The Kruščica concentration camp (Croatian: Koncentracijski logor u Kruščici, Serbian: Koncentracioni logor Kruščica, Serbian Cyrillic: Концентрациони логор Крушчица) was a concentration camp established in the Independent State of Croatia (Croatian: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH) during World War II. This short-lived camp was founded in April 1941 for women and children. The camp was founded by Mijo Babić, a deputy of the Croatian fascist dictator Ante Pavelić, and the first commander of all concentration camps in the Independent State of Croatia.
|Kruščica concentration camp|
The monument built in Kruščica
|Location||Kruščica, Vitez, Independent State of Croatia (modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina)|
|Built by||Mijo Babić, the first commander of all concentration camps in the Independent State of Croatia|
|Operated by||Independent State of Croatia|
|Original use||concentration camp|
|Operational||April 1941 - September 1941|
|Number of inmates||Jews, Serbs and antifascists - mostly women and children|
In 1939 Kruščica was used by Banovina Croatia, whose governor (Ban of Croatia) Dr Ivan Šubašić established a labour-penitentiary camp at the site. Pre-WWII actions of the Ustaše, which included terrorist attacks, forced the Ban of Croatia to order their arrest and imprisonment, first in Lepoglava and then in Kruščica. Notable Croatian nationalists imprisoned in Kruščica included Mladen Lorković, Šime Vitanović and Marko Došen. When they were brought to Travnik, the angry crowd shouted "long live the Ustaša movement" demanding their release. On 5 April 1941, the members of Ustaše movement organized the escape of all imprisoned Croatian nationalists.
As a concentration camp, Kruščica was founded immediately after the establishment of the Independent State of Croatia in April 1941 by Mijo Babić, a deputy of the Croatian fascist dictator Ante Pavelić, and the first commander of all concentration camps in the Independent State of Croatia. It was established on the site of the abandoned hunting lodge of Guttman, 17 kilometers from Travnik. Guttman was German landowner from Slavonia. The first commander of the camp was Ustaše emigrant Josip Tehler. After his death on 5 August1941 he was succeeded by Mate Mandušić.
Kruščica belonged to a group of concentration camps in the Independent State of Croatia where mass executions of inmates were performed. During first two months of the functioning of the camp, local residents killed three thousand people within it. At the end of July 1941, the Ustaše, under the command of Boško Cvjenćek, captured and transported a group of 74 Serbs from Pale to the Kruščica camp with the false explanation that they were going to work and earn money. All of them were killed. All of them were cruelly massacred by Ustaše during the night on 5 August 1941. According to a 2001 work published by Hrvatski informativni centar and authored by Topalović, imprisoned Serbs were actually political prisoners who attacked the Ustaše, attempting to kill them, refusing all calls for surrender, so the Ustaše were forced to kill them. Topalović also emphasized that the Ustaše commander of the camp, Josip Tehler was killed attempting to suppress the rebellion.
The first transport of inmates arrived at Kruščica between 28 August and 1 September 1941, when around 1,000 people, mostly Jewish women and children, were transported from concentration camps on Pag and in Gospić. During the night of 3 September 1941, members of the Ustaše broke into the houses of Jewish residents of Sarajevo, captured the inhabitants, and transported them to Kruščica. The next day, the Ustaše plundered the homes of imprisoned Jewish victims.
At the beginning of September 1941, there were approximately 3,000 people interned in Kruščica camp, including 300 Serb women and children, with the remainder being Jews. All were housed in two buildings, 80 people to each room, without basic living conditions.
The Jewish community from Zagreb sent carloads of packages to inmates in Kruščica. Local Ustaše burned these before the eyes of hungry children and women, who were unable to retrieve anything. It was difficult to accommodate and feed the inmates of this camp, so the Ustaše decided to resolve this difficulty by torturing inmates with forced labour and hunger and by killing them.
The camp was destroyed after the Second World War. One building was restored, and a memorial area, occupying around 2,000 m² was established, consisting of the restored building (containing a museum), a monument created by Fadil Bilić, incorporating a text from Ivan Goran Kovačić's poem Jama, and several memorial plaques commemorating communities interned in the camp (including those from Zenica and Pale). This memorial area became known as the 'Black House' (Crna kuća). During the War in Bosnia & Herzegovina, the museum's contents were removed. In 2014, the site was declared a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Iskrsli su problemi njihovog smještaja i ishrane. Da bi ove probleme ublažili, ustaše su logoraše mučili glađu i teškim fizičkim radom, a zatim ih ubijali.
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The dinar (Serbian Cyrillic: динар) was the currency in the Republic of Serbian Krajina between 1992 and 1994.Kruščica
Kruščica may refer to:
Kruščica (Bela Crkva), a village in Banat, Serbia
Kruščica (Arilje), a village in Serbia
Kruščica, Kalinovik, a village in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Kruščica (Jajce), a village in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Kruščica, Montenegro, a village near Petnjica, Montenegro
Kruščica (mountain), a mountain in central Bosnia
Kruščica (river), a river in central Bosnia, tributary of Lašva
Kruščica (lake), a lake in Kosinj, Croatia.
Kruščica concentration camp
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|Sui generis body|