Ksar es-Seghir

Ksar es-Seghir (Arabic: القصر الصغير‎, al-Qasr al-Seghir), also known by numerous other spellings and names, is a small town on the Mediterranean coast in the Jebala region of northwest Morocco, between Tangier and Ceuta, on the right bank of the river of the same name. Administratively, it belongs to Fahs-Anjra Province and the region of Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima. By the census of 2004, it had a population of 10,995 inhabitants.[1]

The city is circular, a design unusual in medieval Moroccan town planning. It is built from brick and ashlar masonry and flanked by semi-circular masonry towers. There are three monumental doors in the wall, each flanked by square towers. The Bāb al-Bahr (door of the sea), has an elbowed entrance for defensive purposes. These doors were used both for communication and trade and for taxation purposes.[2]

Ksar es-Seghir

القصر الصغير

Ksar Sghir
Ksar es-Seghir
Ksar es-Seghir is located in Morocco
Ksar es-Seghir
Ksar es-Seghir
Location in Morocco
Coordinates: 35°50′31″N 5°33′31″W / 35.84194°N 5.55861°W
Country Morocco
RegionTanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
 • Total10,995
Time zoneUTC+0 (WET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (WEST)


The Moroccan Arabic name, meaning "The Small Castle", can be transcribed l-Qṣər ṣ-Ṣġir or Ksar Sghir. The name distinguishes it from Ksar-el-Kebir ("The Big Castle"), which is farther south. The Spanish name used to translate this as Castillejo but now transliterates it as Alcázar Seguir or Alcázarseguir; its Portuguese equivalent is Alcácer-Ceguer. Under the Almoravids and Almohads, it was known as Qasr al-Majaz, Ksar al-Majar, or Ksar al-Djawaz ("castle en route") because it was an important embarkation port for Moroccan troops on their way to Spain.[2] Other names for the Muslim fortification include the 11th-century geographer al-Bakri's al-Qasr al-Awwal ("The First Castle") and the 13th-century historian Abdelwahid al-Marrakushi's Ksar Masmuda ("Masmuda Castle"), after the local Berber tribe.

In antiquity, it was known by the names Lissa[3] and Exilissa (Greek: Ἐξίλισσα),[4] which Lipiński conjectures represent the survival of the Phoenician settlement's name Ḥiq or Ḥeq-še-Elišša ("Bay of Elissa").[5] Note, however, that Pliny and Lipiński place the ancient settlement further east, closer to Benzú.[5] The Byzantine Greek name was Exilýssa (Εξιλύσσα).


Map of Tangier Zone (Morocco)
Topographic map of the region around Ksar es-Seghir (1954 map)

Ksar es-Seghir is located in the Strait of Gibraltar about halfway between Tangier and Ceuta. Situated in a bay on a stretch of coast that is relatively difficult to access by sea or land, Ksar es-Seghir never grew in size to rival the other north Moroccan ports. However, its sheltered position made it attractive as a military landing ground, a place for the safe and orderly embarkation and disembarkation of sea-borne troops, with little danger of disruption or molestation by enemy action.[2]


Exilissa was probably established as a Phoenician colony, annexed by the Carthaginians, and then lost to Roman control sometime after the Punic Wars. Under the Romans, it was a salting post. It would've been overrun by the Vandals in the 5th century and then reconquered by the Byzantines in the 6th. Ksar Mesmouda was established after the Umayyad conquest of the area in 708-709 CE. In 971, the Umayyad Caliph of al-Andalus tried to capture the fort as a stepping stone to a projected conquest of Idrisid Morocco. During the Almoravid and Almohad eras, it was used as a major shipyard.[2]

In 1287, Marinid sultan Abu Yaqub Yusuf erected a new set of thick walls around the circular town, with 29 bastions and three monumental gates (Bab al-Bahr, Bab Sebta, Bab Fes).[6] But with the end of Marinid adventures across the sea in Spain, it declined in use. By the 15th century, it had become a notorious corsair's nest, preying on shipping in the Straits of Gibraltar.

In 1458, a Portuguese expeditionary force of 25,000 men and 200 ships led by King Afonso V of Portugal, assaulted and captured the town after a two-day battle on 23–24 October.[6] The Marinid sultan Abd al-Haqq II of Morocco attempted to recover it immediately, laying sieges in late 1458 and again in the summer of 1459, to no avail. It would remain in Portuguese hands for much of the next century, known by the name of 'Alcácer-Ceguer'. In 1502, the Portuguese began a new set of fortifications that extended the town's walls well into the sea, thereby ensuring a shielded landing ground for Portuguese expeditionary forces in Africa. The resident population of the town under the Portuguese reached around 800 persons.

Finding Portuguese holdings in Morocco expensive to maintain, King John III of Portugal decided to abandon it in 1533,[2] although the final evacuation of Ksar es-Seghir would be delayed until 1549. It was recovered by Morocco thereafter, but the departing Portuguese had taken the trouble to evacuate the population, dismantle much of the fortifications and town, and dump debris and sand into the harbor, diminishing its immediate usefulness. In 1609, Ksar es-Seghir became a destination for Moriscos expelled from Spain.[6]

Having lost its role as a transit port, Ksar es-Seghir collapsed in size and importance thereafter, becoming a relatively insignificant fishing town, amid the ruins of the old Moroccan citadel and Portuguese fort. A more modern town arose later, on the right bank of the river, across from the old citadel. Ksar Sghir got a new lease on life in the 21st century, when it was slated as the site of a new naval base for the Royal Moroccan Navy (construction begun 2008, operational 2010).[7][8] In 2007, a new commercial cargo port, Tanger-Med began being built nearby, around twelve kilometers to the northeast of Ksar Sghir.

See also



  1. ^ Haut Commissariat au plan, Census 2004 Archived 1 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ a b c d e Qantara Mediterranean Heritage
  3. ^ Plin., Nat. Hist., Book V, §2.
  4. ^ Ptol., Geogr., Book IV, Ch. i, §3.
  5. ^ a b Lipiński (2004), p. 422–425.
  6. ^ a b c "Tangier, Ksar es Seghir, Terremaroc.com : Riad Marrakesh | Villa Marrakesh | Riad Essaouira | Guest House Morocco". www.terremaroc.com. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  7. ^ "Le Maroc se dote de sa première base navale - Afrik.com : l'actualité de l'Afrique noire et du Maghreb". www.afrik.com. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  8. ^ Pike, John. "Royal Moroccan Navy". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 16 February 2018.


  • Braga, Paulo Drumond. A Expansão no Norte de África. In: Nova História da Expansão Portuguesa (dir. de Joel Serrão e A. H. de Oliveira Marques). Lisboa: Editorial Estampa, 1998. Vol. II, A Expansão Quatrocentista. p. 237-360.
  • Duarte, Luís Miguel. África. In: Nova História Militar de Portugal (dir. de Themudo Barata e Nuno Severiano Teixeira). Lisboa: Circulo de Leitores, 2003. vol. I, p. 392-441.
  • Elbl, Martin Malcolm. "The Master-Builder, the Bureaucrat, and the Practical Soldier: Protecting Alcácer Seguer/Qasr al-Saghir (Morocco) in the Early Sixteenth Century," Portuguese Studies Review 12 (1) (2004/5), p. 33-73. [1]
  • Lipiński, Edward (2004), Itineraria Phoenicia, Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, No. 127, Studia Phoenicia, Vol. XVIII, Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters.
  • Redman, Charles L. Qsar es-Seghir: an archaeological view of medieval life. London, Academic Press, 1986.

The 1450s decade ran from January 1, 1450, to December 31, 1459.

== Events ==

=== 1450 ===

==== January–December ====

February 7 – John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk, marries Lady Margaret Beaufort.

February 26 – Francesco Sforza enters Milan after a siege, becoming Duke of the city-state and, founding a dynasty that will rule Milan for a century.

March – French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, in Caen.

April 15 – Battle of Formigny: French troops under the Comte de Clermont defeat an English army under Sir Thomas Kyriel and Sir Matthew Gough, which was attempting to relieve Caen.

May 8 – Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen revolt against King Henry VI of England.

May 9 – Abdal-Latif Mirza, a Timurid dynasty monarch, is assassinated.

May 13 – Charles VIII of Sweden, also serving as Carl I of Norway, is declared deposed from the latter throne, in favor of Christian I of Denmark.

June 18 – Battle of Seven Oaks: Jack Cade's rebels are driven from London by loyal troops, bringing about the collapse of the rebellion.

July 6 – Caen surrenders to the French.

July 12 – Jack Cade is slain in a skirmish.

August 12 – Cherbourg, the last English territory in Normandy, surrenders to the French.

October 5 – Jews are expelled from Lower Bavaria, by order of Duke Ludwig IX.

November 3 – The University of Barcelona is founded.

November 23 – First Siege of Krujë: Albanian troops are victorious, forcing an Ottoman army of approximately 100,000 men to retreat from Albania.

==== Date unknown ====

Machu Picchu (Quechua: Machu Pikchu, "Old mountain"), a pre-Columbian Inca site located 2,400 meters (7,875 ft) above sea level, is believed to be under construction.

A religious sacrifice of over a hundred children was performed around this time, outside of the ancient city of Chan Chan (near modern Trujillo), on the north coast of Peru.

Johannes Gutenberg has set up his movable type printing press, as a commercial operation in Mainz, by this date.

=== 1451 ===

==== January–December ====

February 3 – Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, dies and is succeeded (on February 18) by his son, Mehmed II.

February 14 – Louis XI of France marries Charlotte of Savoy.

April 11 – Celje acquires market town status and town rights, by orders from Count Frederic II of Celje.

April 19 – In the Delhi Sultanate, the Afghan Lodi Dynasty succeeds the Turkish Sayyid Dynasty.

June 30 – French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne, and capture Bordeaux.

August 20 – The French capture Bayonne, the last English stronghold in Guyenne.

October – After assassinating Bogdan II of Moldavia, Petru Aron takes up the throne.

October 28 – Revolt of Ghent: Ghent takes up arms against Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy.

==== Date unknown ====

The University of Glasgow is founded.

Nicholas of Cusa invents concave lens spectacles, to treat myopia.

The Great Peacemaker along with Jigonhsasee and Hiawatha, found the Haudenosaunee, commonly called the Iroquois Confederacy

=== 1452 ===

==== January–December ====

February – Alexăndrel retakes the throne of Moldavia, in his long struggle with Petru Aron.

February 22 – William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas is killed by James II of Scotland, at Stirling Castle.

March 17 – Reconquista – Battle of Los Alporchones (around the city of Lorca in Murcia): The combined forces of the Kingdom of Castile, and its subsidiary kingdom of Murcia, defeat the Emirate of Granada.

March 19 – Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, becomes the last to be crowned in Rome.

May 31 – Revolt of Ghent: Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, officially declares war on Ghent.

June 18 – Pope Nicholas V issues the bull Dum Diversas, legitimising the colonial slave trade.


English troops under John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, land in Guyenne, France, and retake most of the province without a fight.

Byzantine–Ottoman Wars: The Ottoman governor of Thessaly, Turakhan Beg, breaks through the Hexamilion wall for the fourth time, and ravages the Peloponnese Peninsula to prevent the Byzantine Despotate of the Morea from assisting Constantinople, during the final Ottoman siege of the imperial capital.

==== Date unknown ====

A major eruption of the South Pacific volcano Kuwae in Vanuatu has a subsequent global cooling effect (the eruption releases more sulfate than any other event, in the previous 700 years).

Portuguese navigator Diogo de Teive discovers the islands of Corvo and Flores, in the Azores.

Battle of Bealach nam Broig, a Scottish clan battle.

=== 1453 ===

April – Tarabya and Studius are taken by the Ottoman Empire in preparation for the assault on Constantinople, as are the Prince Islands, by the Ottoman fleet under Admiral Baltaoglu.

April 6–May 29 – Siege and Fall of Constantinople: The Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror ends the Byzantine (or Eastern Roman) Empire after more than a thousand years, by capturing the capital, Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul). Mortars are (perhaps) used in battle for the first time in this action. The consequent closure of the traditional overland route from Western Europe to the Far East, and need to identify new maritime routes, leads to the Age of Discovery, and ends the Middle Ages.

May 22 – May 1453 lunar eclipse, a partial eclipse, is visible during the siege of Constantinople.

July 17 – Battle of Castillon: In the last pitched battle of the Hundred Years' War, the French under Jean Bureau defeat the English under the Earl of Shrewsbury, who is killed.

July 23 – Battle of Gavere in Flanders: Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, is victorious over the rebels of Ghent, leading to surrender of their city and the end of the Revolt of Ghent.

October 10 – Sejo of Joseon kills his enemy General Kim Jong-seo and gains control of the government in Joseon Korea (where this rebellion is called Gyeyujeongnan).

October 19 – The French recapture Bordeaux, ending the Hundred Years' War and leaving the English retaining only Calais on French soil.

October 28 – Ladislaus the Posthumous is crowned King of Bohemia, although George of Poděbrady remains in control of the government.

=== 1454 ===

==== January–December ====

February 4 – Thirteen Years' War: The Secret Council of the Prussian Confederation sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master, and the citizens of Toruń rebel against the Teutonic Knights, beginning the conflict.

March 6 – Casimir IV of Poland renounces allegiance to the Teutonic Knights.

March 27 – Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York becomes Protector for the insane King Henry VI of England.

April 9 – Treaty of Lodi: Francesco Sforza forms a triple alliance between the Duchy of Milan, the Republic of Florence and Kingdom of Naples.

August – In Moldavia, Petru Aron retakes the throne from Alexăndrel.

September 18 – Thirteen Years' War – Battle of Chojnice: The Polish army is defeated by a smaller but more professional Teutonic army.

December – King Henry of England having regained his sanity, the Duke of York is dismissed as Protector.

==== Date unknown ====

The press of Johannes Gutenberg (at Mainz on the Rhine) produces the first printed documents bearing a date.

Isaac Zarfati sends a circular letter to Rhineland, Swabia, Moravia and Hungary, praising the happy conditions of the Jews under the crescent, in contrast to the "great torture chamber" under the cross, and urging them to come to Turkey.

The Statutes of Nieszawa are enacted in Poland.

=== 1455 ===

==== January–December ====

January 8 – Pope Nicholas V publishes Romanus Pontifex, an encyclical addressed to King Afonso V of Portugal, which sanctions the conquest of non-Christian lands, and the reduction of native non-Christian populations to 'perpetual slavery' (later there will be a dramatic reversal when, in 1537, the bull Sublimis Deus of Pope Paul III forbids the enslavement of non-Christians).

February 23 – The Gutenberg Bible is the first book printed with movable type.

April 8 – Pope Calixtus III succeeds Pope Nicholas V, as the 209th pope.

Spring – The Wars of the Roses begin in England.

May 1 – Battle of Arkinholm: Forces loyal to King James II of Scotland defeat the supporters of the Earl of Douglas.

May 22 – First Battle of St Albans: Richard, Duke of York, defeats and captures King Henry VI of England.

November 15 – The conflict between Vladislav II of Wallachia and John Hunyadi escalates, so the latter decides to support Vlad the Impaler for the throne of Wallachia, the following year.

=== 1456 ===

==== January–December ====

May 18 – Second Battle of Oronichea (1456): Ottoman forces of 15,000 go to capture Albania, but are met and swiftly defeated by Skanderbeg's smaller force.

June 9 – Halley's Comet makes an appearance, as noted by the humanist scholar Platina.

July 7 – A retrial of Joan of Arc acquits her of heresy, 25 years after her execution.

July 21–22 – Battle of Nándorfehérvár (Belgrade): The Hungarians under John Hunyadi rout the Turkish army of Sultan Mehmed II. The noon bell ordered by Pope Callixtus III commemorates the victory throughout the Christian world (and hence is still rung).

August 20 – Vladislav II, reigning Prince of Wallachia, is killed in hand-to-hand combat by Vlad the Impaler, who succeeds him.

October 17 – The University of Greifswald is established, making it the second oldest university in northern Europe, also (for a period) the oldest in Sweden and Prussia.

==== Date unknown ====

Lazar Branković becomes despot of Serbia.

Alvise Cadamosto discovers some of the Cape Verde Islands.

Diogo Gomes reaches the Geba River in Guinea Bissau, and explores the Gambia River.

Emperor Zara Yaqob of Ethiopia founds the city of Debre Berhan.

Muscovy and the Novgorod Republic conclude the Treaty of Yazhelbitsy.

Petru Aron becomes the first ruler of Moldavia to pay tribute to the Ottomans.

=== 1457 ===

==== January–December ====

February 11 – After years of captivity and absence from the Ming throne, the Zhengtong Emperor of China is reinstated, as the Tianshun Emperor.

February 24 – Charles VIII of Sweden is declared deposed. The Archbishop of Sweden, Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna, and statesman Erik Axelsson Tott become co-regents of Sweden. The throne is then offered to Christian I of Denmark and Norway.

March 6 – King James II of Scotland decrees that “. . . ye futebawe and ye golf be uterly cryt done and not usyt . . “ The first historical mention of the game of golf.

April 12 – Ştefan cel Mare secures the throne of Moldavia, which he retains for the next 47 years.

June 23 – Christian I is elected king of Sweden, ending the war between Sweden and Denmark and restoring the Kalmar Union.

August 14 – The Mainz Psalter, the second major book printed with movable type in the West, the first to be wholly finished mechanically (including colour), and the first to carry a printed date, is printed for the Elector of Mainz.

September 2 – Battle of Ujëbardha: One of Skanderbeg's most important victories is won against the Ottoman army, in the open field.

==== Date unknown ====

Albrechts University is founded, at Freiburg im Breisgau.

Edo Castle is built by Ōta Dōkan, in modern-day Tokyo.

=== 1458 ===

==== January–December ====

January 24 – Matthias Corvinus becomes king of Hungary, at age 14.

March 25 – The Love Day is staged in London, by which Henry VI of England attempts to unite the warring factions who have triggered the War of the Roses

August 19 – Pope Pius II succeeds Pope Callixtus III, as the 210th pope.

October 24 – King Afonso V of Portugal conquers Ksar es-Seghir, in North Africa.

==== Date unknown ====

Magdalen College, Oxford, is founded.

George of Poděbrady becomes king of Bohemia.

Luis Cadamosto discovers the first Cape Verde Islands.

The Ottoman authorities issue a decree to protect the Acropolis, after they conquer Athens.

The Jewish community is expelled from Erfurt (Germany); their houses are sold, and the synagogue turned into an arsenal.

Moctezuma I, Tlatoani of Tenochtitlán, leads an expedition to the city-state Coixtlahuaca in Mixtec territory, but is defeated.

A major volcano erupts from the Kuwae caldera, in the Pacific Ocean.

=== 1459 ===

==== January–December ====

September 23 – Wars of the Roses – Battle of Blore Heath in England: Yorkists under Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury defeat a Lancastrian force.

October 12 – Wars of the Roses: Due to the advance of a royal force on his fortress of Ludlow, Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, flees to Ireland, while his ally Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick eldest son of above [Warwick the Kingmaker], goes to Calais.

==== Date unknown ====

The Wallachian town of Bucharest is first mentioned.

The city of Jodhpur, in western India, is founded by Rao Jodha of Marwar.

Richard, Duke of York, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, returns on a second visit to Ireland. The Irish Parliament, meeting at Drogheda, upholds his authority against Henry VI, and an English Act of Attainder.


Year 1458 (MCDLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Battle of Tangier (1437)

The 1437 Battle of Tangier, sometimes referred to as the Siege of Tangiers, refers to the attempt by a Portuguese expeditionary force to seize the Moroccan citadel of Tangier, and their subsequent defeat by the armies of the Marinid sultanate of Morocco.

The Portuguese expeditionary force, led by Prince Henry the Navigator, Duke of Viseu, set out from Portugal in August 1437, intending to seize a series of Moroccan coastal citadels. The Portuguese laid siege to Tangier in mid-September. After a few failed assaults on the city, the Portuguese force was attacked and defeated by a large Moroccan relief army led by vizier Abu Zakariya Yahya al-Wattasi of Fez. The Moroccans subsequently encircled the Portuguese siege camp and starved it to submission. To preserve his army from destruction, Henry negotiated a treaty promising to return the citadel of Ceuta (captured earlier in 1415) to Morocco, in return for being allowed to withdraw his troops. As it turns out, the terms of the treaty were never fulfilled; the Portuguese decided to hold on to Ceuta and allowed the Portuguese hostage, the king's own brother Ferdinand the Holy Prince, to remain in Moroccan captivity, where he perished in 1443.

The Tangier fiasco was a tremendous setback for the prestige and reputation of Henry the Navigator, who had personally conceived, promoted and led the expedition. Simultaneously, it was an enormous boon to the political fortunes of the vizier Abu Zakariya Yahya al-Wattasi, who was transformed overnight from an unpopular regent to a national hero, allowing him to consolidate his power over Morocco.

This was the first of four attempts by the Portuguese to seize the city of Tangier in the 15th century.

Castle of Lagos

The Castle of Lagos is a medieval castle located in the municipality of Lagos, Portugal. Its walls surrounded the entire city of Lagos, providing the town its main means of defence.

Conquest of Ceuta

The conquest of Ceuta (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈθeuta]) by the Portuguese on 21 August 1415 marks an important step in the beginning of the Portuguese Empire in Africa.

Duarte de Menezes, 3rd Count of Viana

Dom Duarte de Menezes, (Lisbon, 1414 – near Tétouan, Morocco, January 20, 1464) was a 15th-century Portuguese nobleman and military figure. Duarte de Menezes (sometimes modernized as 'de Meneses') was the 3rd Count of Viana do Alentejo, 2nd Count of Viana (da Foz do Lima), Lord of Caminha and the first Portuguese captain of Alcácer-Ceguer.

European enclaves in North Africa before 1830

The European enclaves in North Africa (technically ‘semi-enclaves’) were towns, fortifications and trading posts on the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of western North Africa (sometimes called also "Magreb), obtained by various Western European powers in the period before they had the military capacity to occupy the interior (i.e. before the French conquest of Algeria in 1830). The earliest of these were established in the 11th century CE by the Italian Maritime republics; Spain and Portugal were the main European powers involved; both France and, briefly, England also had a presence. Most of these enclaves had been evacuated by the late 18th century, and today only the Spanish possessions of Ceuta, Melilla, and the Plazas de soberanía remain.


Gozo, known locally as Għawdex (pronounced [ˈaˤːw.dɛʃ]) and in antiquity as Gaulos (Punic: 𐤂‬𐤅‬𐤋‬, GWL; Greek: Γαύλος, Gaúlos), is an island of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. The island is part of Malta. After the island of Malta itself, it is the second-largest island in the archipelago. Compared to its southeastern neighbour, Gozo is more rural and known for its scenic hills, which are featured on its coat of arms.The island of Gozo has long been associated with Ogygia, the island home of the nymph Calypso in Homer's Odyssey. In that story, Calypso, possessed of great supernatural powers, and in love with Odysseus, holds him captive for a number of years, until finally releasing him to continue his journey home.As of March 2015, the island has a population of around 37,342 (out of Malta's total 475,000), and its inhabitants are known as Gozitans (Maltese: Għawdxin). It is rich in historic locations such as the Ġgantija temples, which, along with the other Megalithic Temples of Malta, are among the world's oldest free-standing structures.The island is rural in character and, compared to the main island Malta, less developed. It was known for the Azure Window, a natural limestone arch that was a remarkable geological feature, until its collapse in 2017. The island has other notable natural features, including the Inland Sea and Wied il-Mielaħ Window. There are many beaches on the island, as well as seaside resorts that are popular with both locals and tourists, the most popular being Marsalforn and Xlendi. Gozo is considered one of the top diving destinations in the Mediterranean and a centre for water sports.


Ksar, plural ksour (Maghrebi Arabic: قصر qṣer, plural qṣur; Berber: aghrem or ighrem, plural: igherman) is the North African term for "Berber castle", possibly loaned from Latin castrum. The term generally refers to a Berber fortified village.


Larnaca (Greek: Λάρνακα [ˈlarnaka]; Turkish: Larnaka or İskele) is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and the capital of the eponymous district. It is the third-largest city in the country, after Nicosia and Limassol, with a metro population of 144,200 in 2015.Larnaca is known for its palm-tree seafront, the Church of Saint Lazarus, Hala Sultan Tekke, Kamares Aqueduct, and Larnaca Castle. It is built on the ruins of ancient Citium, which was the birthplace of Stoic philosopher Zeno. Larnaca is home to the country's primary airport, Larnaca International Airport. It also has a seaport and a marina.

List of countries by population in 1500

This is a list of countries by population in 1500. Estimate numbers are from the beginning of the year, and exact population figures are for countries that held a census on various dates in that year.


Meknes (Arabic: مكناس‎, translit. məknas; Berber languages: ⴰⵎⴽⵏⴰⵙ, translit. amknas; French: Meknès) is one of the four Imperial cities of Morocco, located in northern central Morocco and the sixth largest city by population in the kingdom. Founded in the 11th century by the Almoravids as a military settlement, Meknes became capital of Morocco under the reign of Sultan Moulay Ismaïl (1672–1727), son of the founder of the Alaouite dynasty. Moulay Ismaïl turned Meknes into an impressive city in Spanish-Moorish style, surrounded by high walls with great doors, where the harmonious blending of the Islamic and European styles of the 17th century Maghreb are still evident today. The city recorded a population of 632,079 in the 2014 Moroccan census. It is the seat of Meknès Prefecture and an important economic pole in the region of Fès-Meknès.Before, Meknès was part of the region Meknès-Tafilelt.


Olbia (Italian: [ˈɔlbja] (listen), locally [ˈolbja]; Sardinian: Terranoa; Gallurese: Tarranoa) is a city and comune of 60,345 inhabitants (May 2018) in the Italian insular province of Sassari in northeastern Sardinia (Italy), in the Gallura sub-region. Called Olbia in the Roman age, Cività in the Middle Ages (Giudicati period) and Terranova Pausania before the 1940s, Olbia was again the official name of the city during the period of Fascism.

Railway stations in Morocco

Railway stations in Morocco are managed by the national operator ONCF. This page displays a list of railway stations currently in use in Morocco.

Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement

Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement can be found on a rocky headland about 10 kilometers west of Ibiza Town. The Phoenicians established a foothold around 650 BC. On this site archaeologists have discovered the remains of simple stone buildings. The discovery is so important that the site has been designated a World Heritage Site.


Sabratha, Sabratah or Siburata (Arabic: صبراتة‎), in the Zawiya District of Libya, was the westernmost of the ancient "three cities" of Roman Tripolis. From 2001 to 2007 it was the capital of the former Sabratha wa Sorman District. It lies on the Mediterranean coast about 70 km (43 mi) west of modern Tripoli. The extant archaeological site was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982.


Sant'Antioco (Italian pronunciation: [santanˈtiːoko]; Sardinian: Santu Antiogu) is the name of both an island and a municipality (comune) in southwestern Sardinia, in the Province of South Sardinia, in Sulcis zone. With a population of 11,730, the municipality of Sant'Antioco it is the island's largest community. It is also the site of ancient Sulci, considered the second city of Sardinia in antiquity.

Spanish exonyms

The following is a list of Spanish exonyms, that is to say names for places that do not speak Spanish that have been adapted to Spanish spelling rules, or are historic Spanish names for places even if they do not directly reflect a place's current or native name.

It is important to note that some Spanish exonyms are of traditional use, and are therefore preferred over newer exonyms or current or native placenames (for example Pekín over Beijing). In other cases newer names and exonyms are preferred for political or social reasons, even when a place has an older Spanish exonym (for example Bangladesh over Bengala).


Tas-Silġ is a rounded hilltop overlooking Marsaxlokk Bay, Malta, close to the city of Żejtun. Tas-Silġ is a multi-period sanctuary site covering all eras from Neolithic to the fourth century AD, and due to this it indicates to archaeologists several different layers of excavation. The site takes its name from the nearby Church of Our Lady of the Snows (Maltese: Knisja tal-Madonna tas-Silġ).

Rural communes

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.