Kushinagar

Kushinagar is a pilgrimage town in the Kushinagar district of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

It is an important Buddhist pilgrimage site, where Buddhists believe Gautama Buddha attained Parinirvana after his death. It is an international Buddhist pilgrimage centre. The followers of Buddhism, especially from Asian countries, wish to visit this place at least once in their lifetime.

Kushinagar
Town
Ramabhar Stupa was built over a portion of the Buddha's ashes on the spot where he was cremated by the ancient Malla people.
Ramabhar Stupa was built over a portion of the Buddha's ashes on the spot where he was cremated by the ancient Malla people.
Kushinagar is located in Uttar Pradesh
Kushinagar
Kushinagar
Kushinagar in Uttar Pradesh
Kushinagar is located in India
Kushinagar
Kushinagar
Kushinagar (India)
Kushinagar is located in Asia
Kushinagar
Kushinagar
Kushinagar (Asia)
Coordinates: 26°44′28″N 83°53′17″E / 26.741°N 83.888°ECoordinates: 26°44′28″N 83°53′17″E / 26.741°N 83.888°E
Country India
StateUttar Pradesh
DistrictKushinagar
Government
 • TypeNagar Palika
 • D.MDr. Anil Kumar Singh
 • A.D.MK.L. Tiwari
 • MPVijay Kumar Dubey (BJP)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total22,214
Language
 • OfficialHindi[1]
 • Additional officialUrdu[1]
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Vehicle registrationUP 57
Websitewww.kushinagar.nic.in

Etymology

According to one theory, Kushvati was the capital of Kosala Kingdom and according to Ramayana it was built by King Kush, son of Rama, protagonist of the epic Ramayana. While according to Buddhist tradition Kushavati was named prior to the king Kush. The naming of Kushwati is believed to be due to abundance of Kush grass found in this region.[2]

Demographics

As of 2011 India census, Kushinagar had a population of 22,214,[3] with 3462 households. Males constitute 52% (11,502 Men) of the population and females 48% (10,712 Women). Kushinagar has an average literacy rate of 78.43%, higher than the national average of 74%, male literacy is 85%, and female literacy is 72%. In Kushinagar, 11% of the population is under 10 years of age. Schedule Caste (SC) constitutes 5.03% while Schedule Tribe (ST) were 2.39% of total population in Kushinagar Nagar Panchayat.

History

The present Kushinagar is identified with Kusavati (in the pre-Buddha period) and Kushinara (in the post-Buddha period). Kushinara was the capital of Mallas which was one of the sixteen mahajanpads of the 6th Century BCE. Since then, it remained an integral part of the erstwhile empires of Maurya, Shunga, Kushana, Gupta, Harsha, and Pala dynasties.

In the medieval period, Kushinagar had passed under the suzerainty of Kultury Kings. Kushinara continued to be a living city till the 12th century CE and was thereafter lost into oblivion. Padrauna is believed to be ruled over by a Rajput adventurer, Madan Singh, in the 15th century CE.

Conjectural reconstruction of the main gate of Kusinagara circa 500 BCE adapted from a relief at Sanchi
Conjectural reconstruction of the main gate of Kusinagara circa 500 BCE adapted from this relief at Sanchi

However, modern Kushinagar came into prominence in the 19th century with archeological excavations carried out by Alexander Cunningham, the first Archeological Surveyor of India and later followed by C.L. Carlleyle who exposed the main stupa and also discovered a 6.10 meters long statue of reclining Buddha in 1876. Excavations continued in the early twentieth century under J. Ph. Vogel.[4] He conducted archaeological campaigns in 1904-5, 1905-6 and 1906-7, uncovering a wealth of Buddhist materials.

Chandra Swami, a Burmese monk, came to India in 1903 and made Mahaparinirvana Temple into a living shrine.

After independence, Kushinagar remained part of the district of Deoria. On 13 May 1994, it came into being as a new district of Uttar Pradesh.[5]

Location of Gautama Buddha's death and parinirvana

In 1896, Waddell suggested that the site of the death and parinirvana of Gautama Buddha was in the region of Rampurva.[6] However, according to the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra, the Buddha made his journey to Kushinagar, died there and wherein he was cremated.[7][8] It is believed that during his last day he walked into the groves of tress near the city and rejoiced at the blossoms of sala trees (Shorea robusta) before laying himself to rest.[9]

Modern scholarship, based on archaeological evidence, believes that the Buddha died in Kushinagar, close to the modern Kasia (Uttar Pradesh).[10][11][12][13][14]

Ashoka built a stupa and pilgrimage site to mark Buddha's parinirvana in Kushinagara.[15] The Hindu rulers of the Gupta Empire (fourth to seventh century) helped greatly enlarge the Nirvana stupa and Kushinagar site, building a temple with reclining Buddha.[16][17] This site was abandoned by Buddhist monks around 1200 CE, who fled to escape the invading Muslim army, after which the site decayed over the Islamic rule in India that followed.[18][19] The British archaeologist Alexander Cunningham rediscovered Kushinagara in the late 19th century, and his colleague A. C. L. Carlleyle unearthed the 1,500-year-old Buddha image.[17][20][21] The site has since then become an important pilgrimage site for Buddhists.[7][22] Archaeological evidence from the 3rd century BCE suggests that the Kushinagara site was an ancient pilgrimage site.[7]

Geography

Buddhist pilgrimage sites in India
Map of Kushinagar in relation to other Eight Great Places Buddhist pilgrimage sites and notable nearby cities

Kushinagar is a nagar palika situated at 53 km east from Gorakhpur on the National Highway-28, lying between latitude 26°45´N and 83°24´E. Gorakhpur is the main railway terminus for Kushinagar while air strip of UP Civil Aviation is situated in Kasia, 5 km away from Kushinagar, currently being developed as an International Airport by Uttar Pradesh Government and Government of India.[23]

Tourism

Parinirvana Stupa

058 Parinirvana Temple from Front, Kusinara (9239688442)
The Parinirvana Temple with the Parinirvana Stupa, Kushinagar

The reclining Nirvana statue of the Buddha is inside the Parinirvana Stupa. The statue is 6.10 metres long and is made of monolith red sandstone. It represents the "Dying Buddha" reclining on his right side with his face towards the west. It is placed on a large brick pedestal with stone-posts at the corners.[24]

Nirvana Chaitya (Main Stupa)

Nirvana Chaitya is located just behind the Main Parinirvana Temple. It was excavated by Carlleyle in the year 1876. During excavations, a copper plate was found, which contained the text of the "Nidana-Sutra" which concluded the statement that plate had been deposited in the Nirvana-Chaitya by one Haribala, who also installed the great Nirvana Statue of Buddha in the temple front.[24]

Ramabhar Stupa Ramabhar Stupa, also called a Mukutbandhan-Chaitya, is the cremation place of Buddha. This site is 1.5 km east of the main Nirvana Temple on the Kushinagar-Deoria road.[24]

Matha Kuar Shrine A colossal statue of Lord Buddha is installed, which is carved out of one block which represents Buddha seated under the "Bodhi Tree" in a pose known as "Bhumi Sparsh Mudra" (Earth touching attitude). The inscription at the base of statue is datable to the 10th or 11th century A.D.[24]

Other major places

  • Indo-Japan-Sri Lanka Temple: Indo-Japan-Sri Lanka temple is a marvel of Buddhist architectural grandeur of modern times.[24]
  • Wat Thai Temple: It is a huge complex built in a typical Thai-Buddhist architectural fashion.[24]
  • Ruins and brick structures: These are located around the main Nirvana Temple and Main Stupa. These are the remains of various monasteries of different sizes constructed from time to time in the ancient period.[24]
  • Several museums, meditation parks and several other temples based on architecture of various eastern countries.

The Government of Uttar Pradesh has proposed the Kushinagar-Sarnath Buddha Expressway to connect Buddhist pilgrimage towns. The expressway will be around 200 km long and will reduce the distance from both town from Seven hours to one and half hours.

Government and politics

Stupa ruins in Kushinagar
Stupa ruins in Kushinagar.

Kushinagar comes under Kushinagar Lok Sabha constituency for Indian general elections. The Member of Parliament from this constituency is Vijay Kumar Dubey of Bharatiya Janata Party 2014 Indian general elections who was elected in the 2019 Indian general election.

As of 2019, the Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA) from Kushinagar Assembly constituency is Rajnikant Mani Tripathi of Bharatiya Janata Party.

Notable people

Gallery

Burmese Temple in Kushinagar

Mahasukhamdada Chin Thargyi Pagoda (Burmese Temple)

Watthaikusinara

Wat Thai Temple

Buddha Relic Distribution Site 02

Buddha relic distribution site

Kusinara3

Buddha's body was kept at this location for one week, after he attained Parinirvana.

Mahaparinirvana

Gautama Buddha's statue in Parinirvana, at the Mahaparinirvana Temple

Kushinara1

Ramabhar Stupa was built over a portion of the Buddha's ashes on the spot where he was cremated by the ancient Malla people.

066 Relief on Base of Statue, Kusinara (9236797375)

Relief on the base of a Buddhist statue

Buddha Relic Distribution Site 04

Stone plaque pointing towards Buddha relic distribution site

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "52nd REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. p. 49. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
  2. ^ "History". Kushinagar District. 20 November 2017.
  3. ^ Census of India: Population Finder, http://censusindia.gov.in/PopulationFinder/View_Village_Population.aspx?pcaid=1249&category=N.P.
  4. ^ Vogel J Ph. (1950). "Some Buddhist Monasteries in Ancient India". Journal of the Ceylon branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 1: 27–32.
  5. ^ "Kushinagar History". kushinagar.nic.in. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  6. ^ "A Tibetan Guide-book to the Lost Sites of the Buddha's Birth and Death", L. A. Waddell. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1896, p. 279.
  7. ^ a b c Lars Fogelin (2015). An Archaeological History of Indian Buddhism. Oxford University Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-19-994822-2.
  8. ^ John Guy (1991). "The Mahabodhi temple". The Burlington Magazine. 133 (1059): 356–357. JSTOR 884751.
  9. ^ S., Bhattacharya (1996). Buddh for the young (1st ed.). New Delhi: National Book Trust, India. p. 42. ISBN 81-237-2006-8.
  10. ^ United Nations (2003). Promotion of Buddhist Tourism Circuits in Selected Asian Countries. United Nations Publications. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-92-1-120386-8.
  11. ^ Kevin Trainor (2004). Buddhism: The Illustrated Guide. Oxford University Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-19-517398-7.
  12. ^ Elizabeth Lyons; Heather Peters; Chʻeng-mei Chang (1985). Buddhism: History and Diversity of a Great Tradition. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-934718-76-9.
  13. ^ Fred S. Kleiner (2009). Gardner's Art through the Ages: Non-Western Perspectives. Cengage. pp. 13, 31. ISBN 0-495-57367-1.
  14. ^ Huntington, John C (1986), "Sowing the Seeds of the Lotus" (PDF), Orientations, September 1986: 47, archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2014
  15. ^ Akira Hirakawa; Paul Groner (1993). A History of Indian Buddhism: From Śākyamuni to Early Mahāyāna. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 101. ISBN 978-81-208-0955-0.
  16. ^ Gina Barns (1995). "An Introduction to Buddhist Archaeology". World Archaeology. 27 (2): 166–168. doi:10.1080/00438243.1995.9980301.
  17. ^ a b Robert Stoddard (2010). "The Geography of Buddhist Pilgrimage in Asia". Pilgrimage and Buddhist Art. Yale University Press. 178: 3–4.
  18. ^ Richard H. Robinson; Sandra Ann Wawrytko; Ṭhānissaro Bhikkhu (1996). The Buddhist Religion: A Historical Introduction. Thomson. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-534-20718-2.
  19. ^ Mark Juergensmeyer; Wade Clark Roof (2011). Encyclopedia of Global Religion. SAGE Publications. p. 148. ISBN 978-1-4522-6656-5.
  20. ^ Asher, Frederick (2009). "From place to sight: locations of the Buddha´s life". Artibus Asiae. 69 (2): 244.
  21. ^ Himanshu Prabha Ray (2014). The Return of the Buddha: Ancient Symbols for a New Nation. Routledge. pp. 74–75, 86. ISBN 978-1-317-56006-7.
  22. ^ Lars Fogelin (2006). Archaeology of Early Buddhism. AltaMira Press. pp. 42–43. ISBN 978-0-7591-1444-9.
  23. ^ "Kushinagar geography". kushinagr.nic.in. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g "Places in Kushinagar". kushinager.nic.in. Retrieved 17 July 2015.

Further reading

  • A Literary History of Deoria & Kushinagar by M.A. Lari Azad (USM 1998 Ghaziabad)
  • Patil, D R (1981). Kusīnagara, New Delhi : Archaeological Survey of India.

External links

Deoria district

Deoria district is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. Deoria is the district headquarters. Deoria district is a part of Gorakhpur division. Deoria district came into existence on 16 March 1946 from Gorakhpur district.

Fazilnagar (Assembly constituency)

Fazilnagar is a constituency of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly covering the city of Fazilnagar in the Kushinagar district of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Fazilnagar is one of five assembly constituencies in the Deoria (Lok Sabha constituency). Since 2008, this assembly constituency is numbered 332 amongst 403 constituencies.

Currently this seat belongs to Bharatiya Janta Party candidate Ganga Singh Kushwaha who won in last Assembly election of 2017 Uttar Pradesh Legislative Elections defeating Samajwadi Party candidate Vishwanath by a margin of 41,922 votes.

Gorakhpur division

Gorakhpur division is an administrative geographical unit of Uttar Pradesh state in northern India. Gorakhpur is the administrative headquarters of the division. Currently (2017), the division consists of four districts:

Gorakhpur

Kushinagar

Deoria

Maharajganj

Hata (Assembly constituency)

Hata is a constituency of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly covering the city of Hata in the Kushinagar district of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Hata is one of five assembly constituencies in the Kushi Nagar (Lok Sabha constituency). Since 2008, this assembly constituency is numbered 334 amongst 403 constituencies.

Currently this seat belongs to Bharatiya Janta Party candidate Pawan Kedia who won in last Assembly election of 2017 Uttar Pradesh Legislative Elections defeating Samajwadi Party candidate Radheshyam Singh by a margin of 53,076 votes.

Kaptanganj Junction railway station

Kaptanganj Junction railway station is a small railway station in Kushinagar district, Uttar Pradesh. Its code is CPJ. It serves Kaptanganj town. The station consists of three platforms. The platforms are not well sheltered. It lacks many facilities including water and sanitation.The Siwan-Kaptanganj line was opened between 1907 and 1913. The doubling work survey for Muzaffarpur–Gorakhpur main line was sanctioned in the Railway Budget of 2012-13.The East Central Railway zone also applied for the electrification of the following sections to the Ministry of Railways (India) for the Rail Budget 2015-16. The doubling work survey for "Muzaffarpur–Gorakhpur main line" was sanctioned in the Railway Budget of 2012-13.The East Central Railway zone also applied for the electrification of the following sections to the Ministry of Railways (India) for the Rail Budget 2015-16.

Khadda (Assembly constituency)

Khadda is a constituency of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly covering the city of Khadda in the Kushinagar district of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Khadda is one of five assembly constituencies in the Kushi Nagar (Lok Sabha constituency). Since 2008, this assembly constituency is numbered 329 amongst 403 constituencies.

Currently this seat belongs to Bharatiya Janta Party candidate Jatashanker Tripathi who won in last Assembly election of 2017 Uttar Pradesh Legislative Elections defeating Bahujan Samaj Party candidate Vijay Pratap Kushwaha by a margin of 38,497 votes.

Kushi Nagar (Lok Sabha constituency)

Kushi Nagar Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 80 Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituencies in Uttar Pradesh state in India. This constituency came into existence in 2008 as a part of the implementation of delimitation of parliamentary constituencies based on the recommendations of the Delimitation Commission of India constituted in 2002.

Kushinagar (Assembly constituency)

Kushinagar is a constituency of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly covering the city of Kushinagar in the Kushinagar district of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Kushinagar is one of five assembly constituencies in the Kushi Nagar (Lok Sabha constituency). Since 2008, this assembly constituency is numbered 333 amongst 403 constituencies.

Currently this seat belongs to Bharatiya Janta Party candidate Rajnikant Mani Tripathi who won in last Assembly election of 2017 Uttar Pradesh Legislative Elections defeating Bahujan Samaj Party candidate Rajesh Pratap Rao "Banti Bhaiya " by a margin of 48,103 votes.

Kushinagar Airport

Kushinagar Airport is an upcoming airport situated in Kasia, Kushinagar district and is 52 km east of Gorakhpur, in Kushinagar district in Uttar Pradesh, India. The airstrip spans 97 acres, has a small apron of 145 metres by 46 metres and handles small aircraft.

The airport lies near an important Buddhist pilgrimage site, where Gautama Buddha has attained Parinirvana after his death. The State Government plans to develop the airport to cater to international tourists who visit this site. The government has acquired 650 acres of land for this project at a cost of Rs 180 crores.The Central Government has agreed to a Viability gap funding (VGF) of 20%. The airport will be built through a joint venture between State Government and the Airports Authority of India (AAI).The project was initially intended to be developed on PPP model at an estimated cost of Rs.354 Crores. The State Government had selected IL&FS Infrastructure Development Company Limited as PPP project consultants. The project got an "In Principle Approval" from the Ministry of Civil Aviation (India) in September 2010.

The government received 15 technical bids in 2013 from reputed infrastructure companies for development of the airport.The state cabinet cleared the project and approved the financial bid document in January 2014. But despite several attempts to reduce the cost and the size of the project, the government could not convince private players about its viability. In May 2015, the state government decided to take the support of AAI to go ahead with the project.Funds of Rs.199.00 Crores for the proposed International Airport at Kushinagar was released in November 2017 by Uttar Pradesh led by Shri Yogi Adityanath. and during UP Investor Summit in February 2018, Shri Yogi Adityanath has announced that the airport at Kushinagar will be operational from mid of 2018 this will be a massive development by any government in this region which will provide direct and indirect employment to this region. But still due to some technical guilt the airport will still take some time to commence operations.

Under UDAN scheme Kushinagar will be connect with [[Gaya, Lucknow,

Kushinagar district

Kushinagar is a district of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India situated in the easternmost part of the state. It has the administrative headquarters at Ravindra Nagar Dhoos in Padrauna. The district is named such after the town Kushinagar, a Buddhist pilgrimage site where Gautama Buddha attained parinirvana in the 5th century BCE. Since the independence of India, Kushinagar district was a part of Deoria District and came into existence on 13 May 1994 as a separate district division. It was earlier known as Padrauna and thereafter was renamed Kushinagar on 19th June 1997.

Padrauna

Padrauna is a city and the district headquarter of Kushinagar in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Its ancient name was Pava where Lord Buddha took his last meal. It is the place where Lord Rama spent a few days of his life. After passing from Padrauna, Lord Rama reached at Ramkola where he made a hut with his wife Sita and younger brother Lakshman to stay. Padrauna is also the place of ancient Malla Kshatriyas who were following a democratic form of government from their Santhagara. It is situated 21 kilometers east of Kushinagar town.

Padrauna (Assembly constituency)

Padrauna is a constituency of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly covering the city of Padrauna in the Kushinagar district of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Padrauna is one of five assembly constituencies in the Kushi Nagar (Lok Sabha constituency). Since 2008, this assembly constituency is numbered 330 amongst 403 constituencies.

Currently this seat belongs to Bharatiya Janta Party candidate Swami Prasad Maurya who won in last Assembly election of 2017 Uttar Pradesh Legislative Elections defeating Bahujan Samaj Party candidate Javed Iqbal by a margin of 40,552 votes.

Padrauna (Lok Sabha constituency)

Padrauna Lok Sabha constituency was a Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituency in Uttar Pradesh state in northern India till 2008.

Padrauna railway station

Padrauna railway station is on the Gorakhpur-Thawe line. It is about 77 km from Gorakhpur railway station and is situated towards its north-eastern part. It is situated about 20 km from Kushinagar, an international tourist and religious spot for Buddhists. It serves Padrauna city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

Rajesh Pandey

Rajesh Pandey is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party. He is a member of 16th Lok Sabha

Ramkola (Assembly constituency)

Ramkola is a constituency of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly covering the city of Ramkola in the Kushinagar district of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Ramkola is one of five assembly constituencies in the Kushi Nagar (Lok Sabha constituency). Since 2008, this assembly constituency is numbered 335 amongst 403 constituencies.

Currently this seat belongs to Suheldev Bharatiya Samaj Party candidate Ramanand Baudh who won in last Assembly election of 2017 Uttar Pradesh Legislative Elections defeating Samajwadi Party candidate Purnmasi Dehati by a margin of 55,729 votes.

Ratanjit Pratap Narain Singh

Kunwar Ratanjit Pratap Narain Singh (known as R.P.N. Singh) (born 25 April 1964, Delhi), popularly known as Raja Saheb of Padrauna, is an Indian politician and former Minister of State in the Ministry of Home Affairs. He was a MP from Kushinagar constituency in 15th Lok Sabha. For the 16th Lok Sabha election even though substantial increase of vote he lost to Rajesh Pandey (BJP). Recently Singh was chosen for AICC in charge of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.

Tamkuhi Raj (Assembly constituency)

Tamkuhi Raj is a constituency of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly covering the city of Tamkuhi Raj in the Kushinagar district of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Tamkuhi Raj is one of five assembly constituencies in the Deoria (Lok Sabha constituency). Since 2008, this assembly constituency is numbered 331 amongst 403 constituencies.

Currently this seat belongs to Indian National Congress candidate Ajay Kumar Lallu who won in last Assembly election of 2017 Uttar Pradesh Legislative Elections defeating Bharatiya Janta Party candidate Jagadish Mishra by a margin of 18,114 votes.

Tamkuhi Road railway station

Tamkuhi Road railway station is a small railway station in Kushinagar district, Uttar Pradesh. Its code is TOI. It serves Tamkuhi Raj town. The station consists of two platforms. The platforms are not well sheltered. It lacks many facilities including water and sanitation.Tamkuhi Road was part of Bengal and North Western Railway constructed the 79 mi (127 km) long 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) wide metre gauge line from Siwan to Kaptanganj in 1907.The Kaptanganj-Thawe section was converted to 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) wide broad gauge in 2011.

Topics in Buddhism
Foundations
The Buddha
Bodhisattvas
Disciples
Key concepts
Cosmology
Branches
Practices
Nirvana
Monasticism
Major figures
Texts
Countries
History
Philosophy
Culture
Miscellaneous
Comparison
Lists
Cities and towns in Kushinagar district
Kushinagar
Other districts
General
Mythology, history
Districts
Rivers, dams, lakes
Languages, people
Transport
Lok Sabha constituencies
See also
Other Divisions

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.