L&M is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Altria (previously known as Philip Morris Companies, Inc.). The name comes from the tobacco company founded in 1873 called Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, predecessor of today's Liggett Group in which L&M was originally produced.

L&M Red German
An old German pack of L&M cigarettes, with a German text warning which reads "Smoking can kill"
Product typeCigarette
CountryUnited States
MarketsSee Markets
Previous ownersLiggett & Myers
Tagline"American cigarettes of the highest quality with the best filter", "Come On Over To The L&M Side, Just For The Taste of It!"


"L&M" was launched in 1885 by Liggett & Myers as a plug chewing tobacco.[1][2] In 1952 or 1953, the first L&M cigarettes were created and they were one of the earliest, perhaps the earliest brand to have a filter that was not a one-sided filter.[1][3] When "L&M" was launched, their motto was "American cigarettes of the highest quality with the best filter". When their success in the American market was solidified, Liggett Group made a proposal to take the brand international. In 1999, the L&M trademark rights were acquired by the largest tobacco company in the United States, Philip Morris, and are still produced by them today.[1]

The brand is popular in Latin America, central and northern Europe, the Arab World and the far east and south Asia. They were not very common in the continental US until a new roll out made them available in October 2007. According to the information of the independent agency of field investigation "Business Analytics", the second quarter of 2007, Phillip Morris brands took the first place in 25 Russian cities with a market share of 29.92%.

During a press conference, it was reported that "L&M" takes third place in the world by sales volume. Also, the "L&M" brand took second place among other cigarette brands produced by Phillip Morris International. Due to the labeling regulations in Europe banning the use of the word 'lights', the names used to indicate the strength of the cigarettes had been changed, e.g., L&M Lights are now called L&M Blue Label. The same happened in 2010 in the U.S. when the Food and Drug Administration banned flavour descriptors—such as "mild," "light" and "ultra light"—even though the color designations were already changed like in Europe.

In December 1997, the ingredients that go into L&M cigarettes were displayed on the cartons. In addition to blended tobacco and water, the 26 ingredients that go into L&M cigarettes include molasses, phenylacetic acid and oil of patchouli.[4]

L&M was the fourth largest cigarette brand in the world, with 92 billion cigarettes produced in 2007. In 2016, L&M had a volume of 97 billion produced cigarettes. It is the third best-selling international cigarette brand outside the United States and China.[3]


Over the years, Liggett & Myers made many poster and magazine advertisements to promote the brand, which included famous slogans such as "No cigarette ever went so far so fast!".[5][6][7][8][7][9][10][11][12][13] Hollywood celebrities such as Barbara Stanwyck, Rosalind Russell and Fredric March starred in various print advertisement to promote the brand by claiming that L&M filters were "Just what the doctor ordered!".[14][15][16]

Various TV advertisements were also created. The most known ones were the "Just What The Doctor Ordered", "Live Modern", "Stay Fresh, Stay Fresh With L&M", and "Come On Over To The L&M Side" ads.[17][18][19][20][21]


L&M cigarettes are sold in the United States, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Brazil, Chile, Bolivia, Argentina, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, France, Switzerland, Austria, Saudi Arabia, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Romania, Moldova, Slovakia, Slovenia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Georgia, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Israel, Afghanistan, United Arab Emirates, Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan, Singapore and South Korea.[5][22]


L&M and doctor-approved cigarettes

In the 1950s, L&M introduced an ad campaign called "Just What The Doctor Ordered!". This campaign came at the time L&M introduced the first filtered cigarette that became popular. In these L&M advertisements from the early 1950s, "just what the doctor ordered" had a double-meaning. Not only did it imply that L&M cigarettes were satisfying in that they offered both flavour and protection, but it also implied that doctors approved of the brand, a testament to the brand's healthfulness. In a typical advertisement that appeared in a February issue of Life magazine, Hollywood star Fredric March made an assertion after having read the letter written by a "Dr Darkis" that was inset into the advertisement. Darkis explained in this letter that L&M filters used a "highly purified alpha cellulose" that was "entirely harmless" and "effectively filtered the smoke".[23][24][17]

Similar contemporaneous advertisements from Viceroy claimed that their filtered cigarettes were healthy because doctors recommended Viceroys to patients. Obviously, these ads claimed health benefits for filters, though filters actually did little to truly reduce the hazards of smoking. In fact, tobacco industry chemists were well aware that most filters actually removed no more tar and nicotine than would the same length of tobacco. However, a series of Reader's Digest articles worked to publicize these dubious health claims for filters in the 1950s.

One such article, entitled "How Harmful are Cigarettes?" (1950), noted that artificial filters took out some nicotine since people were aware that nicotine was a killer. The article stated that silica-gel cartridges removed 60% of nicotine from cigarettes. This article spurred Viceroy to print advertisements a week later which read: "Reader's Digest tells why filtered cigarette smoke is better for your health." These health claims sparked a boom in Viceroy cigarette sales as well as an onslaught of new filter cigarette brands flooding the market. Kent was introduced in 1952 with a filter made of treated asbestos on crepe paper. In 1953, L&M followed with a miracle tip and Philip Morris advertised its di-ethylene glycol (Di-Gl) filter cigarette as the cigarette that took the fear out of smoking. In the next two years, Marlboro was re-released as a filter cigarette which targeted men (it had previously been a cigarette targeting women, with a beauty tip to protect the lips), and Winston was introduced with an advertising budget of $15 million.[6]

Bulgarian Customs destroy counterfeit L&M cigarettes

On July 21, 2011, the Bulgarian customs authorities and Phillip Morris Bulgaria representatives organized the destruction of over 7 million counterfeit cigarettes bearing the mark L&M. The destroyed cigarettes were part of over 14.5 million cigarettes seized by the Bulgarian customs officials in September 2010 and February 2011 at the border checkpoints Kulata and Ilinden, southwestern Bulgaria. Bulgaria’s Customs Agency and Philip Morris Bulgaria had signed a cooperation agreement aimed at fighting the illicit trade of tobacco products. L&M cigarettes made 3 percent of all seized cigarettes in Bulgaria in 2010 and 9 percent of all seized cigarettes during the first five months of 2011.[25]



L&M was the sponsor for Carl Haas Racing from the 1970 Can-Am season to the 1971 Can-Am season.[26]

L&M sponsored one of the Ducati bikes that Ben Bostrom drove in 2001 and 2002.[27][28] The company also sponsored the Derbi factory team competing in the 2001 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season on the 125cc class.[29]

Television shows

L&M, as well as Kellogg's, were the main sponsors of the Hotel de Paree television show from October 2, 1959, until June 3, 1960.[17]


Lm us selection
An assortment of L&M cigarettes sold in the United States.
From left to right: full flavor shorts; full flavor 100s (both red); lights (dark blue); ultra lights (light blue); menthol shorts; menthol 100s (both dark green); menthol light shorts; menthol light 100s (both light green). Not shown: Turkish Blend shorts; Turkish Blend 100s (both light yellow); L&M Kretek

United States

  • L&M Red (Full Flavor) Box - Kings and 100s
  • L&M Blue Pack (Lights) Box - Kings and 100s
  • L&M Menthol Box - Kings and 100s
  • L&M Menthol Box light green - (lights) Kings and 100s
  • L&M Bold Menthol Box - Kings
  • L&M Turkish Blend Box (Lights) - Kings and 100s
  • L&M Turkish Night Box (Full Flavor) - Kings and 100s

Puerto Rico

  • L&M Red (Full Flavor) Box - Kings and 100's
  • L&M Blue (Lights) Box - Kings
  • L&M Green (Menthol) Box - Kings and 100's


  • L&M Red Label (King Size) (discontinued?)
  • L&M Blue Label (King Size)
  • L&M Silver Blue Label (King Size)
  • L&M Kretek by Sampoerna (King Size)
  • L&M Black Ice (King Size)
  • L&M Activate 2 in 1 (King Size)
  • L&M Vibe 100 Extra Slim


  • L&M Red Label
  • L y m gabda
  • L&M Blue Label
  • L&M Forward


  • L&M Red Label (white-red)
  • L&M Blue Label (Blue)
  • L&M Silver Label, also known as L & M One (silver)
  • L&M Menthol (green)
  • L&M Menthol Cool (Light Green)
  • L&M Extra Menthol (dark green, resilient goat filter)
  • L&M Full Flavor Menthol (White-Green)
  • L&M Forward (dark blue, in the filter capsule, which must be clicked to bring the taste of menthol.)
  • L&M Just Blue Box (Additive-free Lights)
  • L&M Just Red Box (Additive-free Full Flavor)
  • L&M Golden (also called L&M White)
  • L&M X-Slims


  • L&M Filter Red Label
  • L&M Red Label 100
  • L&M Blue Label
  • L&M Frost Label (with menthol flavor )
  • L&M Night
  • L&M Blue Label 100
  • L&M About
  • L&M Maxi box
  • L&M Soft Label
  • L&M Night (Hardbox)
  • L&M Red without additives
  • L&M Blue without additives


  • L&M Red Label (formerly Full Flavor )
  • L&M Blue Label (formerly Lights )
  • L&M Silver Label (formerly Super Lights )
  • L&M Green Label (formerly Menthol Cool and Menthol )
  • L&M Link Red ( SuperSlims )
  • L&M Link Blue ( SuperSlims )
  • L&M Triple Mint ( SuperSlims )
  • L&M Link Easy Stix ( SuperSlims )
  • L&M Link Easy Stix Mint ( SuperSlims )
  • L&M Forward ( Blue Label variant with a menthol capsule in the filter, activated after compression)
  • L&M Forward Double ( Blue Label variant with two capsules in the menthol and berry filter ) withdrawn in 2017, in connection with the EU directive prohibiting the sale of flavor cigarettes
  • L&M Original Red Label 24's [ needed footnote ]
  • L&M True Taste Red (no flavor, Lucky Strike Authentic alternative)
  • L&M True Taste Blue
  • L&M Link Forward 2 IN 1 (SuperSlims)

Czech Republic

  • L&M Red Label (hard, red)
  • L&M Blue Label (Light, Blue)
  • L&M Orange Label (even lighter, orange)
  • L&M Silver Label (lightest, silver)
  • L&M Link (slim)
  • L&M Forward (cracked)
  • L&M Double Forward (crackling with two menthol capsules)
  • L&M Green Label (mint - "mint")


  • L&M Red label
  • L&M Blue label


  • L&M Filter Kings
  • L&M Lights
  • L&M Menthol
  • L&M Menthol Lights


  • L&M Double Forward
  • L&M Extra Menthol
  • L&M Purple


  • L&M Red label
  • L&M Blue label
  • L&M Silver label
  • L&M Loft Night Blue
  • L&M Loft Blue
  • L&M Loft Sea Blue
  • L&M Loft Mix
  • L&M Loft Double Splash

See also


  1. ^ a b c "Liggett Vector Brands - Age verification". liggettvectorbrands.com.
  2. ^ "Old History for L&M Cigarettes - Special Presentation". Storify.
  3. ^ a b "Building Leading Brands". www.pmi.com.
  4. ^ "L&M now listing cigarette ingredients on cartons". 3 December 1997.
  5. ^ a b "L&M". www.zigsam.at.
  6. ^ a b "Stanford Research into the Impact of Tobacco Advertising". tobacco.stanford.edu.
  7. ^ a b "L&m Cigarettes Price Per Pack". cigarettesbuycustomer.
  8. ^ "1976 L&M Cigarette NY Twin Towers Statue Liberty WTC Ad - Adaholic".
  9. ^ Limited, Alamy. "Stock Photo - L&M Cigarettes advert with James Arness in 1958". Alamy.
  10. ^ "Vintage 1959 L&M Cigarettes Tobacciana Magazine Ad Mid Century Wall Art 11x14 - eBay". eBay.
  11. ^ "L&M Cigarettes Advertising Sign". iCollector.com Online Auctions.
  12. ^ "L&M Cigarettes (1972)".
  13. ^ "L&M Cigarettes Grand Canyon The Proud Smoke 1975 vintage original old magazine ad tobacco". Paper Alcove.
  14. ^ HOROVITZ, BRUCE (24 July 1988). "SELLING A HEALTH HAZARD : Cigarette Ads Have Gone From False Promises to Obscure Images; Soon They May Just Be Gone for Good" – via LA Times.
  15. ^ "Magazine Ad For L&M Filter Cigarettes, Just What The Doctor Ordered, Rosalind Russell, 1954 - Magazines Ads and Books Store". magazinesadsandbooks.com.
  16. ^ "Hazards Explored". Encountering the truth:
    State of minnesota v. phillip morris inc
  17. ^ a b c "Cigarette TV Ads - L&M - 1954-1970" – via Internet Archive.
  18. ^ Throwback (6 October 2009). "L&M Cigarettes Commercial #1 (1962)" – via YouTube.
  19. ^ Throwback (6 October 2009). "L&M Cigarettes Commercial #2 (1966)" – via YouTube.
  20. ^ Throwback (6 October 2009). "L&M Cigarettes Commercial #4 (1967)" – via YouTube.
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ "Brands". www.cigarety.by.
  23. ^ Gardner, Martha N.; Brandt, Allan M. (1 February 2006). ""The Doctors' Choice Is America's Choice"". American Journal of Public Health. 96 (2): 222–232. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.066654. PMC 1470496. PMID 16434689.
  24. ^ "'Just What The Doctor Ordered': How Cigarette Firms Conned Smokers".
  25. ^ "Bulgarian Customs Destroy Counterfeit L&M Cigarettes - PETOŠEVIĆ". www.petosevic.com.
  26. ^ "Aero Anomaly - 1971 Lola T260 Chevrolet Can Am". Camrades. April 17, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
  27. ^ [2]
  28. ^ [3]
  29. ^ "Derbi factory team launch new colors for the new season". motogp.com. February 15, 2001. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.

Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D., or simply Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D., is an American television series created for ABC by Joss Whedon, Jed Whedon, and Maurissa Tancharoen, based on the Marvel Comics organization S.H.I.E.L.D. (Strategic Homeland Intervention, Enforcement, and Logistics Division), a peacekeeping and spy agency in a world of superheroes. It is set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) and acknowledges the continuity of the franchise's films and other television series. The series is produced by ABC Studios, Marvel Television, and Mutant Enemy Productions, with Jed Whedon, Tancharoen, and Jeffrey Bell serving as showrunners.

The series stars Clark Gregg as Phil Coulson, reprising his role from the film series, alongside Ming-Na Wen, Brett Dalton, Chloe Bennet, Iain De Caestecker and Elizabeth Henstridge. Nick Blood, Adrianne Palicki, Henry Simmons, Luke Mitchell, John Hannah, Natalia Cordova-Buckley, and Jeff Ward joined in later seasons. The S.H.I.E.L.D. agents deal with various unusual cases and enemies, including Hydra, Inhumans, Life Model Decoys, and alien species such as the Kree. Coulson was resurrected for the series after his death in the MCU film The Avengers, but dies again after five seasons. Gregg continues to star in the new role of Sarge.

The Avengers writer and director Joss Whedon began developing a S.H.I.E.L.D. pilot following the film's release, and Gregg was confirmed to reprise his role in October 2012. The series was officially picked up by ABC in May 2013. Prosthetic makeup is created with Glenn Hetrick's Optic Nerve Studios, while Legacy Effects contributes other practical effects. The visual effects for the series are created by FuseFX, and have been nominated for multiple awards. Several episodes directly crossover with films or other television series set in the MCU, while other characters from MCU films and Marvel One-Shots also appear throughout the series.

The series premiered on September 24, 2013, with the first season concluding on May 13, 2014. This was followed by a second season from September 2014 to May 2015, a third from September 2015 to May 2016, a fourth from September 2016 to May 2017, and a fifth from December 2017 to May 2018. A sixth season premiered on May 10, 2019, and a seventh was ordered in November 2018. After starting the first season with high ratings but mixed reviews, the ratings began to drop while reviews improved. This led to much lower but more consistent ratings, as well as more consistently positive reviews in the subsequent seasons.

Several characters created for the series have since been introduced to the comic universe and other media. Marvel's Most Wanted, a planned spin-off centered on Blood's Lance Hunter and Palicki's Bobbi Morse, received a pilot order in August 2015 but did not lead to a series. An online digital series, Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: Slingshot, centered on Cordova-Buckley's Elena "Yo-Yo" Rodriguez, was launched in December 2016 on ABC.com. Additionally, Gabriel Luna reprises his role of Robbie Reyes / Ghost Rider from S.H.I.E.L.D. in the Hulu series Ghost Rider, but this is considered to be a standalone take on the character.

Bloomberg L.P.

Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. It was founded by Michael Bloomberg in 1981, with the help of Thomas Secunda, Duncan MacMillan, Charles Zegar, and a 30% ownership investment by Merrill Lynch.Bloomberg L.P. provides financial software tools such as analytics and equity trading platform, data services, and news to financial companies and organizations through the Bloomberg Terminal (via its Bloomberg Professional Service), its core revenue-generating product. Bloomberg L.P. also includes a wire service (Bloomberg News), a global television network (Bloomberg Television), websites, radio stations (Bloomberg Radio), subscription-only newsletters, and two magazines: Bloomberg Businessweek and Bloomberg Markets.The company has 167 locations and nearly 20,000 employees.

Bofors 40 mm gun

The Bofors 40 mm gun, often referred to simply as the Bofors gun, is an anti-aircraft autocannon designed in the 1930s by the Swedish arms manufacturer AB Bofors. It was one of the most popular medium-weight anti-aircraft systems during World War II, used by most of the western Allies as well some captured systems being used by the Axis powers. A small number of these weapons remain in service to this day, and saw action as late as the Persian Gulf War.

In the post-war era, the original design was not suitable for action against jet-powered aircraft, so Bofors introduced a new model of significantly more power, the 40 mm L/70. In spite of sharing almost nothing with the original design other than the calibre and the distinctive conical flash hider, this weapon is also widely known simply as "the Bofors". Although not as popular as the original L/60 model, the L/70 remains in service, especially as a multi-purpose weapon for light armoured vehicles, as on the CV 90.

Bofors has been part of BAE Systems AB since March 2005.

Death Note

Death Note (Japanese: デスノート, Hepburn: Desu Nōto) is a Japanese manga series written by Tsugumi Ohba and illustrated by Takeshi Obata. The story follows Light Yagami, a teen genius who stumbles across a mysterious otherworldly notebook: the "Death Note", which belonged to the Shinigami Ryuk, and grants the user the supernatural ability to kill anyone whose name is written in its pages. The series centers around Light's subsequent attempts to use the Death Note to carry out a world-wide massacre of those whom he deems morally unworthy of life to change the world into a utopian society without crime using the alias of a god-like vigilante named "Kira" ("キラ", the Japanese transliteration of the English word: killer) and the subsequent efforts of an elite task-force of law enforcement officers, consisting of members of the Japanese police force led by L, an enigmatic international detective whose past is shrouded in mystery, to apprehend him and end his reign of terror.

Death Note was first serialized in Shueisha's manga magazine Weekly Shōnen Jump from December 2003 to May 2006. The 108 chapters were collected and published into 12 tankōbon volumes between April 2004 and July 2006. An anime television adaptation aired in Japan from October 3, 2006, to June 26, 2007. Composed of 37 episodes, the anime was developed by Madhouse and directed by Tetsurō Araki. A light novel based on the series, written by Nisio Isin, was also released in 2006. Additionally, various video games have been published by Konami for the Nintendo DS. The series was adapted into three live action films released in Japan on June 17, 2006, November 3, 2006, and February 2, 2008, and a television drama in 2015. A miniseries entitled Death Note: New Generation and a fourth film were released in 2016. An American film adaptation was released on Netflix on August 24, 2017.

Death Note media is licensed and released in North America by Viz Media, with the exception of the video games and soundtracks. The episodes from the anime first appeared in North America as downloadable from IGN, before Viz Media licensed it and it aired on YTV's Bionix anime block in Canada and on Adult Swim in the United States with a DVD release following. The live-action films briefly played in certain North American theaters in 2008, before receiving home video releases. In 2015, the collected volumes of the Death Note manga had over 30 million copies in circulation.

Duckworth–Lewis–Stern method

The Duckworth–Lewis–Stern method (DLS) is a mathematical formulation designed to calculate the target score for the team batting second in a limited overs cricket match interrupted by weather or other circumstances. The method was devised by two English statisticians, Frank Duckworth and Tony Lewis and was formerly known as the Duckworth–Lewis method (D/L). It was introduced in 1997, and adopted officially by the ICC in 1999. After the retirements of Duckworth and Lewis, Professor Steven Stern became the custodian of the method and it was renamed to its current title in November 2014.When overs are lost, setting an adjusted target for the team batting second is not as simple as reducing the run target proportionally to the loss in overs, because a team with ten wickets in hand and 25 overs to bat can play more aggressively than if they had ten wickets and a full 50 overs, for example, and can consequently achieve a higher run rate. The DLS method is an attempt to set a statistically fair target for the second team's innings, which is the same difficulty as the original target. The basic principle is that each team in a limited-overs match has two resources available with which to score runs (overs to play and wickets remaining), and the target is adjusted proportionally to the change in the combination of these two resources.

Home Run Derby

The Home Run Derby is an annual home run hitting competition in Major League Baseball (MLB) customarily held the day before the MLB All-Star Game, which places the contest on a Monday in July. Since the inaugural derby in 1985, the event has seen several rule changes, evolving from a short outs-based competition, to multiple rounds, and eventually a bracket-style timed event.

International Standard Serial Number

An International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard.

When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media. The ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN (p-ISSN) and electronic ISSN (e-ISSN), respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is also assigned a linking ISSN (ISSN-L), typically the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.


L (named el ) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.

L. Ron Hubbard

Lafayette Ronald Hubbard ( HUB-ərd;  March 13, 1911 – January 24, 1986) was an American author of science fiction and fantasy stories, and the founder of the Church of Scientology. In 1950, Hubbard authored Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health and established a series of organizations to promote Dianetics. In 1952, Hubbard lost the rights to Dianetics in bankruptcy proceedings, and he subsequently founded Scientology. Thereafter Hubbard oversaw the growth of the Church of Scientology into a worldwide organization. Hubbard was cited by Smithsonian magazine as one of the 100 most significant Americans of all time.Born in Tilden, Nebraska, in 1911, Hubbard spent much of his childhood in Helena, Montana. After his father was posted to the U.S. naval base on Guam, Hubbard traveled to Asia and the South Pacific in the late 1920s. In 1930, Hubbard enrolled at George Washington University to study civil engineering but dropped out in his second year. He began his career as a prolific writer of pulp fiction stories and married Margaret "Polly" Grubb, who shared his interest in aviation.

Hubbard served briefly in the Marine Corps Reserve and was an officer in the Navy during World War II. He briefly commanded two ships but was removed from command both times. The last few months of his active service were spent in a hospital, being treated for a duodenal ulcer.During the late 1960s and early 1970s, he spent much of his time at sea on his personal fleet of ships as "Commodore" of the Sea Organization, an elite paramilitary group of Scientologists. Some ex-members and scholars have described the Sea Org as a totalitarian organization marked by intensive surveillance and a lack of freedom.Hubbard returned to the United States in 1975 and went into seclusion in the California desert. In 1978, a trial court in France convicted Hubbard of fraud in absentia. In 1983 Hubbard was named as an unindicted co-conspirator in a Church of Scientology-led international information infiltration and theft project called "Operation Snow White". He spent the remaining years of his life in a luxury motorhome on his California property, attended to by a small group of Scientology officials including his physician. In 1986, L. Ron Hubbard died at age 74. Following Hubbard's death, Scientology leaders announced that his body had become an impediment to his work and that he had decided to "drop his body" to continue his research on another planet.The Church of Scientology describes Hubbard in hagiographic terms, and he portrayed himself as a pioneering explorer, world traveler, and nuclear physicist with expertise in a wide range of disciplines, including photography, art, poetry, and philosophy. Though many of Hubbard's autobiographical statements have been found to be fictitious, the Church rejects any suggestion that its account of Hubbard's life is not historical fact.


LGBT (or GLBT) is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender. In use since the 1990s, the term is an adaptation of the initialism LGB, which was used to replace the term gay in reference to the LGBT community beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s. Activists believed that the term gay community did not accurately represent all those to whom it referred.

The initialism has become adopted into the mainstream as an umbrella term for use when labeling topics pertaining to sexuality and gender identity. For example, the LGBT Movement Advancement Project termed community centres, which have services specific to those member of the LGBT community, as "LGBT community centers", in a comprehensive studies of such centres around the United States.The initialism LGBT is intended to emphasize a diversity of sexuality and gender identity-based cultures. It may be used to refer to anyone who is non-heterosexual or non-cisgender, instead of exclusively to people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. To recognize this inclusion, a popular variant adds the letter Q for those who identify as queer or are questioning their sexual identity; LGBTQ has been recorded since 1996. Those who add intersex people to LGBT groups or organizing use an extended initialism LGBTI. The two acronyms are sometimes combined to form the terms LGBTIQ or LGBT+ to encompass spectrums of sexuality and gender. Other, less common variants also exist, motivated by a desire for inclusivity, including those over twice as long which have prompted criticism.

LL Cool J

James Todd Smith (born January 14, 1968), known professionally as LL Cool J (short for Ladies Love Cool James), is an American rapper, record producer, actor, author and entrepreneur from Queens, New York. With the breakthrough success of his hit single "I Need a Beat" and the Radio LP, LL Cool J became one of the first hip-hop acts to achieve mainstream success along with Kurtis Blow and Run-D.M.C.

LL Cool J has released 13 studio albums and two greatest hits compilations. His twelfth album Exit 13 (2008), was his last for his long-tenured deal with Def Jam Recordings. LL Cool J appeared in numerous films, including In Too Deep, Any Given Sunday, S.W.A.T., Deep Blue Sea, Mindhunters, and Edison. He currently plays NCIS Special Agent Sam Hanna in the CBS crime drama television series NCIS: Los Angeles. LL Cool J also is the host of Lip Sync Battle on Paramount Network.A two-time Grammy Award winner, LL Cool J is known for such hip hop hits as "Going Back to Cali", "I'm Bad", "The Boomin' System", "Rock the Bells" and "Mama Said Knock You Out", as well as R&B hits such as "Doin' It", "I Need Love", "All I Have", "Around the Way Girl" and "Hey Lover". In 2010, VH1 has placed him on their "100 Greatest Artists Of All Time" list. In 2017, LL Cool J became the first rapper to receive Kennedy Center Honors.


Libertarianism (from Latin: libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle. Libertarians seek to maximize political freedom and autonomy, emphasizing freedom of choice, voluntary association and individual judgment. Libertarians share a skepticism of authority and state power, but they diverge on the scope of their opposition to existing political and economic systems. Various schools of libertarian thought offer a range of views regarding the legitimate functions of state and private power, often calling for the restriction or dissolution of coercive social institutions.Libertarianism can be a term for a form of left-wing politics. Such left-libertarian ideologies seek to abolish capitalism and private ownership of the means of production, or else to restrict their purview or effects, in favor of common or cooperative ownership and management, viewing private property as a barrier to freedom and liberty. Left-libertarian ideologies include anarcho-communism, anarcho-syndicalism, egoism and mutualism, alongside many other anti-paternalist, New Left schools of thought centered around economic egalitarianism. Modern right-libertarian ideologies such as anarcho-capitalism and minarchism co-opted the word libertarian in the mid-20th century to instead advocate laissez-faire capitalism and strong private property rights such as in land, infrastructure and natural resources.

List of Walt Disney Pictures films

This is a list of films produced by and released under the Walt Disney Pictures banner (known as that since 1983, with Never Cry Wolf as its first release) and films released before that under the former name of the parent company, Walt Disney Productions (1929–1983). Most films listed here were distributed theatrically in the United States by the company's distribution division, Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures (formerly known as Buena Vista Distribution Company [1953–1987] and Buena Vista Pictures Distribution [1987–2007]). The Disney features produced before Peter Pan (1953) were originally distributed by RKO Radio Pictures, and are now distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Some films produced by Walt Disney Pictures are also set to be released under the parent company's streaming service, Disney+.This list is organized by release date and includes live-action feature films (including theatrical and streaming releases), animated feature films (including films developed and produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios and Pixar Animation Studios), and documentary films (including titles from the True-Life Adventures series and films produced by the Disneynature label). For an exclusive list of animated films released by Walt Disney Pictures and its previous entities see List of Disney theatrical animated features.

This list is only for films released under the main Disney banner. The list does not include films produced or released by other existing, defunct or divested labels or subsidiaries owned by Walt Disney Studios (i.e. Marvel StudiosMVL, LucasfilmLFL, 20th Century Fox, Fox Searchlight Pictures, Fox 2000 Pictures, National Geographic Documentary Films, Touchstone Pictures, Hollywood Pictures, Miramax Films, Dimension Films, ESPN Films etc.; unless they are credited as co-production partners) nor any direct-to-video releases, TV films, theatrical re-releases, or films originally released by other non-Disney studios.

Los Angeles

Los Angeles ( (listen); Spanish: Los Ángeles; Spanish for "The Angels"), officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L.A., is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, and the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of nearly four million, Los Angeles is the cultural, financial, and commercial center of Southern California. The city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, Hollywood, the entertainment industry, and its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America.

Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet (3,000 m) on the other. The city proper, which covers about 469 square miles (1,210 km2), is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is also the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area, also the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is also famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index. The Los Angeles metropolitan area also has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion (as of 2017), making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028. The city also hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, and was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments.

Historically home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California. The city was officially founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood. The discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California, later assured the city's continued rapid growth.

Los Angeles Angels

The Los Angeles Angels are an American professional baseball franchise based in Anaheim, California. The Angels compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the American League (AL) West division. The Angels have played home games at Angel Stadium since 1966. The current MLB franchise was established as an expansion team in 1961 by Gene Autry (1907–1998), the team's first owner. Autry was a famous singing cowboy actor in a series of films in the 1930s to 1950s, and later was the subject of the Gene Autry Western Heritage Museum. The "Angels" name was taken by Autry in tribute to the previous original Los Angeles Angels, a Minor League franchise in the Pacific Coast League (PCL), which played in South Central Los Angeles from 1903 to 1957. He bought the rights to the Angels name from Walter O'Malley, the then-Los Angeles Dodgers owner, who acquired the PCL franchise from Philip K. Wrigley, also the owner of the parent Chicago Cubs at the time, as part of the Dodgers' move to Southern California.

Nick Fury

Colonel Nicholas Joseph Fury is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by writer/artist Jack Kirby and writer Stan Lee, Fury first appeared in Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos #1 (May 1963), a World War II combat series that portrayed the cigar-chomping Fury as leader of an elite U.S. Army unit. A popular character over a number of decades, in 2011, Fury was ranked 33rd in IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes, and 32nd in their list of "The Top 50 Avengers". He has sometimes been considered an antihero.

The modern-day Fury, initially a CIA agent, debuted a few months later in Fantastic Four #21 (Dec. 1963). In Strange Tales #135 (Aug. 1965), the character was transformed into a spy like James Bond and leading agent of the fictional espionage agency S.H.I.E.L.D. The character makes frequent appearances in Marvel books as the former head of S.H.I.E.L.D. and as an intermediary between the U.S. government or the United Nations and various superheroes. It is eventually revealed that Fury takes a special medication called the Infinity Formula that halted his aging and allows him to be active despite being nearly a century old.

Nick Fury appears in several Marvel series set in alternate universes, as well as multiple animated films, television shows, and video games based on the comics. The character was first portrayed in live action by David Hasselhoff in the 1998 television movie Nick Fury: Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D. Samuel L. Jackson portrays the character in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, first appearing in Iron Man (2008). A version of the character appearing in Marvel's Ultimate Marvel imprint was based on Jackson's appearance and screen persona, well before he was cast in the role. The recognizability of the character portrayed by Jackson in the films later led Marvel to retire the original character, replacing him with his African American son Nick Fury Jr., who, like the Ultimate Marvel version, is patterned on Jackson.


S.H.I.E.L.D. is a fictional espionage, special law enforcement, and counter-terrorism agency appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby in Strange Tales #135 (Aug. 1965), it often deals with paranormal and superhuman threats.

The acronym originally stood for Supreme Headquarters, International Espionage and Law-Enforcement Division. It was changed in 1991 to Strategic Hazard Intervention Espionage Logistics Directorate. Within the various films set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, as well as multiple animated and live-action television series, the backronym stands for Strategic Homeland Intervention, Enforcement and Logistics Division.The organization has heavily appeared in media adaptations as well as films and shows that take place in the Marvel Cinematic Universe.

S.L. Benfica

Sport Lisboa e Benfica ComC MHIH OM (Portuguese pronunciation: [spɔɾ liʒˈboɐ i bɐ̃ȷ̃ˈfikɐ]), commonly known as Benfica, is a Portuguese sports club based in Lisbon. It is best known for the professional football team playing in the Primeira Liga, the top flight of the Portuguese football league system, where they are the current champions and the most successful club in terms of titles won.

Founded on 28 February 1904 as Sport Lisboa, Benfica is one of the "Big Three" clubs in Portugal that have never been relegated from the Primeira Liga, along with rivals Sporting CP and FC Porto. The Benfica team is nicknamed Águias (Eagles), for the symbol atop the club's crest, and Encarnados (Reds), for the shirt colour. Since 2003, their home ground has been the Estádio da Luz, which replaced the larger, original one, built in 1954. Benfica is the most supported Portuguese club, with an estimated 14 million supporters worldwide, and the European club with the highest percentage of supporters in its own country, reportedly having 206,437 members. The club's anthem, "Ser Benfiquista", refers to its supporters, who are called benfiquistas; Águia Vitória is its mascot. Benfica is honoured with three Portuguese Orders: those of Christ (Commander), of Prince Henry (Honorary Member) and of Merit (Officer).

With 82 major trophies won – 83 including the Latin Cup – Benfica is the most decorated club in Portugal. They have won 80 domestic trophies: a record 37 Primeira Liga titles, a record 26 Taça de Portugal, a record 7 Taça da Liga, 7 Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira and 3 Campeonato de Portugal. Internationally, they won back-to-back European Cups in 1961 and 1962 – a unique feat in Portuguese football – and were runners-up at the Intercontinental Cup in 1961 and '62, at the European Cup in 1963, '65, '68, '88 and '90, and at the UEFA Cup/Europa League in 1983, 2013 and '14. Benfica's ten European finals are a domestic record and ranked seventh all-time among UEFA clubs in 2014. Moreover, Benfica hold the European record for the most consecutive wins in domestic league and the record for the longest unbeaten run in Primeira Liga, where they became the first undefeated champions, in 1972–73.

Benfica was ranked twelfth in FIFA Club of the Century and ninth in IFFHS Top 200 European clubs of the 20th century. Currently, Benfica is ranked 21st in the UEFA club coefficient rankings and has the second most participations in the European Cup/UEFA Champions League (38). In this tournament, they hold the overall record for the biggest aggregate win, achieved in 1965–66.

Samuel L. Jackson

Samuel Leroy Jackson (born December 21, 1948) is an American actor and film producer. A recipient of critical acclaim and numerous accolades and awards, Jackson is the actor whose films have made the highest total gross revenue.

He came to prominence in the early 1990s with films such as Goodfellas (1990), Jungle Fever (1991), Patriot Games (1992), Amos & Andrew (1993), True Romance (1993), Jurassic Park (1993) and his collaborations with director Quentin Tarantino including Pulp Fiction (1994), Jackie Brown (1997), Django Unchained (2012), and The Hateful Eight (2015). He is a highly prolific actor, having appeared in over 100 films, including Die Hard with a Vengeance (1995), A Time to Kill (1996), The Long Kiss Goodnight (1996), The Negotiator (1998), Deep Blue Sea (1999), Unbreakable (2000), Shaft (2000) and its sequel, XXX (2002), Snakes on a Plane (2006), Kong: Skull Island (2017) and the Star Wars prequel trilogy (1999–2005).

With Jackson's permission, his likeness was used for the Ultimate version of the Marvel Comics character Nick Fury. He has subsequently played Fury in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) films Iron Man (2008), Iron Man 2 (2010), Thor (2011), Captain America: The First Avenger (2011), The Avengers (2012), Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014), Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015), Avengers: Infinity War (2018), Captain Marvel (2019), Avengers: Endgame (2019), and Spider-Man: Far From Home (2019), as well as in the television series Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.

Jackson has provided his voice to several animated films, television series and video games, including the roles of Lucius Best / Frozone in Pixar Animation Studios' films The Incredibles (2004) and Incredibles 2 (2018), Mace Windu in Star Wars: The Clone Wars (2008), Whiplash in Turbo (2013), Afro Samurai in the anime television series Afro Samurai (2007), and Frank Tenpenny in the video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas (2004).

Jackson is married to LaTanya Richardson, with whom he has a daughter, Zoe.

Jackson is ranked as the highest all-time box office star with over $6.9 billion total US box office gross, an average of $87.5 million per film. The worldwide box office total of his films (excluding cameo appearances) is over $16.2 billion. He became the top-grossing actor in October 2011, surpassing Frank Welker.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and l-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement. It is used to prevent and treat scurvy. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters. It is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function. It also functions as an antioxidant.Current evidence does not support its use for the prevention of the common cold. There is, however, some evidence that regular use may shorten the length of colds. It is unclear whether supplementation affects the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, or dementia. It may be taken by mouth or by injection.Vitamin C is generally well tolerated. Large doses may cause gastrointestinal discomfort, headache, trouble sleeping, and flushing of the skin. Normal doses are safe during pregnancy. The United States Institute of Medicine recommends against taking large doses.Vitamin C was discovered in 1912, isolated in 1928, and in 1933 was the first vitamin to be chemically produced. It is on the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines, which lists the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Vitamin C is available as an inexpensive generic and over-the-counter medication. Partly for its discovery, Albert Szent-Györgyi and Walter Norman Haworth were awarded the 1937 Nobel Prizes in Physiology and Medicine and Chemistry, respectively. Foods containing vitamin C include citrus fruits, kiwifruit, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, raw bell peppers, and strawberries. Prolonged storage or cooking may reduce vitamin C content in foods.

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