Buttigieg was first elected mayor of South Bend in 2011 and was reelected in 2015. During his tenure as mayor of South Bend, Buttigieg's policies were widely credited with significantly spurring economic growth and business investment. Buttigieg also campaigned for Indiana State Treasurer in 2010 and for chair of the Democratic National Committee in 2017, losing both elections.

On April 14, 2019, Buttigieg formally announced he was running for the Democratic nomination for president of the United States in 2020 after having formed an exploratory committee in January 2019. His platform includes support for universal healthcare, reducing income inequality, pro-environmental policies, dialogue and cooperation between the Democratic Party and organized labor, universal background checks for firearms purchases, federal legislation that would ban job discrimination against LGBT people, and preserving the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program for children of immigrants. Buttigieg also supports removing the influence of lobbyists from government, favoring reforms that would overturn Citizens United and end gerrymandering.

Queer

Queer is an umbrella term for sexual and gender minorities who are not heterosexual or cisgender.

Originally meaning "strange" or "peculiar", queer came to be used pejoratively against those with same-sex desires or relationships in the late 19th century. Beginning in the late 1980s, queer activists, such as the members of Queer Nation, began to reclaim the word as a deliberately provocative and politically radical alternative to the more assimilationist branches of the LGBT community.In the 2000s and on, queer became increasingly used to describe a broad spectrum of non-normative (i.e. anti-heteronormative and anti-homonormative) sexual and gender identities and politics. Academic disciplines such as queer theory and queer studies share a general opposition to binarism, normativity, and a perceived lack of intersectionality, some of them only tangentially connected to the LGBT movement. Queer arts, queer cultural groups, and queer political groups are examples of modern expressions of queer identities.

Critics of the use of the term include members of the LGBT community who associate the term more with its colloquial usage as a derogatory insult, those who wish to dissociate themselves from queer radicalism, those who see it as amorphous and trendy, and those who think the term should apply only to LGBT people - not to any and all sexual minorities - that the former slur can only be reclaimed by those it has historically been used to oppress.

The Favourite

The Favourite is a 2018 period black comedy film directed by Yorgos Lanthimos and written by Deborah Davis and Tony McNamara. It is a co-production by producers in the United Kingdom, Ireland and the United States. Set in early 18th-century England, the story examines the relationship between two cousins, Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough (played by Rachel Weisz), and Abigail Masham, Baroness Masham (Emma Stone), vying to be court favourites of Queen Anne (Olivia Colman). Filming took place at Hatfield House in Hertfordshire, and at Hampton Court Palace in Hampton Court, Surrey, between March and May 2017.

The film premiered at the 75th Venice International Film Festival on 30 August 2018, where it won the Grand Jury Prize and the Volpi Cup for Best Actress (for Colman). It was released in the United States on 23 November 2018 by Fox Searchlight Pictures, and in the United Kingdom and Ireland on 1 January 2019. It became a box-office success, grossing over $95 million on a $15 million budget.

The Favourite received critical acclaim, with accolades for its screenplay, direction, acting, cinematography, music, costume design, and production values. It received numerous awards and nominations. Both Roma and The Favourite each received ten Academy Award nominations, with both films being at the top of the list for most highly nominated films for the 91st Academy Awards. The Favourite also won a leading seven BAFTA Awards (including Best British Film and Best Actress in a Supporting Role) and ten British Independent Film Awards. Colman won Best Actress at the Academy Awards, the Golden Globes, and the BAFTAs.

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