Kyakhta

Kyakhta (Russian: Кя́хта, [ˈkʲæxtə]; Buryat: Хяагта, translit. Xyaagta, [ˈxjɑːktɑ]) is a town and the administrative center of Kyakhtinsky District in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia, located on the Kyakhta River near the Mongolia–Russia border. The town stands directly opposite the Mongolian border town of Altanbulag. Population: 20,041 (2010 Census);[3] 18,391 (2002 Census);[8] 18,307 (1989 Census).[9] From 1727 it was the border crossing for the Kyakhta trade between Russia and China.[10]

Kyakhta

Кяхта
Other transcription(s)
 • BuryatХяагта
View of the town
View of the town
Flag of Kyakhta
Flag
Coat of arms of Kyakhta
Coat of arms
Location of Kyakhta
Kyakhta is located in Russia
Kyakhta
Kyakhta
Location of Kyakhta
Kyakhta is located in Republic of Buryatia
Kyakhta
Kyakhta
Kyakhta (Republic of Buryatia)
Coordinates: 50°21′00″N 106°27′00″E / 50.35000°N 106.45000°ECoordinates: 50°21′00″N 106°27′00″E / 50.35000°N 106.45000°E
CountryRussia
Federal subjectBuryatia[1]
Administrative districtKyakhtinsky District[1]
TownKyakhta[1]
Founded1728[2]
Town status since1805
Government
 • MayorValery Tsyrempilov
Area
 • Total28 km2 (11 sq mi)
Elevation
760 m (2,490 ft)
Population
 • Total20,024
 • Estimate 
(2018)[4]
20,031 (+0%)
 • Density720/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
 • Capital ofKyakhtinsky District[1], Town of Kyakhta[1]
 • Municipal districtKyakhtinsky Municipal District[5]
 • Urban settlementKyakhta Urban Settlement[5]
 • Capital ofKyakhtinsky Municipal District[5], Kyakhta Urban Settlement[5]
Postal code(s)[7]
671840, 671842, 671843
Dialing code(s)+7 30142
OKTMO ID81633101001

Etymology

The Buryat name means place covered with couch grass,[11] and is derived from Mongolian word хиаг, meaning couch grass.[12]

Geography

The region where Kyakhta stands is a natural location for Russo-Chinese trade. The Siberian River Routes connect the fur-bearing lands of Siberia to Lake Baikal. From there, the Selenga River valley is the natural route through the mountains southeast of Lake Baikal out onto the plains of Mongolia.

History

Kyakhta was founded in 1727 soon after the Treaty of Kyakhta was negotiated just north at Selenginsk. It was the starting point of the boundary markers that defined what is now the northern border of Mongolia. Kyakhta's founder, Serb Sava Vladislavich, established it as a trading point between Russia and the Qing Empire.[2] The Manchus built Maimaicheng just south of Kyakhta on their side of the border. Before 1762, state caravans traveled from Kyakhta to Peking. After that date, trade was mostly by barter at Kyakhta-Maimaicheng, with merchants crossing the border to make their business.

John-Tallis-1851-Tibet-Mongolia-and-Manchuria-NE
The twin towns of Kyakhta and Maimaicheng can be seen on this 1851 map, on the shortest route from Irkutsk to Peking

Kyakhta and Maimaicheng were visited by the famous English adventurer and engineer Samuel Bentham in 1782. He related that he was entertained by the commander of the Chinese city "with the greatest politeness which a stranger can meet with in any country whatever". At that time, the Russians sold furs, textiles, clothing, hides, leather,[10] hardware, and cattle, while the Chinese sold silk, cotton stuffs, teas,[10] fruits, porcelain, rice, candles, rhubarb, ginger, and musk. Much of the tea is said to have come from Yangloudong, a major center of tea production and trade near today's Chibi City, Hubei.[13]

Kyakhta was crowded, unclean, ill-planned, and never came to reflect the wealth that flowed through it,[14] although several Neoclassical buildings were erected in the 19th century, including a tea bourse (1842) and the Orthodox cathedral (1807–1817), both of which still stand. In 1996 the Voskreskenskaya church was being used a stable.[15] It was from Kyakhta that Nikolay Przhevalsky, Grigory Potanin, Pyotr Kozlov, and Vladimir Obruchev set off on their expeditions into the interior of Mongolia and Xinjiang.

Town status was granted to Kyakhta in 1805.[16]

After the entire Russian-Chinese frontier was opened to trade in 1860 and the Trans-Siberian and the Chinese Eastern Railways bypassed it, Kyakhta fell into decline. The town was renamed Troitskosavsk during the first part of the 20th century, but the original name was restored in 1935. Other sources[10][17] has Troitskosavsk as a fort a short distance north, Troitskosavsk being the administrative and military center while Kyakhta was the trading post on the border.

In the mid-20th century, a branch railway was built from Ulan-Ude (on the Trans-Siberian) to Mongolia's Ulan Bator, and, eventually, to China, paralleling the old Kyakhta trade route. However, this railway crosses the Russian-Mongolian border not in Kyakhta itself, but in nearby Naushki.[18]

Kyakhta Pidgin

Kyakhta1, 1885
Kyakhta, 1885
Kyakhta, 1885
Kyakhta Bazaar, 1885
Irkutsk market, 19th century
Trading in Kyakhta

As the first market town on the border between the Russian and Chinese Empires, Kyakhta gave its name to the so-called Kyakhta Russian–Chinese Pidgin, a contact language that was used by Russian and Chinese traders to communicate.[19]

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Kyakhta serves as the administrative center of Kyakhtinsky District.[1] As an administrative division, it is, together with one rural locality (the settlement of Sudzha), incorporated within Kyakhtinsky District as the Town of Kyakhta.[1] As a municipal division, the Town of Kyakhta is incorporated within Kyakhtinsky Municipal District as Kyakhta Urban Settlement.[5]

Economy

Kyakhta's economy today relies mainly on its status as an important center for trade between Russia, China, and Mongolia, located on the highway from the republic's capital of Ulan-Ude to the Mongolian capital of Ulan Bator. It also has textile, lumber, and food-processing plants.

Culture

Kyakhta is home to the Damdin Sükhbaatar memorial museum.

Climate

Kyakhta has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwb) closely bordering on a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dwc) with dry, severely cold winters and warm, moist summers.

Town name in other languages

In Mongolian, Kyakhta was formerly known as Ар Хиагт (Ar Khiagt, lit. "North Kyakhta"); Altanbulag (then, Maimaicheng) across the border was Өвөр Хиагт (Övör Khiagt, lit. "South Kyakhta"). When the town was known as Troitskosavsk, its name in Mongolian was Дээд Шивээ (Deed Šhivee).

References

Успенская церковь в Кяхте-3
The Assumption Church in Kyakhta

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Resolution #43
  2. ^ a b Mark Mancall (1971). Russia and China: their diplomatic relations to 1728, (Volume 61 of Harvard East Asian series, Center for East Asian Studies, Harvard University). Harvard University Press. p. 263.
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  4. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d e Law #985-III
  6. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  9. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  10. ^ a b c d Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Kiakhta" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 782.
  11. ^ Pospelov, p. 234
  12. ^ Ирина Ф. Попова. "Торговля России и Китая через Кяхту и Маймайчен", in Mongolica-XI (SPb., 2013), p. 28, fn. 1.
  13. ^ Li Baihao; Zhu Jianhua; Huang Li; Guo Jian (2005), "One cultural route span the Millenary: Chinese Tea Road", Proceedings of the Scientific Symposium "Monuments and sites in their setting - conserving cultural heritage in changing townscapes and landscapes" (PDF), Xi'an, p. 4
  14. ^ W. Bruce Lincoln. The Conquest of a Continent: Siberia and the Russians. Cornell University Press, 2007. Page 145.
  15. ^ Martha Avery,The Tea Road, 2003, page 135 and photograph
  16. ^ rbth.com
  17. ^ Clifford M Foust, 'Muscovite and Mandarin', 1969, index
  18. ^ Rolf Potts, Stranded in Siberia: At an obscure border town, our correspondent discovers the biggest obstacle in negotiating the next 4,000 miles: The train has left without him. (Salon Magazine, 1999-11-10)
  19. ^ International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies (1996). Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas, Volume 2, Part 1. (Volume 13 of Trends in Linguistics, Documentation Series). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 911–912. ISBN 3-11-013417-9.
  20. ^ "Kyakhta, Russia". Climatebase.ru. Retrieved January 24, 2013.

Sources

  • Правительство Республики Бурятия. Постановление №431 от 18 ноября 2009 г. «О реестре административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов Республики Бурятия», в ред. Постановления №573 от 13 ноября 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Постановление Правительства Республики Бурятия от 18.11.2009 №431 "О реестре административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов Республики Бурятия"». Вступил в силу 18 ноября 2009 г. Опубликован: "Бурятия", №216, Официальный вестник №120, 21 ноября 2009 г. (Government of the Republic of Buryatia. Resolution #431 of November 18, 2009 On the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and the Inhabited Localities of the Republic of Buryatia, as amended by the Resolution #573 of November 13, 2015 On Amending Resolution #431 of November 18, 2009 of the Government of the Republic of Buryatia "On the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and the Inhabited Localities of the Republic of Buryatia". Effective as of November 18, 2009.).
  • Народный Хурал Республики Бурятия. Закон №985-III от 31 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ, образовании и наделении статусом муниципальных образований в Республике Бурятия», в ред. Закона №1411-V от 14 октября 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Бурятия "Об установлении границ, образовании и наделении статусом муниципальных образований в Республике Бурятия"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Бурятия", №1, Официальный вестник №1, 12 января 2005 г. (People's Khural of the Republic of Buryatia. Law #985-III of December 31, 2004 On Establishing the Borders, Creating, and Granting a Status to the Municipal Formations in the Republic of Buryatia, as amended by the Law #1411-V of October 14, 2015 On Amending the Law of the Republic of Buryatia "On Establishing the Borders, Creating, and Granting a Status to the Municipal Formations in the Republic of Buryatia". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Е. М. Поспелов (Ye. M. Pospelov). "Географические названия мира" (Geographic Names of the World). Moscow, 1998.
  • Christie, Ian R. (1993). The Benthams in Russia 1780–1791. Oxford, UK; Providence, RI: Berg Publishers Limited. ISBN 0-85496-816-4. OCLC 25833658.
Administrative divisions of Buryatia

Cities and towns under republic's jurisdiction

Ulan-Ude (Улан-Удэ) (capital)

city districts:

Oktyabrsky (Октябрьский)

Sovetsky (Советский)

Urban-type settlements under the city district's jurisdiction:

Sokol (Сокол)

Zarechny (Заречный)

Zheleznodorozhny (Железнодорожный)

Severobaykalsk (Северобайкальск)

Districts:

Barguzinsky (Баргузинский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Ust-Barguzin (Усть-Баргузин)

with 6 selsovets and 3 somons under the district's jurisdiction.

Bauntovsky (Баунтовский)

with 9 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Bichursky (Бичурский)

with 13 selsovets and 5 somons under the district's jurisdiction.

Dzhidinsky (Джидинский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Dzhida (Джида)

with 14 selsovets and 8 somons under the district's jurisdiction.

Ivolginsky (Иволгинский)

with 4 selsovets and 2 somons under the district's jurisdiction.

Kabansky (Кабанский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Babushkin (Бабушкин)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Kamensk (Каменск)

Selenginsk (Селенгинск)

Tankhoy (Танхой)

with 11 selsovets and 2 somons under the district's jurisdiction.

Khorinsky (Хоринский)

with 7 selsovets and 3 somons under the district's jurisdiction.

Kizhinginsky (Кижингинский)

with 1 selsovet and 8 somons under the district's jurisdiction.

Kurumkansky (Курумканский)

with 5 selsovets and 4 somons under the district's jurisdiction.

Kyakhtinsky (Кяхтинский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Kyakhta (Кяхта)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Naushki (Наушки)

with 8 selsovets and 5 somons under the district's jurisdiction.

Mukhorshibirsky (Мухоршибирский)

with 13 selsovets and 3 somons under the district's jurisdiction.

Muysky (Муйский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Severomuysk (Северомуйск)

Taksimo (Таксимо)

with 2 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Okinsky (Окинский)

with 1 selsovet and 3 somons under the district's jurisdiction.

Pribaykalsky (Прибайкальский)

with 9 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Selenginsky (Селенгинский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Gusinoozyorsk (Гусиноозёрск)

with 4 selsovets and 9 somons under the district's jurisdiction.

Severo-Baykalsky (Северо-Байкальский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Kichera (Кичера)

Nizhneangarsk (Нижнеангарск)

Novy Uoyan (Новый Уоян)

Yanchukan (Янчукан)

with 6 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Tarbagataysky (Тарбагатайский)

with 10 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Tunkinsky (Тункинский)

with 5 selsovets and 7 somons under the district's jurisdiction.

Yeravninsky (Еравнинский)

with 6 selsovets and 8 somons under the district's jurisdiction.

Zaigrayevsky (Заиграевский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Onokhoy (Онохой)

Zaigrayevo (Заиграево)

with 10 selsovets and 1 somon under the district's jurisdiction.

Zakamensky (Закаменский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Zakamensk (Закаменск)

with 4 selsovets and 19 somons under the district's jurisdiction.

Altanbulag, Selenge

Altanbulag (Mongolian: Алтанбулаг, "golden spring") is a sum (district) of Selenge Province in northern Mongolia. It is located about 25 km from the provincial capital of Sükhbaatar, on the border with Russia opposite the town of Kyakhta. Altanbulag is the location of the Altanbulag Free Trade Zone (Алтанбулаг худалдааны чөлөөт бүс, Altanbulag khudaldaany Chölööt büs).

Bogd Khanate of Mongolia

The Bogd Khanate of Mongolia was the government of Mongolia (Outer Mongolia) between 1911 and 1919 and again from 1921 to 1924. By the spring of 1911, some prominent Mongolian nobles including Prince Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren persuaded the Jebstundamba Khutukhtu to convene a meeting of nobles and ecclesiastical officials to discuss independence from the Manchu-led Qing China. On November 30, 1911 the Mongols established the Temporary Government of Khalkha. On December 29, 1911 the Mongols declared their independence from the collapsing Qing Empire following the Xinhai Revolution. They installed as theocratic sovereign the 8th Bogd Gegeen, highest authority of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia, who took the title Bogd Khaan or "Holy Ruler". The Bogd Khaan was last khagan of Mongolia. This ushered in the period of "Theocratic Mongolia", also known as the Bogd Khanate.Three historical currents were at work during this period. The first was the efforts of the Mongolians to form an independent, theocratic state that embraced Inner Mongolia, Barga (also known as Hulunbuir), Upper Mongolia, Western Mongolia and Tannu Uriankhai ("pan-Mongolia"). The second was the Russian Empire's determination to achieve the twin goals of establishing its own preeminence in the country but at the same time ensuring Mongolia's autonomy within the newly independent Chinese state. The third was the ultimate success of China in eliminating Mongolian autonomy and creating its sovereignty over the country.

Chahars

The Chahars (Khalkha Mongolian: Цахар, Tsahar) are a subgroup of Mongols that speak Chakhar Mongolian and predominantly live in southeastern Inner Mongolia, China.

The Chahars were originally one of estates of Kublai Khan located around Jingzhao (now Xi'an). They moved from Shaanxi to southeastern region controlled by the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia in the 15th century. The Chahar became a tumen of six tumen Mongols under Dayan Khan and were led by his successors, thus becoming personal appanage of the Mongolian Khans.

Oppressed by Altan Khan, the Chahars, led by Daraisung Guden Khan, moved eastward onto the Liao River in the middle of the 16th century. In the early 17th century Ligdan Khan made an expedition to the west because of pressure from the Manchu people. When he died in Gansu on his way to Tibet, his son, Ejei, surrendered to the Manchus in 1635 and was given the title of Prince (Chinese: 親王) and Inner Mongolian nobility became closely tied to the Qing royal family and intermarried with them extensively. Ejei Khan died in 1661 and was succeeded by his brother Abunai.

The Chahar royal family kept favorable relations with the Manchu imperial family until Makata gege, who was a daughter of Hong Taiji and married to the Chahar Mongol prince, died in 1663. After Abunai showed disaffection with Manchu Qing rule, he was placed under house arrested in 1669 in Shenyang and the Kangxi Emperor gave his title to his son Borni. Abunai then bid his time and then he and his brother Lubuzung revolted against the Qing in 1675 during the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, with 3000 Chahar Mongol followers joining in on the revolt.

The revolt was put down within two months; the Qing then crushed the rebels in a battle on April 20, 1675, killing Abunai and all his followers. Their title was abolished, all Chahar Mongol royal males were executed even if they were born to Manchu Qing princesses, and all Chahar Mongol royal females were sold into slavery except the Manchu Qing princesses. As a result of the rebellion, the Chahar Mongols were reorganized into Banners and moved to around Zhangjiakou. The Chahar Mongols did not belong to a league but were directly controlled by the Emperor. The Qing authorities resettled some of their population from the suburbs of Hohhot and Dolon Nor to the Ili River after the fall of the Dzungar Khanate in c. 1758. They were largely mixed with the Dzungar people and Torghut of the region.

When Outer Mongolia declared its independence from the Qing in 1911, 100 households under former vice-governor Sumya fled from Xinjiang via the Russian border to Mongolia. They were resettled by the Khalkha in the west of Kyakhta. Sumiya and his Tsahars contributed to the revolution of 1921. They are known as the Selenge's Tsahar since settled in Selenge.

Many of the Chinese troops during the occupation of Mongolia in 1919 were Chahar Mongols, which has been a major cause for animosity between Khalkhas and Inner Mongols.

Kyakhta Russian–Chinese Pidgin

Kyakhta Russian–Chinese Pidgin was a contact language (specifically a pidgin) used by Russian and Chinese traders to communicate during the 18th-early 20th century. The pidgin owes its name to the town of Kyakhta, a Russian town on the border with the Qing Empire's Outer Mongolia, which was the most important border trading point between the two regions for more than a century after its foundation in 1728.In Russian it is known as Кяхтинский язык (Kjachtinskij jazyk; "Kyakhtian language") and in Chinese it is known as 中俄混合語 (s. 中俄混合语, Zhōng ě hùnhé yǔ / Чжун э хуньхэ юй; "Chinese–Russian mixed language/creole").

Kyakhta trade

The Kyakhta Trade (Russian: История кяхтинской торговли, Istorija kjahtinskoj torgovli, Chinese: 恰克图商路) refers to the trade between Russia and China through the town of Kyakhta on the Mongolian border south of Lake Baikal from 1727. The trade was mostly Siberian furs for Chinese cotton, silk, tobacco and tea.

Kyakhtinsky District

Kyakhtinsky District (Russian: Кя́хтинский райо́н, Russian pronunciation: [ˈkʲæxtʲɪnskʲɪj rəˈjon]; Buryat: Хяагтын аймаг, Xyaagtın aimag) is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty-one in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia. It is located in the south of the republic. The area of the district is 4,684 square kilometers (1,809 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kyakhta. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 39,785, with the population of Kyakhta accounting for 50.3% of that number.

Lifan Yuan

The Lifan Yuan (Chinese: 理藩院; pinyin: Lǐfànyuàn; Manchu: Manchu: ᡨᡠᠯᡝᡵᡤᡳᡤᠣᠯᠣᠪᡝᡩᠠᠰᠠᡵᠠᠵᡠᡵᡤᠠᠨ; Möllendorff: tulergi golo be dasara jurgan; Mongolian: Гадаад Монголын төрийг засах явдлын яам, γadaγadu mongγul un törü-yi jasaqu yabudal-un yamun) was an agency in the government of the Qing dynasty which supervised the Qing Empire's frontier Inner Asia regions such as its Mongolian dependencies and oversaw the appointments of Ambans in Tibet.

Lorenz Lange

Lorenz or Lorents Lange (Russian: Лоренц (Лаврентий) Ланг; c. 1690 – 1752) was an official in 18th-century Siberia who dealt with Russo-Chinese trade and diplomacy. His reports were a major influence on Russian policy and an important early source of European knowledge of Siberia, Mongolia and China. He is usually said to have been a cornet in the Swedish cavalry who was taken prisoner at the Battle of Poltava in 1709.At this time Russo-Chinese trade and diplomacy went through the western border to “Manchuria” since Mongolia was not fully under Chinese control. When the Manchus gained control of Mongolia after the First Oirat-Manchu War this created a long undefined border and opened a more practical trade route through the future Kyakhta.

Lange entered Russian service in 1712 as an engineer Lieutenant. In 1715-17 he was sent by Peter the Great as a special envoy to China, his mission being to promote Russian commercial interests. His journal was one of the most important early European descriptions of the Gobi Desert. In 1719 he returned to Peking on the staff of the Ismailov mission and lived there as a trade agent until 1722 when the Manchus blocked trade to force a settlement of the Mongolian border. At about this time he accompanied Tulishen to the border to investigate the problem of “deserters”, as the Manchus called Mongols who crossed the border without permission. In 1724 he was appointed to negotiate with the Manchus, but the next year he was made second to the more senior Sava Vladislavich. This led to the Treaty of Kyakhta in 1727.

He accompanied the state caravans from Kyakhta to Peking in 1727, 1731 and 1736. Lange was made vice-governor of Irkutsk (1739-1749) and met many of the famous explorers of the time, including Vitus Bering, Johann Georg Gmelin and George Wilhelm Steller. In 1739 he proposed that Siberian trade be given over to a private monopoly on the model of the Dutch East India Company. The proposal was accepted by the government, but had to be dropped when no merchants could be found to invest in it.

Mongolian Revolution of 1921

The Mongolian Revolution of 1921 (Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921, or People's Revolution of 1921) was a military and political event by which Mongolian revolutionaries, with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army, expelled Russian White Guards from the country, and founded the Mongolian People's Republic in 1924. Although nominally independent, the Mongolian People's Republic was a satellite state of the Soviet Union until a third Mongolian revolution in January 1990. The revolution also ended Chinese occupation of Mongolia, which had existed since 1919. The official Mongolian name of the revolution is "People's Revolution of 1921" or simply "People's Revolution" (Mongolian: Ардын хувьсгал).

Naushki

Naushki (Russian: На́ушки) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Kyakhtinsky District of the Republic of Buryatia, Russia, located near the border with Mongolia, 30 kilometers (19 mi) from the town of Kyakhta. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 3,409.

Russian Chinese

Chinese Russian or Russian Chinese may refer to:

Sino-Russian relations (c.f. "a Chinese-Russian treaty")LanguageKyakhta Russian-Chinese Pidgin

Russian methods for writing the Chinese language:

Cyrillization of Chinese

Latinxua Sin Wenz

Dungan language, a Sinitic language spoken in Russia by the Dungan peoplePeople and ethnic groupsEthnic Chinese in Russia

Dungan people, descendants of Hui from China who migrated to the Russian Empire

Ethnic Russians in China

Harbin Russians

Shanghai Russians

Russians in Hong Kong

Albazin Cossacks, Russian soldiers captured by Qing dynasty forces in 1685 and resettled near Beijing

Eurasian (mixed ancestry) people of mixed Chinese and Russian descent

People with dual citizenship of China and Russia

Sava Vladislavich

Count Sava Lukich Vladislavich-Raguzinsky (Russian: Са́вва Луки́ч Рагузи́нский-Владиславич; Serbian: Сава Владиславић Рагузински, Sava Vladislavić Raguzinski; 16 January 1669 – 17 June 1738) was a Serbian merchant-adventurer and diplomat in the employ of Peter the Great. He conducted important diplomatic negotiations in Constantinople, Rome and Beijing. His most lasting achievement was the Treaty of Kiakhta, which regulated relations between the Russian Empire and the Qing Empire until the mid-19th century. Also, he was an author of a whole number of pamphlets, monographs, treaties and letters concerned with liberating the lands of the Slavs, then occupied by the Ottoman Empire and the forces of Leopold I.

Siberian Route

The Siberian Route (Russian: Сибирский тракт; Sibirsky trakt), also known as the Moscow Highway (Moskovsky trakt, Московский тракт) and Great Highway (Bolshoi trakt, Большой тракт), was a historic route that connected European Russia to Siberia and China.

Treaty of Kyakhta (1727)

The Treaty of Kyakhta (or Kiakhta) (Russian: Кяхтинский договор, Kjahtinskij dogovor; Chinese: 布連斯奇條約/恰克圖條約; pinyin: Bùliánsīqí / Qiàkètú tiáoyuē, Wade-Giles: Pu4lien2ssŭ1ch‘i2 / Ch‘ia4k‘o4tu2 t‘iao2yüeh1, Xiao'erjing: بُلِيًاصِٿِ / ٿِاكْتُ تِيَوْيُؤ; Mongolian: Хиагтын гэрээ, Xiagtın gerê; Manchu: ᠵᡠᠸᠠᠨᡝᠮᡠᡥᠠᠴᡳᠨ ᡳᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ, Wylie: chuwan emu hatsin-i pitghe, Möllendorff: juwan emu hacin-i bithe), along with the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689), regulated the relations between Imperial Russia and the Qing Empire of China until the mid-19th century. It was signed by Tulišen and Count Sava Lukich Raguzinskii-Vladislavich at the border city of Kyakhta on 23 August 1727.

Treaty of Kyakhta (1915)

Signed on 25 May 1915, the Treaty of Kyakhta was a tri-party treaty between Russia, Mongolia, and China.

Russia and China recognized Outer Mongolia's autonomy (as part of Chinese territory); Mongolia recognized China's suzerainty; Mongolia could not conclude international treaties with foreign countries regarding political and territorial questions.

The Mongolian representative, Prime Minister Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren, was determined to stretch autonomy into de facto independence, and to deny the Chinese anything more than vague, ineffectual suzerain powers. The Chinese sought to minimize, if not to end, Mongolian autonomy. Mongolians viewed the treaty as a disaster because it denied the recognition of a truly independent, all-Mongolian state. Nevertheless, Outer Mongolia remained effectively outside Chinese control and, according to explanation by baron B.E. Nolde, the Director of Law Section of the Russian Foreign Ministry, had all necessary attributes of the state in the international law of that time.

The treaty severely curtailed the independent status of Mongolia declared in 1911, but eventually became moot after the October Revolution of 1917, and the declaration of the Mongolian People's Republic in 1921.

Tsurukaitu

Tsurukhaitu was a trading post along the Russo-Chinese border north of Peking during the eighteenth century. For background see Kyakhta trade. It was never successful because the Kyakhta route was easier than the long trek east from Lake Baikal. The trade route ran from Irkutsk east to Tsurukhaitu (about 7 weeks) and southeast through Tsitsihar and the Shanhai Pass to Peking, over 650 miles longer than the Kyakhta route. By the Treaty of Kyakhta (1727) all official trade was to be conducted through border posts near the future Kyakhta and Tsurukhaitu. Once the Treaty was completed Sava Vladislavich made elaborate plans for the two new posts, Tsurukhaitu being somewhat smaller. Previously trade in the area was from Nerchinsk to Tsitsihar. The site was chosen in 1728 by Temofei Burtsov, a commissar of the Argun silver mines(sic) and a Chinese officer. Construction did not begin until 1736 because of obstruction by a local official and the distance that lumber had to be carried. The site was poor, firewood was over 25 miles distant and it was frequently flooded by the Argun River. In 1756 to fort was moved downstream to a new site. Unlike Kyakhta, the Manchus never erected a fort on their side of the border. Instead it was visited for about a month in early summer by merchants and border inspectors. In 1733 the official caravan tried to return by Tsurukhaitu rather than Kyakhta. Goods were spoiled due to lack of covered storage at the fort, they had difficulty finding laborers and it took all summer to travel west to Irkutsk. Maximum Russian exports at Tsurukhaitu were 2,845 rubles in 1768. The Kyakhta trade grew from 300,000 rubles in 1727 to 5,000,000 in 1805.

Today the old and new sites are the villages of Starotsurukhaitui and Novotsurukhaitui with populations of about 900 and 1800 respectively. The name comes from an Evenki word for pike.

Tulišen

Tulišen (also spelled Tulishen or Tulixen, Manchu: , Chinese: 圖理珅; pinyin: Túlǐshēn; 1667–1741) was a Manchu official and diplomat during the early Qing dynasty.

Tulišen was a member of the Manchu Plain Yellow Banner in the Eight Banners and belonged to the Ayan Gioro clan. In 1712, after having served in several minor positions in the Qing government, the Kangxi Emperor appointed him to the Qing embassy to Ayuka Khan (r. 1673-1724) of the Torghuts, who had migrated to the lower Volga River, where they had formed the Kalmyk Khanate under Peter I of the Russian Empire. The whole journey through Russia's Siberian territories took three years and Tulišen later recorded the journey in a famous travelogue, which was published in 1723. This fascinated many readers in Europe, and later appeared in English, German, Russian and French translations.

In 1720 he dealt with the Izmailov mission to Peking. In 1727, Tulišen served as head of the Qing delegation when the Treaty of Kyakhta was negotiated with the Russian representative Savva Lukich Vladislavovich-Raguzinsky. However, upon his return to the capital Beijing, he was accused of misconduct during the treaty negotiations as well as having betrayed military secrets earlier in his career. He was tried and sentenced to death in 1728, but the Yongzheng Emperor eventually pardoned him. Following the enthronement of the Qianlong Emperor in 1735, Tulišen was given a number of important positions in the government, but was later forced to retire because of failing health.

Ulaanbaatar

Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator (Mongolian: Улаанбаатар, [ʊɮɑːm.bɑːtʰɑ̆r], literally "Red Hero"), is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag (province), and its population as of 2014 was over 1.3 million, almost half of the country's total population. Located in north central Mongolia, the municipality lies at an elevation of about 1,300 meters (4,300 ft) in a valley on the Tuul River. It is the country's cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system.The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre. It settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers, in 1778. Prior to that occasion it changed location twenty-eight times, each new location being chosen ceremonially. In the twentieth century, Ulaanbaatar grew into a major manufacturing center. Ulaanbaatar is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21. The city's official website lists Moscow, Hohhot, Seoul, Sapporo and Denver as sister cities.

Climate data for Kyakhta
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) −0.1
(31.8)
8.6
(47.5)
20.5
(68.9)
29.3
(84.7)
35.0
(95.0)
37.2
(99.0)
40.6
(105.1)
37.1
(98.8)
31.5
(88.7)
26.6
(79.9)
11.8
(53.2)
5.4
(41.7)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F) −15.7
(3.7)
−10.7
(12.7)
−0.9
(30.4)
9.5
(49.1)
17.5
(63.5)
23.8
(74.8)
25.2
(77.4)
22.9
(73.2)
16.2
(61.2)
7.5
(45.5)
−4.7
(23.5)
−13.2
(8.2)
6.5
(43.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −20.8
(−5.4)
−16.7
(1.9)
−7.4
(18.7)
2.4
(36.3)
10.1
(50.2)
16.7
(62.1)
19.0
(66.2)
16.5
(61.7)
9.4
(48.9)
1.0
(33.8)
−10.1
(13.8)
−18.0
(−0.4)
0.2
(32.3)
Average low °C (°F) −25.3
(−13.5)
−21.9
(−7.4)
−13.2
(8.2)
−3.8
(25.2)
3.0
(37.4)
10.0
(50.0)
13.3
(55.9)
10.9
(51.6)
3.8
(38.8)
−4.1
(24.6)
−14.9
(5.2)
−22.4
(−8.3)
−5.4
(22.3)
Record low °C (°F) −55.2
(−67.4)
−49.1
(−56.4)
−39.7
(−39.5)
−27.4
(−17.3)
−12.1
(10.2)
−4.5
(23.9)
1.4
(34.5)
−2.7
(27.1)
−9.7
(14.5)
−26.8
(−16.2)
−34.7
(−30.5)
−42.1
(−43.8)
−55.2
(−67.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 4.0
(0.16)
3.3
(0.13)
4.7
(0.19)
11.9
(0.47)
26.4
(1.04)
58.7
(2.31)
86.2
(3.39)
75.2
(2.96)
38.7
(1.52)
13.2
(0.52)
6.6
(0.26)
4.4
(0.17)
333.3
(13.12)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 10.7 6.3 7.2 7.8 10.7 10.4 11.9 12.1 9.6 8.0 8.3 9.4 112.4
Average relative humidity (%) 79.1 73.9 65.8 53.0 53.0 58.7 64.1 68.0 66.5 68.0 73.9 79.1 66.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 158.1 187.6 235.6 243.0 275.9 276.0 279.0 254.2 234.0 186.0 153.0 127.1 2,609.5
Source: climatebase.ru (1948-2011)[20]
Districts
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Urban-type settlements

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