Kyushu (九州 Kyūshū, literally "Nine Provinces"; Japanese: [kʲɯːꜜɕɯː]) is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands. Its alternative ancient names include Kyūkoku (九国, "Nine Countries"), Chinzei (鎮西, "West of the Pacified Area"), and Tsukushi-no-shima (筑紫島, "Island of Tsukushi"). The historical regional name Saikaidō (西海道, lit. West Sea Circuit) referred to Kyushu and its surrounding islands.
As of 2016, Kyushu has a population of 12,970,479 and covers 36,782 square kilometres (14,202 sq mi).
|Native name: |
Satellite picture of Kyushu
Kyushu region of Japan and the current prefectures on the island of Kyushu
|Area||36,782 km2 (14,202 sq mi)|
|Coastline||12,221 km (7,593.8 mi)|
|Highest elevation||1,791 m (5,876 ft)|
|Highest point||Mount Kujū|
|Prefectures|| Fukuoka Prefecture |
|Pop. density||307.13 /km2 (795.46 /sq mi)|
The island is mountainous, and Japan's most active volcano, Mt Aso at 1,591 metres (5,220 ft), is on Kyushu. There are many other signs of tectonic activity, including numerous areas of hot springs. The most famous of these are in Beppu, on the east shore, and around Mt. Aso, in central Kyushu. The island is separated from Honshu by the Kanmon Straits.
Today's Kyushu Region (九州地方 Kyūshū-chihō) is a politically defined region that consists of the seven prefectures on the island of Kyushu (which also includes the former Tsushima and Iki as part of Nagasaki), plus Okinawa Prefecture to the south:
Kyushu comprises 10.3 percent of the entire population of Japan. Most of Kyushu's population is concentrated along the northwest, in the cities of Fukuoka and Kitakyushu, with population corridors stretching southwest into Sasebo and Nagasaki and south into Kumamoto and Kagoshima. Excepting Oita and Miyazaki cities, the eastern seaboard shows a general decline in population.
Parts of Kyushu have a subtropical climate, particularly Miyazaki prefecture and Kagoshima prefecture. Major agricultural products are rice, tea, tobacco, sweet potatoes, and soy; silk is also widely produced. The island is noted for various types of porcelain, including Arita, Imari, Satsuma, and Karatsu. Heavy industry is concentrated in the north around Fukuoka, Kitakyushu, Nagasaki, and Oita and includes chemicals, automobiles, semiconductors, and metal processing.
Besides the volcanic area of the south, there are significant mud hot springs in the northern part of the island, around Beppu. These springs are the site of occurrence of certain extremophile micro-organisms, that are capable of surviving in extremely hot environments.
Major universities and colleges in Kyushu:
The island is linked to the larger island of Honshu by the Kanmon Tunnels, which carry both the San'yō Shinkansen and non-Shinkansen trains of the Kyushu Railway Company, as well as vehicular, pedestrian, and bicycle traffic. The Kanmon Bridge also connects the island with Honshu. Railways on the island are operated by the Kyushu Railway Company, and Nishitetsu Railway.
The Nippon Sei Ko Kai (Japanese: 日本聖公会, Nippon Seikōkai, "Japanese Holy Catholic Church"), abbreviated as NSKK, or sometimes referred to in English as the Anglican Episcopal Church in Japan, is the national Christian church representing the Province of Japan (日本管区, Nippon Kanku) within the Anglican Communion.
As a member of the Anglican Communion the Nippon Sei Ko Kai shares many of the historic doctrinal and liturgical practices of the Church of England, but is a fully autonomous national church governed by its own synod and led by its own primate. The Nippon Sei Ko Kai, in common with other churches in the Anglican Communion, considers itself to be a part of the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church and to be both Catholic and Reformed.
With an estimated 80 million members worldwide, the Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Churches. The Nippon Sei Ko Kai has approximately 32,000 members organised into eleven dioceses and found in local church congregations throughout Japan.Bücker Bü 131
The Bücker Bü 131 "Jungmann" (Young man) was a German 1930s basic training aircraft which was used by the Luftwaffe during World War II.Fukuoka
Fukuoka (福岡市, Fukuoka-shi, Japanese: [ɸɯ̥kɯꜜoka]) is the capital city of Fukuoka Prefecture, situated on the northern shore of Japanese island Kyushu. It is the most populous city on the island, followed by Kitakyushu. It is the largest city and metropolitan area west of Keihanshin. The city was designated on April 1, 1972, by government ordinance. Greater Fukuoka, with a population of 2.5 million people (2005 census), is part of the heavily industrialized Fukuoka–Kitakyushu zone.
As of 2015, Fukuoka is Japan's sixth largest city, having passed the population of Kobe. In July 2011, Fukuoka surpassed the population of Kyoto. Since the founding of Kyoto in 794, this marks the first time that a city west of the Kinki region has a larger population than Kyoto. In ancient times, however, the area near Fukuoka, the Chikushi region, was thought by some historians to have possibly been even more influential than the Yamato region.Fukuoka Prefecture
Fukuoka Prefecture (Japanese: 福岡県, Hepburn: Fukuoka-ken) is a prefecture of Japan on Kyūshū Island. The capital is the city of Fukuoka. As of 2018, it is the ninth most populated prefecture in Japan.Hakata Station
Hakata Station (博多駅, Hakata-eki) is a major railway station in Hakata-ku, Fukuoka, Japan. It is the largest and busiest station in Kyushu, and is a gateway to other cities in Kyushu for travellers from Honshu. The San'yō Shinkansen from Osaka ends at this station.
The station was rebuilt in 2011. The main building was torn down and a new, larger station building—as well as office buildings and new platforms—was constructed. The station reconstruction project was initiated specifically for the Kyushu Shinkansen extension from Hakata to Shin-Yatsushiro Station which continues southward through its existing route to Kagoshima-Chūō Station. The new station building has a Hankyu Department Store, its first branch store in Kyushu, as a tenant, as well as other first-in-Kyushu branch retailers including Tokyu Hands.Japanese dialects
The dialects of the Japanese language fall into two primary clades, Eastern (including Tokyo) and Western (including Kyoto), with the dialects of Kyushu and Hachijō Island often distinguished as additional branches, the latter perhaps the most divergent of all. The Ryukyuan languages of Okinawa Prefecture and the southern islands of Kagoshima Prefecture form a separate branch of the Japonic family, and are not Japanese dialects, although they are sometimes referred to as such.Kagoshima Prefecture
Kagoshima Prefecture (鹿児島県, Kagoshima-ken) is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu. The capital is the city of Kagoshima.Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu (Japanese: 北九州市, Hepburn: Kitakyūshū-shi, lit. "North Kyushu City") is one of two designated cities in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, together with Fukuoka, with a population of just under 1 million people.Kokura Station
Kokura Station (小倉駅, Kokura-eki) in Kokura Kita ward is the main railway station in Kitakyushu, Japan. It is part of the JR Kyushu network and the Sanyo Shinkansen stops here. It is the second largest station in Kyushu with 120,000 users daily. In the late 1990s, the Kokura station area was expanded and remodelled.Kumamoto Prefecture
Kumamoto Prefecture (熊本県, Kumamoto-ken) is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu. The capital is the city of Kumamoto.Kyushu Railway Company
The Kyushu Railway Company (九州旅客鉄道株式会社, Kyūshū Ryokaku Tetsudō Kabushiki-gaisha), also referred to as JR Kyushu (JR九州, Jeiāru Kyūshū), is one of the constituent companies of Japan Railways Group (JR Group). It operates intercity rail services in Kyushu, Japan and the JR Kyushu Jet Ferry Beetle hydrofoil service across the Tsushima Strait between Fukuoka and Busan, South Korea. It also operates hotels, restaurants, and drugstores across its service region. JR Kyushu's headquarters are in Hakata-ku, Fukuoka.Kyushu Shinkansen
The Kyushu Shinkansen (九州新幹線, Kyūshū Shinkansen) is a Japanese high-speed railway line between the cities of Fukuoka and Kagoshima in Kyushu, running parallel to the existing Kagoshima Main Line and operated by JR Kyushu. It is an extension of the Sanyo Shinkansen from Honshu. The southern 127 km (79 mi) was constructed first because the equivalent section of the former Kagoshima Main Line is single track, and thus a significant improvement in transit time was gained when this dual track section opened on 13 March 2004, despite the need for passengers to change to a Relay Tsubame narrow gauge train at Shin-Yatsushiro for the remainder of the journey to Hakata. The northern 130 km (81 mi) section opened on 12 March 2011 (although opening ceremonies were canceled due to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami), enabling through-services to Shin-Osaka (and with a change of train, Tokyo).The construction of the first section (from Takeo-Onsen to Isahaya) of the West Kyushu Shinkansen route to Nagasaki, approximately 45.7 km (28.4 mi) in length, began in 2008, with construction of the 21 km (13 mi) section from Isahaya to Nagasaki commencing in 2012. The entire line is due to open by March 2023. Service was proposed to be provided by Gauge Change Train (GCT) trainsets, which are designed to operate on both existing narrow gauge lines and standard gauge Shinkansen lines; however, technical issues with the bogies is likely to delay GCT introduction until 2025, and initial service options are now being investigated, such as a 'relay' service.Kyushu University
Kyushu University (九州大学, Kyūshū Daigaku), abbreviated to Kyudai (九大, Kyūdai), is a Japanese national university located in Fukuoka, in the island of Kyushu. It is the 4th oldest university in Japan and one of the former Imperial Universities. It is considered as one of the most prestigious research-oriented universities in Japan. The history of Kyushu University can be traced back to the medical schools of the Fukuoka feudal domain (福岡藩 Fukuoka han) established in 1867.
There are 2,089 foreign students (As of 2016) enrolled in the University. It was chosen for the Global 30 university program, and has been selected to the top 13 global university project.List of capitals in Japan
A prefectural capital is a city where a prefectural government and assembly is located.Miyazaki Prefecture
Miyazaki Prefecture (宮崎県, Miyazaki-ken) is a prefecture of Japan on the island of Kyushu. The capital is the city of Miyazaki.Nagasaki Prefecture
Nagasaki Prefecture (長崎県, Nagasaki-ken) is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu. The capital is the city of Nagasaki.Operation Downfall
Operation Downfall was the proposed Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II. The planned operation was cancelled when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Soviet declaration of war, and the Soviet invasion of Manchuria. The operation had two parts: Operation Olympic and Operation Coronet. Set to begin in November 1945, Operation Olympic was intended to capture the southern third of the southernmost main Japanese island, Kyūshū, with the recently captured island of Okinawa to be used as a staging area. Later, in the spring of 1946, Operation Coronet was the planned invasion of the Kantō Plain, near Tokyo, on the Japanese island of Honshu. Airbases on Kyūshū captured in Operation Olympic would allow land-based air support for Operation Coronet. If Downfall had taken place, it would have been the largest amphibious operation in history.Japan's geography made this invasion plan quite obvious to the Japanese as well; they were able to accurately predict the Allied invasion plans and thus adjust their defensive plan, Operation Ketsugō, accordingly. The Japanese planned an all-out defense of Kyūshū, with little left in reserve for any subsequent defense operations. Casualty predictions varied widely, but were extremely high. Depending on the degree to which Japanese civilians would have resisted the invasion, estimates ran up into the millions for Allied casualties.Shinkansen
The Shinkansen (Japanese: 新幹線, pronounced [ɕiŋkaꜜɰ̃seɴ]), meaning new trunkline, but colloquially known in English as the bullet train, is a network of high-speed railway lines in Japan. Initially, it was built to connect distant Japanese regions with Tokyo, the capital, in order to aid economic growth and development. Beyond long-distance travel, some sections around the largest metropolitan areas are used as a commuter rail network. It is operated by five Japan Railways Group companies.
Starting with the Tōkaidō Shinkansen (515.4 km, 320.3 mi) in 1964, the network has expanded to currently consist of 2,764.6 km (1,717.8 mi) of lines with maximum speeds of 240–320 km/h (150–200 mph), 283.5 km (176.2 mi) of Mini-Shinkansen lines with a maximum speed of 130 km/h (80 mph), and 10.3 km (6.4 mi) of spur lines with Shinkansen services. The network presently links most major cities on the islands of Honshu and Kyushu, and Hakodate on northern island of Hokkaido, with an extension to Sapporo under construction and scheduled to commence in March 2031. The maximum operating speed is 320 km/h (200 mph) (on a 387.5 km section of the Tōhoku Shinkansen). Test runs have reached 443 km/h (275 mph) for conventional rail in 1996, and up to a world record 603 km/h (375 mph) for SCMaglev trains in April 2015.The original Tōkaidō Shinkansen, connecting Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka, Japan’s three largest cities, is one of the world's busiest high-speed rail lines. In the one-year period preceding March 2017, it carried 159 million passengers, and since its opening more than five decades ago, it has transported more than 5.6 billion total passengers The service on the line operates much larger trains and at higher frequency than most other high speed lines in the world. At peak times, the line carries up to thirteen trains per hour in each direction with sixteen cars each (1,323-seat capacity and occasionally additional standing passengers) with a minimum headway of three minutes between trains.
Japan's Shinkansen network had the highest annual passenger ridership (a maximum of 353 million in 2007) of any high-speed rail network until 2011, when the Chinese high-speed railway network surpassed it at 370 million passengers annually, reaching over 1.7 billion annual passengers in 2017, though the total cumulative passengers, at over 10 billion, is still larger. While the Shinkansen network has been expanding, Japan's declining population is expected to cause ridership to decline over time. The recent expansion in tourism has boosted ridership marginally.Showa Denko Dome Oita
Showa Denko Dome Oita (昭和電工ドーム大分) is a multi-purpose stadium in the city of Ōita in Ōita Prefecture on Kyushu Island in Japan.
The stadium is currently called Showa Denko Dome Oita (昭和電工ドーム大分) as an abbreviated form, by naming rights. It was formerly called as Kyushu Oil Dome (九州石油ドーム, Kyūshū Sekiyu Dōmu) sponsored by the Kyushu Oil Co. until early 2010 and Oita Bank Dome (大分銀行ドーム, Ōita Ginkō Dōmu) sponsored by the Oita Bank until early 2019. It is primarily used for football, and is the home field of J. League club Oita Trinita. It was designed by the famous architect Kisho Kurokawa, and built by KT Group, Takenaka Corporation.