Kujō Yoritsune

Kujō Yoritsune (九条 頼経, February 12, 1218 – September 1, 1256, r. 1226–1244), also known as Fujiwara no Yoritsune, was the fourth shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate of Japan.[1] His father was kanpaku Kujō Michiie and his grandmother was a niece of Minamoto no Yoritomo. His wife was a granddaughter of Minamoto no Yoritomo and daughter of Minamoto no Yoriie. He was born in the year (according to Chinese astrology) of the Tiger, in the month, on the day, and so his given name at birth was Mitora (三寅, "Triple Tiger").

Yoritsune was a member of the great Fujiwara clan. The Kujō family was one of the five branches of the historically powerful Fujiwara clan of courtiers.

Kujō Yoritsune
Kujō Yoritsune

Family

  • Father: Kujō Michiie
  • Mother: Saionji Rinko
  • Wife: Minamoto no Yoshiko (1202–1234)
  • Concubine: Omiya no Tsubone
  • Children:
    • Kujō Yoritsugu by Omiya
    • Kujō Michijo by Omiya
    • Minamoto no Meguhime by Omiya

Events of Yoritsune's bakufu

At the age of seven, in 1226, Yoritsune became Sei-i Taishōgun in a political deal between his father and the Kamakura shogunate regent Hōjō Yoshitoki and Hōjō Masako who set him up as a puppet shogun.

  • 1225 (Karoku 1, 11th month): At Kamakura, Yoritsune's coming of age ceremonies took place at age 8; but control of all bakufu affairs remained entirely in the hands of Hōjō Yasutoki, the regent (shikken).[2]
  • 1226 (Karoku 2, 1st month): Emperor Go-Horikawa raised Yoritsune to the first rank of the fifth class in the apex of artistocratic court hierarchy (the dōjō kuge).[2]
  • 1230 (Kangi 2, 12th month): Yoritsune is married to the daughter of Minamoto no Yoriie. She is 15 years older than he is.[3]
  • 1231 (Kangi 3, 2nd month): Yoritsune is raised to the second rank of the 4th class in the dōjō kuge.[3]
  • 1231 (Kangi 3, 3rd month): Yoritsune is created a general of the left.[3]
  • 1231 (Kangi 3, 4th month): Yoritsune is raised to the first rank of the 4th class in the dōjō kuge.[3]
  • 1232 (Jōei 1, 2nd month): Yoritsune is raised to the second rank of the 3rd class in the dōjō kuge.[3]
  • 1233 (Tenpuku 1, 1st month): Yoritsune is granted the court post of provisional Middle Counselor (中納言 Chūnagon)[4]
  • 1234 (Bunryaku 1, 12th month): Yoritsune is raised to the first rank of the 3rd class in the dōjō kuge.[5]
  • 1235 (Katei 1, 11th month): Yoritsune is raised to the second rank of the second class in the dōjō kuge.[5]
  • 1236 (Katei 2, 7th month): Yoritsune is raised to the first rank of the second class in the dōjō kuge.[5]
  • 1237 (Katei 3, 8th month): Yoritsune ordered the building of a mansion in the Rokuhara section of Miyako.[5]
  • 1238 (Ryakunin 1, 1st month): Yoritsune leaves Kamakura en route to Miyako, accompanied by Yaskutoki and the troupes of several provinces. Fujiwara no Yukimitis stays at Kamakura to preserve order in the land.[5]
  • 1238 (Ryakunin 1, 2nd month): Yoritsune arrives in Miyako and begins to live in his new palace at Rokuhara.[6]
  • 1238 (Ryakunin 1, 10th month): Yoritsune leaves Miyako to return to Kamakura.[6]
  • July 14, 1242 (Ninji 3, 15th day of the 6th month): Hōjō Yasutoki died at age 60. From Gennin 1, or during 19 years, Yasutoki had been the regent or prime minister (shikken) of the Kamakura shogunate. Yasutoki's son, Hōjō Tsunetoki succeeded him as shikken, but Yoritsune himself took charge of the bakufu.[7]
  • 1244 (Kangen 2): In the spring of this year, a number of extraordinary phenomena in the skies over Kamakura troubled Yoritsune deeply.[8]
  • 1244 (Kangen 2, 4th month): Yoritsune's son, Yoritsugu, had his coming-of-age ceremonies at age 6. In the same month, Yoritsune asked Emperor Go-Saga for permission to give up his responsibilities as shogun in favor of his son, Kujō Yoritsugu.[8]
  • September 11, 1245 (Kangen 3, 7th month): Yoshitsune shaved his head and became a Buddhist priest.[8]
  • 1246 (Kangen 4, 7th month): Yoritsune's son, now Shogun Yoritsugu (who is only 7 years old) marries the sister of Hōjō Tsunetoki (who is himself only 16 years old).[8]
  • September 1, 1256 (Kōgen 1, 11th day of the 8th month): Kujō Yoritsune, also known as Fujiwara Yoritsune, died at the age of 39 years.
  • October 14, 1256 (Kōgen 1, 24th day of the 9th month): Yoritsune's son and successor as Kamakura shogun, Kujō Yoritsugu, also known as Fujiwara Yoritsugu, died at the age of 18 years.[9]

Eras of Yoritsune's bakufu

The years in which Yoritsune was shogun are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.

Notes

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Fujiwara no Yoritsune" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 212, p. 212, at Google Books.
  2. ^ a b Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, p. 240., p. 240, at Google Books
  3. ^ a b c d e Titsingh, p. 241., p. 241, at Google Books
  4. ^ Titsingh, p. 242, p. 242, at Google Books; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 272.
  5. ^ a b c d e Titsingh, p. 243., p. 243, at Google Books
  6. ^ a b Titsingh, p. 244., p. 244, at Google Books
  7. ^ Titsingh, p. 246., p. 246, at Google Books
  8. ^ a b c d Titsingh, p. 247., p. 247, at Google Books
  9. ^ Titsingh, p. 252., p. 252, at Google Books

References

  • Mass, Jeffrey P. (1976). The Kamakura bakufu: a study in documents. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • __________. (1974). Warrior government in early medieval Japan: a study of the Kamakura Bakufu, shugo and jitō New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
  • Ōyama Kyōhei. Kamakura bakufu 鎌倉幕府. Tokyo: Shōgakkan 小学館, 1974.
  • Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Ōdai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691.
  • Varley, H. Paul. (1980). A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5; OCLC 6042764
Preceded by
Minamoto no Sanetomo
Shōgun:
Kujō Yoritsune

1226–1244
Succeeded by
Kujō Yoritsugu
Bunryaku

Bunryaku (天暦), also romanized as Bunreki, was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Tenpuku and before Katei. This period spanned the years from November 1234 to September 1235. The reigning emperor was Shijō-tennō (四条天皇).

Hōjō Masako

Hōjō Masako (北条 政子, 1156 – August 16, 1225) was a political leader, and the eldest daughter of Hōjō Tokimasa (the first shikken, or regent, of the Kamakura shogunate) by his wife Hōjō no Maki. She was the sister of Hōjō Yoshitoki, and was married to Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shōgun of the Kamakura period. She was also the mother of O-Hime, Minamoto no Yoriie and Minamoto no Sanetomo, the second and third shōguns.

Jōei

Jōei (貞永) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Kangi and before Tenpuku. This period spanned the years from April 1232 to April 1233. The reigning emperors were Go-Horikawa-tennō (後堀河天皇) and Shijō-tennō (四条天皇).

Kamakura shogunate

The Kamakura shogunate (Japanese: 鎌倉幕府, Kamakura bakufu) was a Japanese feudal military government of imperial-aristocratic rule that ruled from 1185 to 1333. The heads of the government were the shōguns. The first three were members of the Minamoto clan. The next two were members of the Fujiwara clan. The last six were minor Imperial princes.These years are known as the Kamakura period. The period takes its name from the city where the Minamoto shōguns lived.After 1203, the Hōjō clan held the office of shikken. In effect, the shikken governed in the name of the shōguns.

Kangi

Kangi (寛喜), also romanized as Kanki, was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Antei and before Joei. This period spanned the years from March 1229 to April 1232. The reigning emperor was Go-Horikawa-tennō (後堀河天皇).

Kanki famine

35.011667°N 135.768333°E / 35.011667; 135.768333

The Kanki famine (寛喜の飢饉, Kanki no kikin), also spelled as Kangi famine, was a famine which affected Japan during the Kamakura period. Famine is considered to have begun in 1230, and lasted until 1231. It was named after the Kangi era (1229–1232), during the reign of Emperor Go-Horikawa. The shogun of Japan was Kujō Yoritsune. The famine was severe across whole Japan. The famine was caused by a cold weather caused probably by volcanic eruptions, coupled later with the general breakdown of the society.

The anomalous cold weather have started in 1229, resulting in shortage of food. As the excessive rains, cold spells and blizzards have destroyed crops in July 1230, the shortage has developed into famine in instant, and people have started to die en masse in September 1230. The lack of sunlight and cold was so severe what the winter clothing was necessary in spring and summer. The relief efforts by Emperor and Shogunate were generally ineffective, as no food was available at all. To ease population mobility in worst stricken areas, the human trafficking was legalized in 1231 among other means - confiscations and forced food distribution. The social order has broken down, and bands of marauding robbers (including former Buddhist monks) have become common. The strife has spilled even to Goryeo, as starving residents of Kyushu have raided coastal towns for food. The weather has reversed to warm in winter of 1230-1231, again resulting in crop failure in 1231, this time due to lack of soil moisture and the scarcity of seeds.

Overall, about one third of population of Japan have perished (dead numbering 1,500,000-2,000,000), meaning the Kanki famine may be the worst in the Japanese history. In the same years, the great famine also struck Kievan Rus' and Novgorod.

Katei

Katei (嘉禎) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Bunryaku and before Ryakunin. This period spanned the years from September 1235 to November 1238. The reigning emperor was Shijō-tennō (四条天皇).

Kujō Michiie

Kujō Michiie (九条 道家) (1193 — April 1, 1252) was a Japanese regent in the 13th century. He was the father of Kujō Yoritsune and grandson of Kujō Kanezane (also known as Fujiwara no Kanezane). He was the father of Norizane and Yoritsune. His third son Ichijō Sanetsune was the founding father of Ichijō family, while his second son Nijō Yoshizane founded Nijō family.

The Kujō family were sponsors of the Kitano Shrine.

In 1219, Kujō Michiie offered an emakimono named "Kitano Tenjin Engi Emaki" (Illustrated Scroll of the History of the Kitano Shrine) to the Kitano shrine. He gave an enlarged version of the history to the Kitano shrine in 1223.In 1226, Michiie managed to have his son Yoritsune appointed fourth shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate.

Kujō Yoritsugu

Kujō Yoritsugu (九条頼嗣, December 17, 1239 – October 14, 1256; r. 1244–1252), also known as Fujiwara no Yoritsugu, was the fifth shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate of Japan. His father was the 4th Kamakura shōgun, Kujō Yoritsune.Yoritsugu was a member of the great Fujiwara clan. The Kujō family was one of the five branches of the historically powerful Fujiwara clan of courtiers.

Kujō family

Kujō family (九条家, Kujō-ke) was a Japanese aristocratic kin group. The Kujō was a branch of the Fujiwara clan.

Kōgen

Kōgen (康元) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Kenchō and before Shōka. This period spanned the years from October 1256 to March 1257. The reigning emperor was Go-Fukakusa-tennō (後深草天皇).

List of state leaders in 1239

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1239.

List of state leaders in 1242

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1242.

List of state leaders in 1243

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1243.

Minamoto no Sanetomo

Minamoto no Sanetomo (源 実朝, September 12, 1192 – February 12, 1219, r. 1203–1219) was the third shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate. He was the second son of the Kamakura shogunate founder, Minamoto no Yoritomo. His mother was Hōjō Masako and his older brother was second Kamakura shogun Minamoto no Yoriie.

His childhood name was Senman (千万). He was the last head of the Minamoto clan of Japan. His Buddhist name was Daijiji tono Sei ni Kurai Gosho Ko Jingi (大慈寺殿正二位丞相公神儀).

He was an accomplished waka poet.

Minamoto no Yoriie

Minamoto no Yoriie (Japanese: 源 頼家, September 11, 1182 – August 14, 1204) was the second shōgun (1202–1203) of Japan's Kamakura shogunate, and the first son of first shōgun Yoritomo. His buddhist name was Hokke-in-dono Kingo Da'i Zengo (法華院殿金吾大禅閤).

Ninji

Ninji (仁治), also called Jinji, was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after En'ō and before Kangen. This period spanned the years from August 1240 to January 1243. The reigning emperors were Shijō-tennō (四条天皇) and Go-Saga-tennō (後嵯峨天皇).

Tenpuku

Tenpuku (天福), also romanized as Tempuku, was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Jōei and before Bunryaku. This period spanned the years from April 1233 to November 1234. The reigning emperor was Shijō-tennō (四条天皇).

Yoritsune

Yoritsune (written: 頼経 or 頼則) is a masculine Japanese given name. Notable people with the name include:

Kujō Yoritsune (九条 頼経) (1218–1256), Japanese shōgun

Yoritsune Matsudaira (松平 頼則) (1907–2001), Japanese classical composer

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