The Kremnička and Nemecká massacres were a series of massacres committed between 5 November 1944 and 19 February 1945 in Kremnička and Nemecká, Slovakia by the Hlinka Guard Emergency Divisions and Einsatzkommando 14 following the suppression of the Slovak National Uprising. During the uprising, many Jews fled to Banská Bystrica, a partisan stronghold; when the town fell, Jews, actual or suspected Slovak partisans, and Romani people captured during roundups were temporarily held in the town's jail. The victims were then trucked to the murder sites at Kremnička and Nemecká, where they were shot. The majority of the 747 people shot at Kremnička were Jewish. Exact figures are not known for the Nemecká massacres, because the bodies were burned, but historians estimate a death toll of around 900, of whom most of the known victims were Jewish or Romani.
In response to increased activity of Slovak partisans who opposed Nazi Germany and the Axis-aligned Slovak government, Germany invaded Slovakia, precipitating the Slovak National Uprising, which broke out on 29 August 1944. Fearing a resumption of deportations to extermination camps, many Jews fled to Banská Bystrica, the center of the uprising, and other partisan-controlled areas in central Slovakia. The Germans and local collaborators—Hlinka Guard Emergency Divisions (POHG)—soon defeated the partisans and Slovak Army units which supported the uprising. When Banská Bystrica, the last opposition stronghold, fell on 27 October, Jews and Romani people as well as actual and suspected partisans were rounded up and held temporarily in an overcrowded prison with minimal food and water.
Victims were placed in trucks and driven to Kremnička, where the partisans had dug anti-tank trenches. They were told to leave the trucks and were marched across a field to the trenches, where they were told to lie down. According to witnesses, the victims did not offer resistance. Both German and Slovak soldiers went through the rows of victims and shot them one by one. Other soldiers stood guard around the perimeter to make sure that no one escaped. After some had been killed, others jumped into the trenches among the dead, however the soldiers went through and shot them. Evidence collected upon exhumation determined that some were suffocated to death. There were massacres on 5 November, 20 November (282 victims), 12 and 19 December, 5 and 20 January, and 19 February.
Of the 747 victims, 211 were women and 58 were children; half were Jewish. Two of the victims, Haviva Reik and Rafi Reiss, were Jewish Parachutists of Mandate Palestine. Another well-known victim was the Slovak Jewish intellectual Alžbeta Göllnerová-Gwerková.
According to Slovak historian Anton Hruboň, about 5% of all members of the Emergency Divisions actually participated in massacres. However, Slovak collaborators who had been present at Kremnička frequently lied about their involvement in order to avoid prosecution, for example claiming that they had been threatened and coerced into participating in the massacre by German SD members and only shot over victims' heads. Other Slovak collaborators bragged about their murders, despite strict orders to keep the crimes confidential. Therefore, it is impossible to know the exact role that individual soldiers played in the massacre, but even those who did not shoot still contributed to the killings by guarding the perimeter and performing other auxiliary tasks.
The nearby village of Nemecká was chosen as an execution site due to its limestone kilns, which were used to cremate the corpses. Victims were taken from the prison in Banská Bystrica in trucks and shot, before being burned. Because the bodies were burned, the exact number of victims is unknown but according to Israeli historian Gila Fatran, about 900 people were murdered. Einsatskommando 14's records indicate that 205 victims were "racially undesirable", 26 people were suspected of participating in the uprising, and a few of the victims were American, French, Soviet, and Romanian servicemen. The killings at Nemecká took place between 4 and 11 January 1945; both the Hlinka Guardsmen and Einsatzkommando 14 participated in the killings.
The Memorial of the Slovak National Uprising is located in Nemecká.
The event has been described as the Slovak Katyn. Some Slovak commentators have focused on the fact that Slovak collaborators killed gentile Slovak citizens. According to Fatran, the murders at Kremnička came to symbolize the brutality of the suppression of the uprising. Kremnička and Nemecká were the largest war crimes committed on Slovak soil during World War II.
In 1033, following their conquest of the city from the Maghrawa tribe, the forces of Tamim, chief of the Zenata Berber Banu Ifran tribe, perpetrated a massacre of Jews in Fez in an anti-Jewish pogrom. The city of Fez in Morocco had been contested between the Zenata Berber tribes of Miknasa, Maghrawa and Banu Ifran for the previous half century, in the aftermath of the fall of the Idrisid dynasty.
Tamim's forces killed over six thousand Jews, appropriated their belongings, and captured the Jewish women of the city. The killings took place in the month of Jumaada al-Akhir 424 AH (May–June 1033 AD). The killings have been called a "pogrom" by some recent writers. Sometime in the period 1038-1040 the Maghrawa tribe retook Fez, forcing Tamīm to flee to Salé.1517 Hebron attacks
1517 Hebron attacks occurred in the final phases of the 1513–17 Ottoman–Mamluk War, when Turkish Ottomans had ousted the Mamluks and taken Palestine. The massacre targeted the Jewish population of the city and is also referred to as a pogrom.1934 Constantine Pogrom
The 1934 Constantine pogrom was an anti-Jewish riot that erupted in the Algerian city of Constantine.1934 Thrace pogroms
The 1934 Thrace pogroms (Turkish: Trakya Olayları) refers to a series of violent attacks against Jewish citizens of Turkey in June and July 1934 in the Thrace region of Turkey. According to Corry Guttstadt, a "crucial factor" behind the events was the 1934 Turkish Resettlement Law passed by the Turkish Assembly on 14 June 1934.Basel massacre
The Basel massacre of Jews took place on 9 January 1349, as part of the Black Death persecutions of 1348–1350.Following the spread of the Black Death through the surrounding countryside of Savoy and subsequently Basel, Jews were accused of having poisoned the wells, because they were perceived as having a lower mortality rate from the plague than the non-Jews.
The City Fathers of Basel attempted to protect their Jews but to no avail, and 600 Jews, including the community's rabbi, were burned at the stake. Afterwards, 140 Jewish children were forcibly converted to Catholicism.Following the massacre, it was decreed that all Jews were banned from settling in the city of Basel for 200 years, although this was revoked several decades later.Deutsch Schützen massacre
The Deutsch Schützen massacre was a 1945 mass killing of approximately 60 Jewish forced laborers in Deutsch Schützen-Eisenberg. At the old church, Martinskirche, in the farmland on the west side of Deutsch Schützen, a plaque is erected on the exterior of the building memorializing those murdered in the massacre.Kaunas massacre of October 29, 1941
The Kaunas massacre of October 29, 1941 also known as the Great Action was the largest mass murder of Lithuanian Jews.By the order of SS-Standartenführer Karl Jäger and SS-Rottenführer Helmut Rauca, the Sonderkommando under the leadership of SS-Obersturmführer Joachim Hamann, and 8 to 10 men from Einsatzkommando 3, murdered 2,007 Jewish men, 2,920 women, and 4,273 children in a single day at the Ninth Fort, Kaunas, Lithuania.The Nazis destroyed the small ghetto on October 4, 1941, and killed almost all of its inhabitants at the Ninth Fort. Later that same month, on October 28, SS-Rottenführer Helmut Rauca of the Kaunas Gestapo (secret state police) conducted the selection in the Kaunas Ghetto. All ghetto inhabitants were forced to assemble in the central square of the ghetto. Rauca selected 9,200 Jewish men, women, and children, about one-third of the ghetto's population. The next day, October 29, all of these people were shot at the Ninth Fort in huge pits dug in advance.Kaunas pogrom
The Kaunas pogrom was a massacre of Jewish people living in Kaunas, Lithuania that took place on June 25–29, 1941 – the first days of the Operation Barbarossa and of Nazi occupation of Lithuania. The most infamous incident occurred in the Lietūkis garage, where several dozen Jewish men were publicly tortured and executed on June 27, most of them killed by a single club-wielding assailant nicknamed the "Death Dealer." After June, systematic executions took place at various forts of the Kaunas Fortress, especially the Seventh and Ninth Fort.Kielce cemetery massacre
The Kielce cemetery massacre refers to the shooting action by the Nazi German police that took place on May 23, 1943 in occupied Poland during World War II, in which 45 Jewish children who had survived the Kielce Ghetto liquidation, and remained with their working parents at the Kielce forced-labour camps, were rounded up and brought to the Pakosz cemetery in Kielce, Poland, where they were murdered by the German paramilitary police. The children ranged in age from 15 months to 15 years old.During the ghetto liquidation action which began on 20 August 1942 approximately 20,000-21,000 Jews were led to awaiting Holocaust trains and sent to Treblinka extermination camp. By the end of 24 August 1942, there were only 2,000 skilled workers left alive in the labour camp at Stolarska-and-Jasna Streets (pl) within the small ghetto, including members of the Judenrat and the Jewish policemen. In May 1943, most Jewish prisoners from Kielce were transported to forced-labour camps in Starachowice, Skarżysko-Kamienna, Pionki, and Bliżyn. The 45 Jewish children murdered at the cemetery were the ones who stayed behind at the liquidated camp.Kiev pogrom (1905)
The Kiev pogrom of October 18-October 20 (October 31-November 2, 1905, N.S.) came as a result of the collapse of the city hall meeting of October 18, 1905 in Kiev in the Russian Empire. Consequently, a mob was drawn into the streets. Among the perpetrators were monarchists, reactionaries, anti-Semites, and common criminals, proclaiming that "all Russia's troubles stemmed from the machinations of the Jews and socialists." The pogrom resulted in a massacre of approximately 100 Jews.Kunmadaras pogrom
The Kunmadaras pogrom was a post-World War II anti-Semitic pogrom in Kunmadaras, Hungary.
The pogrom resulted in the killing of two and wounding of fifteen Jews on 22 May 1946. According to the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, four Jews died.The riot started in the marketplace as a spontaneous protest against a suspected profiteer. Since traditional occupation of the Jews in the area was trading, the image of a profiteer was conflated with that of a Jew. Therefore the riot grew into an anti-Jewish pogrom. The frenzy was further instigated by the rumors that the Jews were stealing Christian children. The historian Péter Apor made a peculiar observation about the subsequent trial of the pogromists: "The People's Tribunal managed to produce a narrative of an anti-Semitic pogrom without involving the Jewish victims." The pogrom was portrayed as a resurgence of fascism pitched against the nascent people's democracy.Mass murders in Tykocin
The Mass murders in Tykocin occurred in August 25, 1941, during World War II, where the local Jewish population of Tykocin (Poland) was killed by German Einsatzkommando.Miskolc pogrom
The Miskolc pogrom led to death of one accused Jewish black marketeer, the wounding of another, and subsequently the death of a Jewish policeman in Miskolc, Hungary, July 30 and August 1, 1946. Economic hardship and anti-Semitism motivated the riots.
Lieutenant General László Piros participated in the riots.
Blood libel rumors had led to violence in Kunmadaras and Teplicany, and were present in Miskolc before the riot.
Mátyás Rákosi had given a speech in Miskolc some days before the riot attacking "speculators" and suggesting death for them.
Reports (likely from the police) circulated of the arrest of three black marketeers, two of them Jewish.
The prisoners were to be moved to an internment camp on the morning of the 31st.
A mob awaited them, displaying signs with slogans like "Death to the Jews" and "Death to the Black Marketeers." The mob attacked.
One man was murdered, another beaten severely, and a third (not Jewish) escaped.
That afternoon, police appeared in force and arrested sixteen people for the lynching. The crowd attacked the police, occupied the police station, and murdered a Jewish policeman.Hungarian Communist Party propaganda at the time featured posters and brochures denouncing "speculators" depicted with images of Jewish caricatures; likely this was to deflect public grievances about hyperinflation and otherwise poor economic conditions.Nikolaev massacre
The Nikolaev Massacre was a massacre which resulted in the deaths of 35,782 Soviet citizens, most of whom were Jews, during World War II, on September 16–30, 1941. It took place in and around the city of Mykolaiv (also known as Nikolaev) and the neighboring city of Kherson in (current) southern Ukraine (then USSR). The massacre was carried out by German troops of Einsatzgruppe D under the command of Otto Ohlendorf, who was later convicted at the Einsatzgruppen trial of the Nuremberg Trials and was sentenced to death by hanging. The killings were committed by many of the same troops who carried out the massacre at Babi Yar, and the victims were counted and described in an Einsatzgruppen document dated October 2, 1941 as "Jews and Communists". This document was entered into evidence at the Nuremberg Trials as NO-3137.Proskurov pogrom
The Proskurov pogrom took place on 15 February 1919 in the town of Proskurov during the Ukraine Civil War, (now, Khmelnytskyi) which was taken over from under the Bolshevik control by the Haidamacks. In mere three and a half hours at least 1,500 Jews were murdered, up to 1,700 by other estimates, and more than 1,000 wounded including women, children and the old. The massacre was carried out by Ukrainian People's Republic soldiers of Ivan Samosenko. They were ordered to save the ammunition in the process and use only lances and bayonets.Rintfleisch massacres
The Rintfleisch or Rindfleisch movement was a series of massacres against Jews in the year 1298. The event, in later terminology a pogrom, was the first large-scale persecution in Germany since the First Crusade.Szczuczyn pogrom
Szczuczyn pogrom was the massacre of some 300 Jews in the community of Szczuczyn carried out by its Polish inhabitants in June 1941 after the town was bypassed by the invading German soldiers in the beginning of Operation Barbarossa. The June massacre was stopped by German soldiers.
A subsequent massacre by Poles in July killed some 100 Jews, and following the German Gestapo takeover in August 1941 some 600 Jews were killed by the Germans, the remaining Jews placed in a ghetto, and subsequently sent to Treblinka extermination camp.Warsaw pogrom (1881)
The Warsaw pogrom was a pogrom that took place in Russian-controlled Warsaw on 25-27 December 1881, then part of Congress Poland in the Russian Empire, resulting in two people dead and 24 injured.Wąsosz pogrom
The Wąsosz pogrom was the World War II mass murder of Jewish residents of Wąsosz in German-occupied Poland, on 5 July 1941.
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