Kussara

Kussara (Kushshar) was a Bronze Age kingdom in Anatolia. The kingdom, though apparently important at one time, is mostly remembered as the origin of the dynasty that would form the Old Hittite Kingdom. The Kussaran king Pithana, with his son Anitta, forerunners of the later Hittite kings, conquered Kanesh (Nesa)[1] and its important trade centrum in roughly 1780 BC. The seat of the Kussaran dynasty was then moved to Kanesh, though Kussara appears to have retained ceremonial importance.[2] Anitta took the title of 'Great King' when he defeated the polities of Zalpuwa and Hattum.[3] Pithana and Anitta are the only two recorded kings of Kussara, and their exploits are known chiefly from the so-called 'Anitta Text,' one of the earliest inscriptions in the Hittite language yet discovered. A further king, Labarna I is accepted as a king of Kussara by most scholars.[4] Hattusili I, recognized as one of the first Hittite kings, referred to himself as 'man of Kussara,' but moved his capital from there to Hattusa (from which he likely took his name).[5] It is clear, however, that even after the capital was moved, Kussara retained some importance, as it was there that Hattusili would call a council on his own succession.[6]

Kussara is occasionally mentioned in the clay tablets of the old Assyrian trade period of Anatolia (as Ku-ša-ra) and less often in the early Hittite Kingdom (as KUR URU Ku-uš-ša-ra).[7] The borders of Kussara are unknown and the old city of Kussara has not been found, though several proposals for its placement have been advanced. For instance, Massimo Forlanini, an expert in the geography of ancient Anatolia, has stated that Kussara was probably situated southeast of Kanesh, but presumably north of Luhuzzadia/Lahu(wa)zzandiya, between Hurama and Tegarama (modern day Gürün), perhaps on a road which was crossing another road to the north in the direction of Samuha. Professor Trevor Bryce, meanwhile, says "[t]he city of Kussara probably lay to the south-east of the Kizil Irmak basin in the anti-Taurus region, on or near one of the main trade routes from Assyria and perhaps in the vicinity of modern Şar (Comana Cappadocia)."[8]

From Old Assyrian trade tablets we know that a palace and an Assyrian trade station, or Karum, existed in the city. The language or dialect of Kussara is neither found nor described in either the Assyrian or Hittite texts. The Kings of Kussara became the Kings of Kanesh in the Karum IB period of Kanesh. Hattusili I and Hattusili III mentioned the origins of the Kings of the land of Hatti as Hattusili I styled himself: "man of Kussara . . . Great King Tabarna, Hattusili the Great King, King of the land of Hatti."[9] No other town or land was ever mentioned by a King of Hattusa as the origin of the Kings of Hattusa. Because the Kings of Kussara and their clan formed the base of the Old Kingdom of the Hittites, the Hittite language (known as 'Nesili' to its speakers after the city of Kanesh or Nesa) was the language of the ruling officials. It is assumed that the language of Kussara was Indo-European, because if it were not, many more non Indo-European elements would be expected in its apparent successor, Hittite. Craigh Melchert concludes in the chapter Prehistory of his book The Luwians (2003–17): "Hittite core vocabulary remains Indo-European". The Anitta Text records that when Pithana captured Kanesh, he did no harm to it, but made the inhabitants 'his mothers and fathers.' Some scholars have taken this unique statement to mean there were cultural and/or ethnic affinities between Kussara and Kanesh.[10]

KarumKanis
Kussara, bottom right, shown in the context of the Black Sea Region of modern Turkey

References

  1. ^ Kuhrt, Amélie (1995). The Ancient Near East, Volume I. London and New York: Routledge. p. 226. ISBN 0-415-16763-9.
  2. ^ Bryce, Trevor (2005). Kingdom of the Hittites: New Edition. Oxford University Press. p. 36. ISBN 0199281327.
  3. ^ Sharon R. Steadman; Gregory McMahon (15 September 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE). OUP USA. p. 322. ISBN 978-0-19-537614-2.
  4. ^ Bryce 2005, p. 66.
  5. ^ Bryce 2005, p. 68.
  6. ^ Bryce 2005, p. 86.
  7. ^ Barjamovic, Gojko (2011). A Historical Geography of Anatolia in the Old Assyrian Colony Period. Museum Tusculanum Press. pp. 143–144. ISBN 8763536455. Since the Hittite texts have so little to offer on the localization of Kussara, and the city disappears out of political history at a very early date, the documents from the Old Assyrian traders constitute the only real source for the location of the city.
  8. ^ Bryce 2005, p. 35—36.
  9. ^ Burney, Charles (2004). Historical Dictionary of the Hittites. Scarecrow Press. p. 108. ISBN 0810865645.
  10. ^ Bryce 2005, p. 36.
Anita

Anita or ANITA may refer to:

Anita (given name), people with the given name Anita

Anita (singer) (born 1960), Austrian singer who took part in the 1984 Eurovision Song Contest

Anitta (singer) (born 1993), Brazilian pop singer

Anitta

Anitta, son of Pithana, was a king of Kussara, a city that has yet to be identified. He is the earliest known ruler to compose a text in the Hittite language.

His high official, or rabi simmiltim, was named Peruwa.

Ariassus

Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Caloe

Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.

Cotenna

Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

Drizipara

Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.

Huzziya

Huzziya was the last recorded king of Zalpuwa. He was captured by Anitta the Hittite king of Kussara. Anitta had been confronted with what appears to have been a military alliance of states stretching southwards from Zalpa, an alliance in which Piyusti, the king of Hatti, and Huzziya, the king of Zalpa, played leading roles.

List of Bronze Age states

The Bronze Age (c. 3300–1200 BC) marks the emergence of the first complex state societies, and by the Middle Bronze Age (mid-3rd millennium BC) the first empires.

This is a list of Bronze Age polities.

By the end of the Bronze Age, complex state societies were mostly limited to the Fertile Crescent and to China, while Bronze Age tribal chiefdoms with less complex forms of administration were found throughout Bronze Age Europe and Central Asia, in the northern Indian subcontinent, and in parts of Mesoamerica and the Andes (although these latter societies were not in the Bronze Age cultural stage).

List of Hittite kings

The dating and sequence of the Hittite kings is compiled from fragmentary records, supplemented by the recent find in Hattusa of a cache of more than 3500 seal impressions giving names and titles and genealogy of Hittite kings. All dates given here are approximate, relying on synchronisms with known chronologies for neighbouring countries and Egypt.

Little is known of the rulers of the Middle Kingdom period. The sequence here still largely follows Bryce (1998), but the short (or low) chronology is used.

McMahon (1989) lists Hattusili II and Tudhaliya III in inverse order. Bryce, among others, does not distinguish a Middle Kingdom. Instead he ends the Old Kingdom with Muwatalli I and begins the New Kingdom with Tudhaliya I. Nor is Tudhaliya "the Younger" generally included in Hittite king lists, as he was assassinated upon the death of his father, Tudhaliya II.

List of political entities in the 13th century BC

Political entities in the 14th century BC – Political entities in the 12th century BC – Political entities by century

This is a list of political entities in the 13th century BC (1300–1201 BC).

List of political entities in the 14th century BC

Political entities in the 15th century BC – Political entities in the 13th century BC – Political entities by century

This is a list of political entities in the 14th century BC (1400–1301 BC).

List of political entities in the 15th century BC

Political entities in the 16th century BC – Political entities in the 14th century BC – Political entities by century

This is a list of political entities in the 15th century BC (1500–1401 BC).

List of political entities in the 16th century BC

Political entities in the 17th century BC – Political entities in the 15th century BC – Political entities by century

This is a list of political entities in the 16th century BC (1600–1501 BC).

List of political entities in the 17th century BC

Political entities in the 18th century BC – Political entities in the 16th century BC – Political entities by century

This is a list of political entities in the 17th century BC (1700–1601 BC).

List of political entities in the 18th century BC

Political entities in the 19th century BC – Political entities in the 17th century BC – Political entities by century

This is a list of political entities in the 18th century BC (1800–1701 BC).

List of political entities in the 19th century BC

Political entities in the 20th century BC – Political entities in the 18th century BC – Political entities by century

This is a list of political entities in the 19th century BC.

Lyrbe

Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Pithana

Pithana (Pythanas) was a Bronze Age king of the Anatolian city of Kussara, and forerunner of the later Hittite dynasty.Pithana reigned during the 17th century BC (Short chronology). During his reign he conquered the city of Kanesh, heart of the Assyrian trading colonies network in Anatolia, and core of the Hittite-speaking territories.

He was succeeded by his son, Anitta, who is best known for conquering Hattusa, the future Hittite capital, and memorializing his achievement using the Hittite language.

Ḫattušili I

Hattusili I (Ḫattušili I) was a king of the Hittite Old Kingdom. He reigned ca. 1586–1556 BC (short chronology).

He used the title of Labarna at the beginning of his reign. It is uncertain whether he is the second king so identified, making him Labarna II, or whether he is identical to Labarna I, who is treated as his predecessor in Hittite chronologies.

During his reign, he moved the capital from Neša (Kaneš, near modern Kültepe) to Ḫattuša (near modern Boğazkale), taking the throne name of Ḫattušili to mark the occasion.

He is the earliest Hittite ruler for whom contemporary records have been found. In addition to "King of Ḫattuša", he took the title "Man of Kuššara", a reference to the prehistoric capital and home of the Hittites, before they had occupied Neša.

A cuneiform tablet found in 1957 written in both the Hittite and the Akkadian language provides details of six years of his reign.

In it, he claims to have extended the Hittite domain to the sea, and in the second year, to have subdued Alalakh and other cities in Syria. In the third year, he campaigned against Arzawa in western Anatolia, then returned to Syria to spend the next three years retaking his former conquests from the Hurrians, who had occupied them in his absence.

Aegean
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Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
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