Kujō Yoritsune (九条 頼経, February 12, 1218 – September 1, 1256, r. 1226–1244), also known as Fujiwara no Yoritsune, was the fourth shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate of Japan. His father was kanpaku Kujō Michiie and his grandmother was a niece of Minamoto no Yoritomo. His wife was a granddaughter of Minamoto no Yoritomo and daughter of Minamoto no Yoriie. He was born in the year (according to Chinese astrology) of the Tiger, in the month, on the day, and so his given name at birth was Mitora (三寅, "Triple Tiger").
At the age of seven, in 1226, Yoritsune became Sei-i Taishōgun in a political deal between his father and the Kamakura shogunate regent Hōjō Yoshitoki and Hōjō Masako who set him up as a puppet shogun.
Minamoto no Sanetomo
Bunryaku (天暦), also romanized as Bunreki, was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Tenpuku and before Katei. This period spanned the years from November 1234 to September 1235. The reigning emperor was Shijō-tennō (四条天皇).Hōjō Masako
Hōjō Masako (北条 政子, 1156 – August 16, 1225) was a political leader, and the eldest daughter of Hōjō Tokimasa (the first shikken, or regent, of the Kamakura shogunate) by his wife Hōjō no Maki. She was the sister of Hōjō Yoshitoki, and was married to Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shōgun of the Kamakura period. She was also the mother of O-Hime, Minamoto no Yoriie and Minamoto no Sanetomo, the second and third shōguns.Jōei
Jōei (貞永) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Kangi and before Tenpuku. This period spanned the years from April 1232 to April 1233. The reigning emperors were Go-Horikawa-tennō (後堀河天皇) and Shijō-tennō (四条天皇).Kamakura shogunate
The Kamakura shogunate (Japanese: 鎌倉幕府, Kamakura bakufu) was a Japanese feudal military government of imperial-aristocratic rule that ruled from 1185 to 1333. The heads of the government were the shōguns. The first three were members of the Minamoto clan. The next two were members of the Fujiwara clan. The last six were minor Imperial princes.These years are known as the Kamakura period. The period takes its name from the city where the Minamoto shōguns lived.After 1203, the Hōjō clan held the office of shikken. In effect, the shikken governed in the name of the shōguns.Kangi
Kangi (寛喜), also romanized as Kanki, was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Antei and before Joei. This period spanned the years from March 1229 to April 1232. The reigning emperor was Go-Horikawa-tennō (後堀河天皇).Kanki famine
35.011667°N 135.768333°E / 35.011667; 135.768333
The Kanki famine (寛喜の飢饉, Kanki no kikin), also spelled as Kangi famine, was a famine which affected Japan during the Kamakura period. Famine is considered to have begun in 1230, and lasted until 1231. It was named after the Kangi era (1229–1232), during the reign of Emperor Go-Horikawa. The shogun of Japan was Kujō Yoritsune. The famine was severe across whole Japan. The famine was caused by a cold weather caused probably by volcanic eruptions, coupled later with the general breakdown of the society.
The anomalous cold weather have started in 1229, resulting in shortage of food. As the excessive rains, cold spells and blizzards have destroyed crops in July 1230, the shortage has developed into famine in instant, and people have started to die en masse in September 1230. The lack of sunlight and cold was so severe what the winter clothing was necessary in spring and summer. The relief efforts by Emperor and Shogunate were generally ineffective, as no food was available at all. To ease population mobility in worst stricken areas, the human trafficking was legalized in 1231 among other means - confiscations and forced food distribution. The social order has broken down, and bands of marauding robbers (including former Buddhist monks) have become common. The strife has spilled even to Goryeo, as starving residents of Kyushu have raided coastal towns for food. The weather has reversed to warm in winter of 1230-1231, again resulting in crop failure in 1231, this time due to lack of soil moisture and the scarcity of seeds.
Overall, about one third of population of Japan have perished (dead numbering 1,500,000-2,000,000), meaning the Kanki famine may be the worst in the Japanese history. In the same years, the great famine also struck Kievan Rus' and Novgorod.Katei
Katei (嘉禎) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Bunryaku and before Ryakunin. This period spanned the years from September 1235 to November 1238. The reigning emperor was Shijō-tennō (四条天皇).Kujō Michiie
Kujō Michiie (九条 道家) (1193 — April 1, 1252) was a Japanese regent in the 13th century. He was the father of Kujō Yoritsune and grandson of Kujō Kanezane (also known as Fujiwara no Kanezane). He was the father of Norizane and Yoritsune. His third son Ichijō Sanetsune was the founding father of Ichijō family, while his second son Nijō Yoshizane founded Nijō family.
The Kujō family were sponsors of the Kitano Shrine.
In 1219, Kujō Michiie offered an emakimono named "Kitano Tenjin Engi Emaki" (Illustrated Scroll of the History of the Kitano Shrine) to the Kitano shrine. He gave an enlarged version of the history to the Kitano shrine in 1223.In 1226, Michiie managed to have his son Yoritsune appointed fourth shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate.Kujō Yoritsugu
Kujō Yoritsugu (九条頼嗣, December 17, 1239 – October 14, 1256; r. 1244–1252), also known as Fujiwara no Yoritsugu, was the fifth shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate of Japan. His father was the 4th Kamakura shōgun, Kujō Yoritsune.Yoritsugu was a member of the great Fujiwara clan. The Kujō family was one of the five branches of the historically powerful Fujiwara clan of courtiers.Kujō family
Kujō family (九条家, Kujō-ke) was a Japanese aristocratic kin group. The Kujō was a branch of the Fujiwara clan.Kōgen
Kōgen (康元) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Kenchō and before Shōka. This period spanned the years from October 1256 to March 1257. The reigning emperor was Go-Fukakusa-tennō (後深草天皇).List of state leaders in 1239
This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1239.List of state leaders in 1242
This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1242.List of state leaders in 1243
This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1243.Minamoto no Sanetomo
Minamoto no Sanetomo (源 実朝, September 12, 1192 – February 12, 1219, r. 1203–1219) was the third shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate. He was the second son of the Kamakura shogunate founder, Minamoto no Yoritomo. His mother was Hōjō Masako and his older brother was second Kamakura shogun Minamoto no Yoriie.
His childhood name was Senman (千万). He was the last head of the Minamoto clan of Japan. His Buddhist name was Daijiji tono Sei ni Kurai Gosho Ko Jingi (大慈寺殿正二位丞相公神儀).
He was an accomplished waka poet.Minamoto no Yoriie
Minamoto no Yoriie (Japanese: 源 頼家, September 11, 1182 – August 14, 1204) was the second shōgun (1202–1203) of Japan's Kamakura shogunate, and the first son of first shōgun Yoritomo. His buddhist name was Hokke-in-dono Kingo Da'i Zengo (法華院殿金吾大禅閤).Ninji
Ninji (仁治), also called Jinji, was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after En'ō and before Kangen. This period spanned the years from August 1240 to January 1243. The reigning emperors were Shijō-tennō (四条天皇) and Go-Saga-tennō (後嵯峨天皇).Tenpuku
Tenpuku (天福), also romanized as Tempuku, was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Jōei and before Bunryaku. This period spanned the years from April 1233 to November 1234. The reigning emperor was Shijō-tennō (四条天皇).Yoritsune
Yoritsune (written: 頼経 or 頼則) is a masculine Japanese given name. Notable people with the name include:
Kujō Yoritsune (九条 頼経) (1218–1256), Japanese shōgun
Yoritsune Matsudaira (松平 頼則) (1907–2001), Japanese classical composer