Kurnool

Kurnool is the headquarters of Kurnool district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.[5] The city is often referred as The Gateway of Rayalaseema.[6] It was the capital of Andhra State from 1 October 1953 to 31 October 1956. As of 2011 census, it is the fifth most populous city in the state with a population of 460,184.[7][8]

Kurnool

Kandanavooru
Nickname(s): 
The Gateway of Rayalaseema
Kurnool is located in Andhra Pradesh
Kurnool
Kurnool
Location in Andhra Pradesh and in India
Kurnool is located in India
Kurnool
Kurnool
Kurnool (India)
Coordinates: 15°50′N 78°03′E / 15.83°N 78.05°ECoordinates: 15°50′N 78°03′E / 15.83°N 78.05°E
Country India
StateAndhra Pradesh
DistrictKurnool
Government
 • TypeMunicipal corporation
Area
 • City69.51 km2 (26.84 sq mi)
Area rank105
Elevation
274 m (899 ft)
Population
(2011)[2]
 • City457,633, 25,376, 26,040, 27,908, 35,314, 45,250, 60,222, 100,815, 136,710, 206,362, 236,800, 269,122
 • Rank106th (India)
5th (Andhra Pradesh)
 • Urban
430,214 (KUDA)
 • Rural
56,759
 • Metro486,973
Languages
 • OfficialTelugu Urdu
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
518001, 518002, 518003, 518004, 518005, 518006, 518007
Vehicle registrationAP-21[4]
WebsiteKurnool Municipal Corporation

Etymology

The original name of Kurnool is found in historical records as Kandanavōlu or Kandanōlu.[9] It used to be a crossing on the Tungabhadra River, where the bullock cart caravans are believed to have greased their wheels ("kandana" being a reference to grease).[10]

History

Palaeolithic era

The Ketavaram[11] rock paintings from the Paleolithic era and are (18 kilometres from Kurnool). Also the Jurreru Valley, Katavani Kunta[12] and Yaganti in Kurnool District have some important rock art and paintings in the vicinity, may be dated from 35,000 to 40,000 years ago.

Belum Caves are geologically and historically important caves in the district. There are indications that Jain and Buddhist monks were occupying these caves centuries ago. Many Buddhists relics were found inside the caves. These relics are now housed in Museum at Ananthapur. Archaeological survey of India (ASI) found remnants of vessels and other artifacts of pre-Buddhist era and has dated the remnants of vessels found in the caves to 4500 BC.[13]

Vijayanagara era

Little was known about Kurnool town before the 11th century. The earliest knowledge of this settlement dates from the 11th century. It has developed as transit place on the southern banks of the river Tungabhadra.

Ruled by the Cholas in 12th Century and later taken over by the Kakatiya dynasty in 13th century. Kurnool developed into a transit point on the southern banks of the Tungabhadra River. It eventually fell under the rule of a jaghirdar before becoming a part of the Vijayanagar dynasty. King Achyuta Raya, successor of Sri Krishnadeva Raya constructed the Kurnool Fort during the 16th century.

Mughals Rule

The Abyssinian, Abdul Wahab Khan, defeated King Gopal Raja of the Vijayanagar Kingdom in the 17th century and went on to rule the land for 16 years until his death.

In 1686, Kurnool fell under the influence of the Mughals who were ruled by Emperor Aurangzeb. Later on in Kurnool’s history, it was ruled by the Nawabs until the British Government took over in 1839.[14]

Post independence

Kurnool was the capital of erstwhile Andhra state between 1953 and 1956 until the union with Telangana to form Andhra Pradesh with Hyderabad as the state’s capital.[15][16]

Geography and climate

Location

Kurnool is located at 15°50′00″N 78°03′00″E / 15.8333°N 78.05°E.[17] It has an average elevation of 273 metres (898 feet).

Kurnool lies on the banks of the Tungabhadra River. The Hundri and Neeva rivers also flow through the city. The K.C.Canal (Kurnool–Cuddapah) was built by the Dutch for transportation, but later used for irrigation.

Cityscape

21 - Front View of Kondareddy Buruju
Front View of Kondareddy Buruju.

Landmarks in and around the city include Konda Reddy Fort Formerly called Kondareddy Burj is the Historical Monuement and Major Tourist Attraction of Kurnool located at the north east part of the city.[18] Orvakal rock Garderns is the Sculpture Garden with Ancient cave lies on the South East of the city.[19] Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary is a noted wildlife and bird sanctuary that lies in the vicinity of Kurnool, about 45 km away. It attracts lot of visitors from neighbouring states of Telangana, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.[20]

Gumbad is one the oldest historical monuments located on the banks of Hundri River.

Climate

The climate is tropical with temperatures ranging from 26 °C (78.8 °F) to 46 °C (114.8 °F) in the summer and 12 °C (53.6 °F) to 31 °C (87.8 °F) in the winter. The average annual rainfall is about 705 millimetres (28 in).

Demographics

Population

As per final data of 2011 census, Kurnool urban agglomeration had a population of 484,327, making it the fifth largest city in the state of Andhra Pradesh[23].

Literacy

The literacy rate of Kurnool was 77.37 per cent at the time of the 2011 census.

Religion

As per final data of 2011 census, Hindus formed the majority in the Kurnool urban agglomeration. Other religious groups found in Kurnool are Muslims, Christians, Sikhs and Parsees.

Politics

Shri S.V. Mohan Reddy currently holds the MLA position for Kurnool Assembly,[26] where as Ms. Butta Renuka holds the MP position and represents Kurnool constituency at the Lok Sabha[27]

Education

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by Government, aided and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.[28][29] Pre-schools by Anganwadi Centers of ICDS Dept.

The city has some of the famous institutions for both engineering and medical degrees like Kurnool Medical College (KMC), Pulla Reddy Engineering College ,Indian Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing, Kurnool ,Dr Abdul Haq Unani Medical College Kurnool.etc. The city is having a state famous institution - Silver Jubilee College, established by the Govt. of AP in the year 1972.

Transport

Roads

Kurnool is well connected by road with Hyderabad and Bengaluru. National Highway 44 (India) connects Kurnool to Hyderabad. The State Highway 51 connects to Srisailam, Vinukonda, Guntur, Vijayawada. National Highway 40 (India) (new numbering) runs from Kurnool to Chittoor are the major highways passing through the city. The city has a total road length of 519.22 km[30] State owned bus transport system, APSRTC, operates buses from Kurnool bus station to other parts of the state.[31][32]

Railways

Kurnool railway station lies on the Hyderabad – Bengaluru railway line. It is classified as an A–category station in the Hyderabad railway division of South Central Railway zone. Another railway station name Kotla lies in the middle of the city.

Airport

The Ministry of Civil Aviation & Andhra Pradesh airport Development Corporation Limited has developed Green Field Kurnool Airport, near Orvakal, 25 km from Kurnool city. The airport opened on 8-jan-2019 Airport built on 1,110 acres of land at a cost of Rs. 234 crores and is projected to be commercial enclave by April 2019.

Economy

Kurnool is endowed with good mineral resources. The important minerals are Iron ore, dolomite, limestone, ochre, quartz and silica.[33]

Notable People

• Kotla Vijayabhaskara Reddy, Ex- Chief Minister, Andhra Pradesh.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://kurnool.cdma.ap.gov.in/
  2. ^ "Andhra Pradesh (India): Districts, Cities, Towns and Outgrowth Wards – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". citypopulation.de.
  3. ^ "Andhra Pradesh (India): State, Major Agglomerations & Cities – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". citypopulation.de.
  4. ^ http://www.aptransport.org/html/registration-districtcodes.html
  5. ^ "District Census Handbook : Kurnool" (PDF). Census of India. p. 50. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
  6. ^ Sarkar, Siddhartha (2011). International Journal of Economic and Political Integration: Vol.1, No.1. Universal-Publishers. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-61233-544-5. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  7. ^ http://ourkmc.com/Circulars/files/50__Binder1.pdf
  8. ^ "KURNOOL MUNICIPAL CORPORATION STATUS REPORT". Docslide.us.
  9. ^ Iswara Dutt, K. (1937), "Kamma commanders of the Vijayangara armies", Journal of the Andhra Historical Society, Andhra Historical Research Society, pp. 222–224
  10. ^ "Heritage in Kurnool". AP Tourism Department. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
  11. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ Petraglia, Michael. "New rock art discoveries in the Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India". academia.edu. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  13. ^ [1] Show Caves of India: Belum Caves
  14. ^ Cahoon, Ben. "Indian Princely States K-Z".
  15. ^ "The Indian Express – Google News Archive Search". google.com.
  16. ^ Somasekhar, Ch RS Sarma / M. "Capital loss: Madras, Kurnool, now Hyderabad". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  17. ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Kurnool, India". fallingrain.com.
  18. ^ "Gopal Darwaza stands as a witness to history". The Hindu. Kurnool. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  19. ^ Kurmanath, K.V (22 June 2006). "A rocky, solid gift from nature". The Hindu Business Line. Orvakal (Kurnool district). Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  20. ^ "Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary", Wikipedia, 2019-03-03, retrieved 2019-03-07
  21. ^ "Kurnool Climatological Table Period: 1981–2010". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
  22. ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
  23. ^ https://www.census2011.co.in/census/city/419-kurnool.html
  24. ^ https://www.census2011.co.in/census/city/419-kurnool.html
  25. ^ "Census of India – Socio-cultural aspects". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  26. ^ "S V Mohan Reddy Joins 'Parent Party'".
  27. ^ "List of winner/current and runner up MPs Kurnool Parliamentary Constituency".
  28. ^ "School Education Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  29. ^ "The Department of School Education – Official AP State Government Portal | AP State Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  30. ^ "DETAILS OF ROADS IN EACH ULB OF ANDHRA PRADESH". Archived from the original on 1 August 2016.
  31. ^ "Bus Stations in Districts". Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
  32. ^ Krishnamoorthy, Suresh (22 April 2015). "Several bus stations lack CCTV surveillance". The Hindu. Hyderabad. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
  33. ^ http://dcmsme.gov.in/dips/Kurnool%20dip%20%20amended%20march.pdf

External links

Adoni (Assembly constituency)

Adoni Assembly constituency is a constituency of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is one of 14 constituencies in the Kurnool district.

Ahobilam

Ahobilam is a holy site in the Allagadda mandal of Kurnool district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located 70 km from Nandyal and 150 km from Kurnool, the district headquarters.

Allagadda (Assembly constituency)

Allgadda Assembly constituency is a constituency of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is one of 14 constituencies in the Kurnool district.

Alur (Assembly constituency)

Alur Assembly constituency is a constituency of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is one of 14 constituencies in the Kurnool district.

Banaganapalle (Assembly constituency)

Banaganapalle Assembly constituency is a constituency of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is one of 14 constituencies in the Kurnool district.

Dhone (Assembly constituency)

Dhone Assembly constituency is a constituency of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is one of 14 constituencies in the Kurnool district.

Kodumur (Assembly constituency)

Kondumur Assembly constituency is a SC (Scheduled Caste) reserved constituency of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is one among 14 constituencies in the Kurnool district.

Kurnool (Assembly constituency)

Kurnool Assembly constituency is a constituency of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is one of 14 constituencies in the Kurnool district.

Kurnool Airport

Kurnool Airport is an Airport at Orvakal in Andhra Pradesh, India. It is situated on east side of National Highway 40 (Kurnool-Chittoor Highway), 18 kilometres from Kurnool. The Greenfield Airport has been built by the Andhra Pradesh Airports Development Corporation Limited (formerly Bhogapuram International Airport Company Limited), a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) owned by the Andhra Pradesh Government that was set up in May 2015.Kurnool is one of the 50 Locations identified by the Central Government of India in 2013 for the development of low-cost airports in order to improve connectivity to remote areas.

The airport will be spread over 639 acres, 456 acres of which fall under Pudicherla, 115 acres in Orvakal and 67 acres in Kannamadakala.

The Indian Ministry of Civil Aviation (MoCA) had approved the Orvakal site in February 2016. The State Government Approved Allocation of Land in February 2017. The Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh laid the foundation stone in June 2017, and the Airport work was completed in 18 months, with a trial of the Runway Successfully executed in December 2018. The Airport was inaugurated by the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, Nara Chandrababu Naidu, on January 8, 2019. Commercial operations are likely to Commence in May, 2019 according to T.O.I (Times of INDIA).

Kurnool district

Kurnool District is one of the 13 districts in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The district is located in the west-central part of the state and is bounded by Mahabubnagar district of Telangana in the north, Raichur district of Karnataka in the northwest, Bellary district of Karnataka in the west, Ananthapur district in the south, YSR Kadapa district in the South East and Prakasham district in the east. The city of Kurnool is the headquarters of the district. It has a population of 4,053,463 of which 28.35% were urban as of 2011. The district is the 10th largest district in the country and the second-largest district in the state, accounting for 17,658 square kilometres (6,818 sq mi).

List of constituencies of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly

The Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) currently has 175 constituencies out of which 29 constituencies are reserved for Scheduled Castes candidates and 7 constituencies are reserved for Scheduled tribes candidates.

Mantralayam (Assembly constituency)

Mantralayam Assembly constituency is a constituency of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is one of 14 constituencies in the Kurnool district.

Nandikotkur (SC) (Assembly constituency)

Nandikotkur Assembly constituency is a SC (Scheduled Caste) reserved constituency of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is one among 14 constituencies in the Kurnool district.

Nandyal (Assembly constituency)

Nandyal Assembly constituency is a constituency of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is one of 14 constituencies in the Kurnool district.

Panyam (Assembly constituency)

Panyam Assembly constituency is a constituency of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is one of 14 constituencies in the Kurnool district.

Pattikonda (Assembly constituency)

Pattikonda Assembly constituency is a constituency of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is one of 14 constituencies in the Kurnool district.

Srisailam (Assembly constituency)

Srisailam Assembly constituency is a constituency of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is one of 14 constituencies in the Kurnool district.

Srisailam Project (RFC) Township

Srisailam Project (RFC) Township is a census town in Kurnool district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is the mandal headquarters of Srisailam mandal in Kurnool revenue division.

Yemmiganur (Assembly constituency)

Yemmiganur Assembly constituency is a constituency of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is one of 14 constituencies in the Kurnool district.

Climate data for Kurnool (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.3
(99.1)
39.9
(103.8)
42.6
(108.7)
44.8
(112.6)
46.5
(115.7)
42
(108)
38.5
(101.3)
37.8
(100.0)
38.7
(101.7)
38.4
(101.1)
38.8
(101.8)
34.4
(93.9)
46.5
(115.7)
Average high °C (°F) 31.7
(89.1)
34.8
(94.6)
38.2
(100.8)
40.1
(104.2)
40.5
(104.9)
36.2
(97.2)
33.6
(92.5)
32.5
(90.5)
32.9
(91.2)
32.5
(90.5)
31.2
(88.2)
30.5
(86.9)
34.6
(94.3)
Average low °C (°F) 17.9
(64.2)
20.3
(68.5)
23.8
(74.8)
26.7
(80.1)
27.5
(81.5)
25.5
(77.9)
24.5
(76.1)
23.9
(75.0)
23.8
(74.8)
22.8
(73.0)
20.1
(68.2)
17.8
(64.0)
22.9
(73.2)
Record low °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
11.1
(52.0)
12.8
(55.0)
15.5
(59.9)
19.4
(66.9)
17.6
(63.7)
19.2
(66.6)
19.9
(67.8)
17.0
(62.6)
13.0
(55.4)
9.3
(48.7)
6.7
(44.1)
6.7
(44.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 4.0
(0.16)
2.2
(0.09)
9.8
(0.39)
26.4
(1.04)
50.4
(1.98)
93.6
(3.69)
121.4
(4.78)
143.4
(5.65)
145.0
(5.71)
114.1
(4.49)
23.0
(0.91)
3.9
(0.15)
737.2
(29.02)
Average precipitation days 0.3 0.2 0.7 1.6 2.7 5.7 7.6 9.0 7.7 5.2 1.9 0.3 43.0
Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[21][22]
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