Kyūjitai

Kyūjitai (舊字體/旧字体, literally "old character forms"), are the traditional forms of kanji, Chinese written characters used in Japanese. Their simplified counterparts are shinjitai (新字体), "new character forms". Some of the simplified characters arose centuries ago and were in everyday use in both China and Japan, but they were considered inelegant, even uncouth. After World War II, simplified character forms were made official in both these countries. However, in Japan fewer and less drastic simplifications were made: e.g. "electric" is still written as in Japan, as it is also written in Hong Kong, Macau, South Korea and Taiwan, which continue to use traditional Chinese characters, but has been simplified to in mainland China. Prior to the promulgation of the Tōyō kanji list in 1946, kyūjitai were known as seiji (正字; meaning "proper/correct characters") or seijitai (正字體). Even after kyūjitai were officially marked for discontinuation with the promulgation of the Tōyō kanji list, they were used in print frequently into the 1950s due to logistical delays in changing over typesetting equipment. Kyūjitai continue in use to the present day because when the Japanese government adopted the simplified forms, it did not ban the traditional forms. Thus traditional forms are used when an author wishes to use traditional forms and the publisher agrees.

Unlike in the People's Republic of China, where all personal names were simplified as part of the character simplification reform carried out in the 1950s, the Japanese reform only applied to a subset of the characters in use (the Toyo Kanji) and excluded characters used in proper names. Therefore, kyūjitai are still used in personal names in Japan today (see Jinmeiyo kanji). In modern Japanese, kyūjitai that appear in the official spelling of proper names are sometimes replaced with the modern shinjitai form.

Kyūjitai
Japanese name
Hiraganaきゅうじたい
Kyūjitai舊字體
Shinjitai旧字体

Jōyō Kanji

In the 2,136 Jōyō Kanji (常用漢字), there are 364 pairs of simplified and traditional characters (for example, is the simplified form of ). Note that the kanji is used to simplify three different traditional kanji (, , and ).

Traditional characters that may cause problems displaying

Some of the traditional kanji are not included in the Japanese font of Windows XP/2000, and only rectangles are shown. Downloading the Meiryo font from the Microsoft website (VistaFont_JPN.EXE) and installing it will solve this problem.

Note that within the jōyō kanji there are 62 characters the old forms of which may cause problems displaying:

Kyōiku kanji (26):

  • Grade 2 (2 kanji): 海 社
  • Grade 3 (8 kanji): 勉 暑 漢 神 福 練 者 都
  • Grade 4 (6 kanji): 器 殺 祝 節 梅 類
  • Grade 5 (1 kanji):
  • Grade 6 (9 kanji): 勤 穀 視 署 層 著 諸 難 朗

Secondary-school kanji (36):

  • Secondary school (36 kanji): 欄 廊 虜 隆 塚 祥 侮 僧 免 卑 喝 嘆 塀 墨 悔 慨 憎 懲 敏 既 煮 碑 祉 祈 禍 突 繁 臭 褐 謁 謹 賓 贈 逸 響 頻

These characters are Unicode CJK Unified Ideographs for which the old form (kyūjitai) and the new form (shinjitai) have been unified under the Unicode standard. Although the old and new forms are distinguished under the JIS X 0213 standard, the old forms map to Unicode CJK Compatibility Ideographs which are considered by Unicode to be canonically equivalent to the new forms and may not be distinguished by user agents. Therefore, depending on the user environment, it may not be possible to see the distinction between old and new forms of the characters. In particular, all Unicode normalization methods merge the old characters with the new ones.

List of the simplified jōyō kanji and their traditional forms

In the revised version of Jōyō Kanji, 5 kanji were removed (but preserved as Jinmeiyō Kanji), and 196 more kanji were added into Jōyō Kanjihyō of originally 1945 kanji; 6 of these new kanji have a traditional and a simplified form. They are underlined in the following list.

亜(亞) 悪(惡) 圧(壓) 囲(圍) 医(醫) 為(爲) 壱(壹) 逸(逸) 隠(隱) 栄(榮) 営(營) 衛(衞) 駅(驛) 謁(謁) 円(圓) 塩(鹽) 縁(緣) 艶(艷) 応(應) 欧(歐) 殴(毆) 桜(櫻) 奥(奧) 横(橫) 温(溫) 穏(穩) 仮(假) 価(價) 禍(禍) 画(畫) 会(會) 悔(悔) 海(海) 絵(繪) 壊(壞) 懐(懷) 慨(慨) 概(槪) 拡(擴) 殻(殼) 覚(覺) 学(學) 岳(嶽) 楽(樂) 喝(喝) 渇(渴) 褐(褐) 缶(罐) 巻(卷) 陥(陷) 勧(勸) 寛(寬) 漢(漢) 関(關) 歓(歡) 観(觀) 気(氣) 祈(祈) 既(卽) 帰(歸) 器(器) 偽(僞) 戯(戲) 犠(犧) 旧(舊) 拠(據) 挙(擧) 虚(虛) 峡(峽) 挟(挾) 狭(狹) 郷(鄕) 響(響) 暁(曉) 勤(勤) 謹(謹) 区(區) 駆(驅) 勲(勳) 薫(薰) 径(徑) 茎(莖) 恵(惠) 掲(揭) 渓(溪) 経(經) 蛍(螢) 軽(輕) 継(繼) 鶏(鷄) 芸(藝) 撃(擊) 欠(缺) 研(硏) 県(縣) 倹(儉) 剣(劍) 険(險) 圏(圈) 検(檢) 献(獻) 権(權) 顕(顯) 験(驗) 厳(嚴) 広(廣) 効(效) 恒(恆) 黄(黃) 鉱(鑛) 号(號) 国(國) 黒(黑) 穀(穀) 砕(碎) 済(濟) 斎(齋) 剤(劑) 殺(殺) 雑(雜) 参(參) 桟(棧) 蚕(蠶) 惨(慘) 賛(贊) 残(殘) 糸(絲) 祉(祉) 視(視) 歯(齒) 児(兒) 辞(辭) 湿(濕) 実(實) 写(寫) 社(社) 者(者) 煮(煮) 釈(釋) 寿(壽) 収(收) 臭(臭) 従(從) 渋(澁) 獣(獸) 縦(縱) 祝(祝) 粛(肅) 処(處) 暑(暑) 署(署) 緒(緖) 諸(諸) 叙(敍) 将(將) 祥(祥) 称(稱) 渉(涉) 焼(燒) 証(證) 奨(獎) 条(條) 状(狀) 乗(乘) 浄(淨) 剰(剩) 畳(疊) 縄(繩) 壌(壤) 嬢(孃) 譲(讓) 醸(釀) 触(觸) 嘱(囑) 神(神) 真(眞) 寝(寢) 慎(愼) 尽(盡) 図(圖) 粋(粹) 酔(醉) 穂(穗) 随(隨) 髄(髓) 枢(樞) 数(數) 瀬(瀨) 声(聲) 斉(齊) 静(靜) 窃(竊) 摂(攝) 節(節) 専(專) 浅(淺) 戦(戰) 践(踐) 銭(錢) 潜(潛) 繊(纖) 禅(禪) 祖(祖) 双(雙) 壮(壯) 争(爭) 荘(莊) 捜(搜) 挿(插) 巣(巢) 曽(曾) 痩(瘦) 装(裝) 僧(僧) 層(層) 総(總) 騒(騷) 増(增) 憎(憎) 蔵(藏) 贈(贈) 臓(臟) 即(卽) 属(屬) 続(續) 堕(墮) 対(對) 体(體) 帯(帶) 滞(滯) 台(臺) 滝(瀧) 択(擇) 沢(澤) 担(擔) 単(單) 胆(膽) 嘆(嘆) 団(團) 断(斷) 弾(彈) 遅(遲) 痴(癡) 虫(蟲) 昼(晝) 鋳(鑄) 著(著) 庁(廳) 徴(徵) 聴(聽) 懲(懲) 勅(敕) 鎮(鎭) 塚(塚) 逓(遞) 鉄(鐵) 点(點) 転(轉) 伝(傳) 都(都) 灯(燈) 当(當) 党(黨) 盗(盜) 稲(稻) 闘(鬭) 徳(德) 独(獨) 読(讀) 突(突) 届(屆) 難(難) 弐(貳) 悩(惱) 脳(腦) 覇(霸) 拝(拜) 廃(廢) 売(賣) 梅(梅) 麦(麥) 発(發) 髪(髮) 抜(拔) 繁(繁) 晩(晚) 蛮(蠻) 卑(卑) 秘(祕) 碑(碑) 浜(濱) 賓(賓) 頻(頻) 敏(敏) 瓶(甁) 侮(侮) 福(福) 払(拂) 仏(佛) 併(倂) 並(竝) 塀(塀) 餅(餠) 辺(邊) 変(變) 勉(勉) 歩(步) 宝(寶) 豊(豐) 褒(襃) 墨(墨) 翻(飜) 毎(每) 万(萬) 満(滿) 免(免) 麺(麵) 弥(彌) 黙(默) 訳(譯) 薬(藥) 与(與) 予(豫) 余(餘) 誉(譽) 揺(搖) 様(樣) 謡(謠) 来(來) 頼(賴) 乱(亂) 覧(覽) 欄(欄) 竜(龍) 隆(隆) 虜(虜) 両(兩) 猟(獵) 緑(綠) 涙(淚) 塁(壘) 類(類) 礼(禮) 励(勵) 戻(戾) 霊(靈) 齢(齡) 暦(曆) 歴(歷) 恋(戀) 練(練) 錬(鍊) 炉(爐) 労(勞) 郎(郞) 朗(朗) 廊(廊) 楼(樓) 録(錄) 湾(灣) 弁(辨/瓣/辯)

Jinmeiyō Kanji

Kyūjitai vs. Shinjitai

The Jinmeiyō Kanji List contains 212 traditional characters still used in names. The modern form (shinjitai), which appears in the Jōyō Kanji List, is given in parentheses.

亞(亜) 惡(悪) 爲(為) 逸(逸) 榮(栄) 衞(衛) 謁(謁) 圓(円) 緣(縁) 薗(園) 應(応) 櫻(桜) 奧(奥) 橫(横) 溫(温) 價(価) 禍(禍) 悔(悔) 海(海) 壞(壊) 懷(懐) 樂(楽) 渴(渇) 卷(巻) 陷(陥) 寬(寛) 漢(漢) 氣(気) 祈(祈) 器(器) 僞(偽) 戲(戯) 虛(虚) 峽(峡) 狹(狭) 響(響) 曉(暁) 勤(勤) 謹(謹) 駈(駆) 勳(勲) 薰(薫) 惠(恵) 揭(掲) 鷄(鶏) 藝(芸) 擊(撃) 縣(県) 儉(倹) 劍(剣) 險(険) 圈(圏) 檢(検) 顯(顕) 驗(験) 嚴(厳) 廣(広) 恆(恒) 黃(黄) 國(国) 黑(黒) 穀(穀) 碎(砕) 雜(雑) 祉(祉) 視(視) 兒(児) 濕(湿) 實(実) 社(社) 者(者) 煮(煮) 壽(寿) 收(収) 臭(臭) 從(従) 澁(渋) 獸(獣) 縱(縦) 祝(祝) 暑(暑) 署(署) 緖(緒) 諸(諸) 敍(叙) 將(将) 祥(祥) 涉(渉) 燒(焼) 奬(奨) 條(条) 狀(状) 乘(乗) 淨(浄) 剩(剰) 疊(畳) 孃(嬢) 讓(譲) 釀(醸) 神(神) 眞(真) 寢(寝) 愼(慎) 盡(尽) 粹(粋) 醉(酔) 穗(穂) 瀨(瀬) 齊(斉) 靜(静) 攝(摂) 節(節) 專(専) 戰(戦) 纖(繊) 禪(禅) 祖(祖) 壯(壮) 爭(争) 莊(荘) 搜(捜) 巢(巣) 曾(曽) 裝(装) 僧(僧) 層(層) 瘦(痩) 騷(騒) 增(増) 憎(憎) 藏(蔵) 贈(贈) 臟(臓) 卽(即) 帶(帯) 滯(滞) 瀧(滝) 單(単) 嘆(嘆) 團(団) 彈(弾) 晝(昼) 鑄(鋳) 著(著) 廳(庁) 徵(徴) 聽(聴) 懲(懲) 鎭(鎮) 轉(転) 傳(伝) 都(都) 嶋(島) 燈(灯) 盜(盗) 稻(稲) 德(徳) 突(突) 難(難) 拜(拝) 盃(杯) 賣(売) 梅(梅) 髮(髪) 拔(抜) 繁(繁) 晚(晩) 卑(卑) 祕(秘) 碑(碑) 賓(賓) 敏(敏) 冨(富) 侮(侮) 福(福) 拂(払) 佛(仏) 勉(勉) 步(歩) 峯(峰) 墨(墨) 飜(翻) 每(毎) 萬(万) 默(黙) 埜(野) 彌(弥) 藥(薬) 與(与) 搖(揺) 樣(様) 謠(謡) 來(来) 賴(頼) 覽(覧) 欄(欄) 龍(竜) 虜(虜) 凉(涼) 綠(緑) 淚(涙) 壘(塁) 類(類) 禮(礼) 曆(暦) 歷(歴) 練(練) 鍊(錬) 郞(郎) 朗(朗) 廊(廊) 錄(録)

Variants

The Jinmeiyō Kanji List also contains 631 additional kanji that are not elements of the Jōyō Kanji List; 18 of them have a variant:

亘(亙) 凜(凛) 尭(堯) 巌(巖) 晃(晄) 桧(檜) 槙(槇) 渚(渚) 猪(猪) 琢(琢) 祢(禰) 祐(祐) 祷(禱) 禄(祿) 禎(禎) 穣(穰) 萌(萠) 遥(遙)

Former Jōyō Kanji still used as Jinmeiyō Kanji

The following 5 kanji were removed from the Jōyō Kanji List in 2010, but were preserved as Jinmeiyō Kanji. They have no simplified form.

勺 銑 脹 錘 匁

Note that and are kokuji.

Jinmeiyō Kanji used as Jōyō Kanji since 2010

Of the 196 new Jōyō Kanji, 129 were already on the Jinmeiyō Kanji List; 10 of them are used in names of Japanese prefectures, and the kanji appears in the name of South Korea (韓国 Kankoku). Four of these kanji have both a simplified and a traditional form:

艶(豔) 曽(曾) 痩(瘦) 弥(彌)

Hyōgai Kanji

Hyōgai Kanji are kanji that are element neither of the Jōyō Kanji List nor the Jinmeiyō Kanji List. In Hyōgai Kanji Jitaihyō (表外漢字字体表), traditional characters are recognized as printed standard style (印刷標準字体) while the simplified characters are recognized as simple conventional style (簡易慣用字体). Here are some examples of Hyōgai Kanji that have a simplified and a traditional form:

唖(啞) 頴(穎) 鴎(鷗) 躯(軀) 撹(攪) 麹(麴) 鹸(鹼) 噛(嚙) 繍(繡) 蒋(蔣) 醤(醬)掻(搔) 屏(屛) 并(幷) 沪(濾) 芦(蘆) 蝋(蠟) 弯(彎) 焔(焰) 砿(礦) 讃(讚) 顛(顚) 醗(醱) 溌(潑) 輌(輛) 繋(繫)

Former Hyōgai Kanji used as Jōyō Kanji since 2010

In 2010, 67 Hyōgai Kanji were added to the Jōyō Kanji List; 2 of them have a traditional and a simplified form:

餅(餠) 麺(麵)

Kokuji

Kokuji are characters that were created in Japan and were not taken over from China. Some of them, e.g. , are now also used in Chinese, but most of them are unknown to the Chinese.

Currently, there are no kokuji that have been simplified after their introduction.

Kokuji used as Jōyō Kanji or Jinmeiyō Kanji (as of 2010)

The Jōyō Kanji List currently contains 9 kokuji ( and are Kyōiku Kanji):

働 匂 塀 峠 腺 枠 栃 畑 込

was removed from the Jōyō Kanji List in 2010, but is still used as Jinmeiyō Kanji.

The Jinmeiyō Kanji List currently contains 16 kokuji:

匁 俣 凧 凪 喰 柾 椛 榊 樫 畠 笹 籾 辻 雫 鰯 麿

See also

External links

Asahi characters

"Asahi characters" (朝日文字, Asahi moji) are forms of Kanji particular to the Asahi Shimbun newspaper. Unlike Simplified Chinese, where simplifications apply to all characters, the general custom in Japanese publications is to print Jōyō/Jinmeiyō Kanji in simplified Shinjitai forms, and to print Hyōgaiji (表外字, characters outside both lists) using their original, unsimplified forms. For example, the Jōyō Kanji 齊, 齋, 劑, 濟 are printed in their Shinjitai forms 斉, 斎, 剤, 済, but the Hyōgaiji 臍, 纃, 薺 (also containing 齊, making simplification possible) remain unsimplified.

The Asahi Shimbun’s policy, however, is thoroughly to simplify Hyōgaiji in print on the model of Shinjitai simplifications, and so in Asahi Shimbun newspaper publications, 臍 (heso, "navel") would be printed as 𦜝 (⿰月斉), and 齟齬 (sogo, "discord") would likewise be printed as 𪗱𪘚 (⿰歯且⿰歯吾), and so these simplifications are known as "Asahi characters". This policy is also said to have been adopted because in the age of typewriter-based printing, more complicated Kanji could not be clearly printed. This newspaper also is currently the only publication using this simplification practice. These simplifications are not used in other publications by the Asahi Shimbun company.

Some of these Asahi simplifications have been included in the JIS X 0208 and above character sets, and even more (although lesser supported) are included in Unicode. Some Asahi characters have become the de facto standard forms as a result of their inclusion in the JIS standards (likely because the simplified forms are easier to display at lower sizes and resolutions), for example 鹸 in 石鹸 (sekken, "soap"), the Kyūjitai form 鹼 not being included until later versions. The character 葛 (kuzu, "arrowroot") has become a source of controversy, as only the simplified form was included in the JIS standards; the Kyūjitai form (using 曷) being added as a result of protest from people living in areas or with given names using this character. Simplification of the 辶 and 示 radicals is also observed by other newspaper companies.

Black Dragon Society

The Black Dragon Society (Kyūjitai; 黑龍會; Shinjitai: 黒竜会, kokuryūkai), or Amur River Society, was a prominent paramilitary, ultranationalist right-wing group in Japan.

Daibutsu

Daibutsu (大仏, kyūjitai: 大佛) or 'giant Buddha' is the Japanese term, often used informally, for large statues of Buddha. The oldest is that at Asuka-dera (609) and the best-known is that at Tōdai-ji in Nara (752). Tōdai-ji's daibutsu is a part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara and National Treasure.

Daiei Film

Daiei Film Co. Ltd. (Kyūjitai: 大映映画株式會社 Shinjitai: 大映映画株式会社 Daiei eiga kabushiki gaisha) was a Japanese film studio. Founded in 1942 as Dai Nippon Film Co., Ltd., it was one of the major studios during the postwar Golden Age of Japanese cinema, producing not only artistic masterpieces such as Akira Kurosawa's Rashomon and Kenji Mizoguchi's Ugetsu, but also such popular film series as Gamera, Daimajin, Zatoichi and Yokai Monsters. It declared bankruptcy in 1971 and was acquired by Kadokawa Pictures.

Extended shinjitai

Extended shinjitai (拡張新字体, kakuchō shinjitai, lit. "extended new character form") is the extension of the shinjitai (officially simplified kanji). They are the simplified versions of some of the hyōgaiji (表外字, kanji not included in the jōyō kanji list). They are unofficial characters; the official forms of these hyōgaiji are still kyūjitai (traditional characters).

Hagakure

Hagakure (Kyūjitai: 葉隱; Shinjitai: 葉隠; meaning Hidden by the Leaves or hidden leaves), or Hagakure Kikigaki (葉隠聞書), is a practical and spiritual guide for a warrior, drawn from a collection of commentaries by the clerk Yamamoto Tsunetomo, former retainer to Nabeshima Mitsushige, the third ruler of what is now Saga Prefecture in Japan. Tashiro Tsuramoto compiled these commentaries from his conversations with Tsunetomo from 1709 to 1716; however, it was not published until many years afterwards. Written during a time when there was no officially sanctioned samurai fighting, the book grapples with the dilemma of maintaining a warrior class in the absence of war and reflects the author's nostalgia for a world that had disappeared before he was born. Hagakure was largely forgotten for two centuries after its composition, but it came to be viewed as the definitive guide of the samurai during the Pacific War. Hagakure is also known as The Book of the Samurai, Analects of Nabeshima or Hagakure Analects.

Hanja

Hanja (Hangul: 한자; Hanja: 漢字; Korean pronunciation: [ha(ː)nt͈ɕa]) is the Korean name for Chinese characters (Chinese: 漢字; pinyin: hànzì). More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation. Hanja-mal or Hanja-eo (the latter is more used) refers to words that can be written with Hanja, and hanmun (한문, 漢文) refers to Classical Chinese writing, although "Hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because Hanja never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and kyūjitai characters, though the stroke orders for some characters are slightly different. For example, the characters 教 and 研 are written as 敎 and 硏. Only a small number of Hanja characters are modified or unique to Korean. By contrast, many of the Chinese characters currently in use in Japan and Mainland China have been simplified, and contain fewer strokes than the corresponding Hanja characters.

Although a phonetic Korean alphabet, now known as Chosŏn'gŭl or Hangul, had been created by Sejong the Great, it did not come into widespread official use until the late 19th and early 20th century. Thus, until that time it was necessary to be fluent in reading and writing Hanja in order to be literate in Korean, as the vast majority of Korean literature and most other Korean documents were written in Literary Chinese, using Hanja as its primary script. Today, a good working knowledge of Chinese characters is still important for anyone who wishes to study older texts (up to about the 1990s), or anyone who wishes to read scholarly texts in the humanities. Learning a certain number of Hanja is very helpful for understanding the etymology of Sino-Korean words, and for enlarging one's Korean vocabulary. Today, Hanja are not used to write native Korean words, which are always rendered in Hangul, and even words of Chinese origin—Hanja-eo (한자어, 漢字語)—are written with the Hangul alphabet most of the time, with the corresponding Chinese character often written next to it in order to prevent confusion with other characters or words with the same phonetics.

Hida, Gifu

Hida (飛騨市, Hida-shi) is a city located in Gifu, Japan. As of 1 December 2017, the city had an estimated population of 24,726, and a population density of 31 persons per km2, in 8,905 households. The total area of the city was 792.53 square kilometres (306.00 sq mi). The official kanji for the city is actually 飛驒, which uses the old (kyūjitai) rendering of the 騨 character. However, the 驒 character is not included on the official list of usable characters (as decided by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications), so the 騨 character is often used outside of the city.

Hōfuku Maru

The Hofuku Maru, also known as Hohuku Maru (豊福丸 (Kyūjitai: 豐福丸), Hōfuku Maru) was a Japanese Dai-ichi Taifuku Maru-class cargo ship, sunk on September 21, 1944 by American aircraft, while carrying 1,289 British and Dutch prisoners of war (POWs); 1,047 of them died.

The Hōfuku Maru was sailing from Singapore to Miri, Borneo as part of convoy SHIMI-05. The convoy consisted of 10 ships, 5 of which carried, in total, 5,000 POWs, all in appalling conditions.

At Borneo, the Hōfuku Maru left the convoy with engine problems, and sailed on to the Philippines, arriving on July 19. She remained in Manila until mid-September while the engines were repaired. The POWs remained on board, suffering terribly from disease, hunger, and thirst.

On September 20, 1944, the Hōfuku Maru and 10 other ships formed Convoy MATA-27, and sailed from Manila to Japan. The following morning, the convoy was attacked 80 miles north of Corregidor by more than 100 American carrier aircraft. All eleven ships in the convoy were sunk. Of those on the Hōfuku Maru, 1,047 of the 1,289 British and Dutch POWs on board died.

Imperial Universities

The Imperial Universities (Kyūjitai : 帝國大學, Shinjitai : 帝国大学, teikoku daigaku, abbr. : 帝大 teidai) were founded by the Empire of Japan between 1886 and 1939, seven in the Mainland Japan (now Japan), one in Korea under Japanese rule (now the Republic of Korea) and one in Taiwan under Japanese rule (now the Republic of China). They were run by the imperial government until the end of World War II. Today, they are often described as the former Imperial Universities (旧帝国大学, kyū-teikoku daigaku, abbr. : 旧帝大 kyū-teidai), and are viewed as some of the most prestigious in Japan. These former imperial universities are generally perceived as Japan’s equivalent of the Ivy League in the U.S.and Golden Triangle in the U.K. The alumni club of these nine imperial universities is Gakushikai (学士会).

Kokugaku

Kokugaku (Kyūjitai: 國學, Shinjitai: 国学; literally "national study") was an academic movement, a school of Japanese philology and philosophy originating during the Tokugawa period. Kokugaku scholars worked to refocus Japanese scholarship away from the then-dominant study of Chinese, Confucian, and Buddhist texts in favor of research into the early Japanese classics.

Manabu Murakami (scholar)

Manabu Murakami (shinjitai 村上 学, kyūjitai 村上 學, Murakami Manabu; born 1936) is a Japanese scholar specializing in medieval Japanese literature.

Nichi-Ran jiten

Nichi-Ran jiten (in Kyūjitai: 日蘭辭典) is a Japanese–Dutch dictionary compiled by Peter Adriaan van de Stadt and originally published by the Taiwanese branch of Nan'yō Kyōkai in 1934. It has about 33,800 entries. As of 2011, a second edition has not been published, but at least one facsimile edition was published in 1989 by the current Nan'yō Kyōkai, now based in Tokyo.

SS Raifuku Maru

The SS Raifuku Maru (来福丸 (Kyūjitai: 來福丸), Raifuku Maru) was a Japanese Dai-ichi Taifuku Maru-class cargo ship, which was built in 1918 at Kawasaki Dockyard in Kobe, Japan, and owned by Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha, Ltd.. In April 1925, it sank in a heavy storm during a voyage from Boston, USA, to Hamburg, Germany, with a cargo of wheat and a crew of thirty-eight, all of whom were lost.

Senjinkun military code

The Instructions for the Battlefield (Kyūjitai: 戰陣訓; Shinjitai: 戦陣訓, Senjinkun, Japanese pronunciation: [se̞nʑiŋkũ͍ɴ]) was a pocket-sized military code issued to soldiers in the Imperial Japanese forces on 8 January 1941 in the name of then-War Minister Hideki Tojo. It was in use at the outbreak of the Pacific War.

The Senjinkun was regarded as a supplement to the Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors, which was already required reading for the Japanese military. It listed a number of exhortations regarding military regulations, combat readiness, esprit de corps, filial piety, veneration of Shinto kami, and Japan's kokutai. The code specifically forbade retreat or surrender. The quote "Never live to experience shame as a prisoner" was repeatedly cited as the cause of numerous suicides committed by soldiers and civilians.

Japanese soldiers were instructed to "show mercy to those who surrender"—a response to prior misconduct on the battlefield.Towards the end of the war, copies of the Senjinkun were also distributed to the civilian population of Japan as part of the preparation for Operation Downfall, the expected invasion of the Japanese home islands by Allied forces.

Shinjitai

Shinjitai (Japanese: 新字体, "new character form") are the simplified forms of kanji used in Japan since the promulgation of the Tōyō Kanji List in 1946. Some of the new forms found in shinjitai are also found in Simplified Chinese characters, but shinjitai is generally not as extensive in the scope of its modification.

Shinjitai were created by reducing the number of strokes in kyūjitai ("old character form"), unsimplified kanji usually the same as Traditional Chinese characters, also called seiji (正字, "proper/correct characters"). This simplification was achieved through a process (similar to that of simplified Chinese) of either replacing the onpu (音符, "sound mark") indicating the On reading with another onpu of the same On reading with fewer strokes, or replacing a complex component of a character with a simpler one.

There have been a few stages of simplifications made since the 1950s, but the only changes that became official were the changes in the Jōyō Kanji List in 1981 and 2010.

Sugamo Prison

Sugamo Prison (Sugamo Kōchi-sho, Kyūjitai: 巢鴨拘置所, Shinjitai: 巣鴨拘置所) was located in the district of Ikebukuro, which is now part of the Toshima ward of Tokyo, Japan

Tenpō Tsūhō

The Tenpō Tsūhō (Kyūjitai: 天保通寳/天保通寶; Shinjitai: 天保通宝) was an Edo period coin with a face value of 100 mon, originally cast in the 6th year of the Tenpō era (1835). The obverse of the coin reads "Tenpō" (天保) a reference to the era this coin was designed in, and "Tsūhō" (通寳) which means "circulating treasure" or currency. The Kaō is that of Gotō San'emon, a member of the Kinza mint's Gotō family (後藤家), descendants of Gotō Shozaburo Mitsutsugu, a metalworker and engraver from Kyoto appointed by shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1601 to oversee the Edo mint of his shogunate and oversee its coinage. All mother coins were produced in Edo (present day Tokyo) before they were sent to other mints where they would place the individual mint’s mark (shirushi, 印) on the edge of the coin. The coin circulated for 35 years, and stopped being produced during the Meiji Restoration after the introduction of the Japanese yen. Today these coins are now sold as "lucky charms" as well as being collected by numismatists.

Tokugawa (surname)

Tokugawa (Shinjitai (modern Japanese) spelling: 徳川; Kyūjitai (historical Japanese) spelling: 德川) is a surname in Japan.

It originated with Tokugawa Ieyasu, who took the surname in 1567, reviving an ancestral placename. He and his fourteen successors were shōguns during the Edo period of Japanese history. Some of his sons also bore the Tokugawa surname, and three cadet branches of his line, the Owari, Kii, and Mito Tokugawa, continued as daimyōs through the Edo period. Descendants of Ieyasu who were not permitted to take the Tokugawa name normally bore the Matsudaira surname.

Transcriptions
Revised HepburnKyūjitai

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