Kozelsk (Russian: Козе́льск) is a town and the administrative center of Kozelsky District in Kaluga Oblast, Russia, located on the Zhizdra River (Oka's tributary), 72 kilometers (45 mi) southwest of Kaluga, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 18,245 (2010 Census);[2] 19,907 (2002 Census);[7] 19,735 (1989 Census).[8]


Kozelsk Rail Station
Kozelsk Rail Station
Flag of Kozelsk

Coat of arms of Kozelsk

Coat of arms
Location of Kozelsk
Kozelsk is located in Russia
Location of Kozelsk
Kozelsk is located in Kaluga Oblast
Kozelsk (Kaluga Oblast)
Coordinates: 54°02′N 35°48′E / 54.033°N 35.800°ECoordinates: 54°02′N 35°48′E / 54.033°N 35.800°E
Federal subjectKaluga Oblast[1]
Administrative districtKozelsky District[1]
First mentioned1146
150 m (490 ft)
 • Total18,245
 • Estimate 
16,443 (-9.9%)
 • Capital ofKozelsky District[1]
 • Municipal districtKozelsky Municipal District[4]
 • Urban settlementKozelsk Urban Settlement[4]
 • Capital ofKozelsky Municipal District[4], Kozelsk Urban Settlement[4]
Postal code(s)[6]
249720, 249722, 249723, 249725, 249739
Dialing code(s)+7 48442
OKTMO ID29616101001


It was first mentioned in an 1146 chronicle as a part of Principality of Chernigov. Kozelsk became famous in the spring of 1238, when its seven-year-old prince Vasily, son of Titus, had to defend the town against the army of Batu Khan. The latter dubbed it an "evil town" because its citizens had been fighting the attackers for seven weeks in a row, killing around four thousand enemy soldiers during the siege. The citizens of Kozelsk were greatly outnumbered and almost all of them died in battle.

Kozelsk siege
Kozelsk siege in 1239 by Batu Khan

In 1446, Kozelsk was temporarily under the rule of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1494, the town was finally annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In 1607, one of Ivan Bolotnikov's units was located in Kozelsk and showed resistance to the Tsar's army.

The much-venerated monastery, Optina Pustyn, is close by. In the 19th century, this hermitage gained wide renown for its "startsy". After the outbreak of World War II, a POW camp was established in the monastery for Polish officers taken captive by the Red Army during the Polish Defensive War of 1939. Between April and May 1940, the NKVD transferred approximately 5,000 of them to a forest near Katyn, where they were executed in what became known as the Katyn massacre. The remaining two hundred officers were sent to a camp in Pavlishchev Bor and then to Gryazovets. The town was occupied by the German army from October 8, 1941 until December 27, 1941 and was totally destroyed. It was rebuilt after the war.

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Kozelsk serves as the administrative center of Kozelsky District, to which it is directly subordinated.[1] As a municipal division, the town of Kozelsk is incorporated within Kozelsky Municipal District as Kozelsk Urban Settlement.[4]


After World War II, Kozelsky District became the home for the 28th Guards Rocket Division of the Strategic Missile Troops. Up to a third of the population of Kozelsk was connected in one way or another with the missile division.

It has missiles silos with RS-24 Yars ICBMs.[9]

See also



  1. ^ a b c d e Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 29 216», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 29 216, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  2. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  3. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d e Law #7-OZ
  5. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  6. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  7. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  8. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  9. ^ http://www.janes360.com/images/assets/692/47692/Russia_upgrades_its_missile_arsenal.pdf


  • Законодательное Собрание Калужской области. Закон №7-ОЗ от 28 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории административно-территориальных единиц "Бабынинский район", "Боровский район", "Дзержинский район", "Жиздринский район", "Жуковский район", "Износковский район", "Козельский район", "Малоярославецкий район", "Мосальский район", "Ферзиковский район", "Хвастовичский район", "город Калуга", "город Обнинск", и наделении их статусом городского поселения, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района», в ред. Закона №620-ОЗ от 29 сентября 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Калужской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории административно-территориальных единиц "Бабынинский район", "Боровский район", "Дзержинский район", "Жиздринский район", "Жуковский район", "Износковский район", "Козельский район", "Малоярославецкий район", "Мосальский район", "Ферзиковский район", "Хвастовичский район", "город Калуга", "город Обнинск", и наделении их статусом городского поселения, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района"». Вступил в силу после официального опубликования, за исключением положений о муниципальном образовании "Город Калуга", для которых установлены иные сроки вступления в силу. Опубликован: "Весть", №402–404, 29 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast. Law #7-OZ of December 28, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Located on the Territory of the Administrative-Territorial Units of "Babyninsky District", "Borovsky District", "Dzerzhinsky District", "Zhizdrinsky District", "Zhukovsky District", "Iznoskovsky District", "Kozelsky District", "Maloyaroslavetsky District", "Mosalsky District", "Ferzikovsky District", "Khvastovichsky District", "City of Kaluga", "City of Obninsk", and on Granting Them the Status of an Urban Settlement, Rural Settlement, Urban Okrug, Municipal District, as amended by the Law #620-OZ of September 29, 2014 On Amending the Law of Kaluga Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Located on the Territory of the Administrative-Territorial Units of "Babyninsky District", "Borovsky District", "Dzerzhinsky District", "Zhizdrinsky District", "Zhukovsky District", "Iznoskovsky District", "Kozelsky District", "Maloyaroslavetsky District", "Mosalsky District", "Ferzikovsky District", "Khvastovichsky District", "City of Kaluga", "City of Obninsk", and on Granting Them the Status of an Urban Settlement, Rural Settlement, Urban Okrug, Municipal District". Effective as of after the official publication, with the exception of the clauses regarding the municipal formation of the "City of Kaluga", for which different dates of taking effect are specified.).
15th Tank Corps

The 15th Tank Corps was a tank corps of the Soviet Union's Red Army. It formed in 1938 from a mechanized corps and fought in the Soviet invasion of Poland, during which it participated in the capture of the Grodno and Augustów Forest from Poland. The corps was disbanded in January 1940 at Wilno and Soleczniki.

The corps was re-formed in 1942 under the command of Major General Vasily Koptsov and became part of the 3rd Tank Army. It first saw combat in the unsuccessful Kozelsk Offensive of late August and early September, a relatively small operation to encircle a German salient, which resulted in the corps taking heavy losses in proportion to the territory gained. After spending the rest of the year in reserve, receiving new supplies and equipment, the corps was transferred to the southern front in southwestern Russia to fight in the Ostrogozhsk–Rossosh Offensive during January 1943, in which it played a major role by forming part of the forces that encircled thousands of Axis troops on the middle reaches of the Don River.

In February 1943, the unit fought in Operation Star, achieving its objective of capturing the key city of Kharkov in eastern Ukraine. As the Soviet advance outran its supply lines, the corps was slowly worn down and was virtually destroyed after being surrounded by a German counteroffensive in the Third Battle of Kharkov during late February and early March. Koptsov was among those killed in the fighting. The corps was rebuilt in the following months and became part of the newly created 3rd Guards Tank Army, fighting in Operation Kutuzov, the Soviet counteroffensive after the Battle of Kursk, in late July. For its actions in the offensive, the corps was converted into the 7th Guards Tank Corps.

16th Guards Tank Division

The 16th Guards Tank Division was a tank division of the Soviet Army and later the Russian Ground Forces.

The division traced its lineage back to the World War II 3rd Tank Corps, formed in the spring of 1942. The corps received its baptism of fire in the Zhizdra-Bolkhov Offensive during the summer and spent the fall in reserve. In early 1943, the corps fought in Operation Gallop and was destroyed in the Third Battle of Kharkov in late February. The corps was rebuilt in the following months and joined the 2nd Tank Army in June. The corps fought in the Battle of Kursk in July and in the Chernigov-Pripyat Offensive in August and September. In early 1944, it fought in the Korsun-Shevchenkovsky Offensive and the Uman–Botoșani Offensive. For its actions in the latter, the corps received the honorific "Uman" and the Order of Suvorov. During the summer of 1944, the corps fought in the Lublin–Brest Offensive, advancing into Poland. For its actions in the offensive, the corps received the Order of the Red Banner and in November became a guards unit, the 9th Guards Tank Corps, along with the rest of the army. The corps fought in the Vistula–Oder Offensive and the East Pomeranian Offensive in early 1945. For its actions, the corps received the Order of Lenin in April. The corps then fought in the Berlin Offensive, ending the war in the German capital.

In the summer of 1945 the corps became a tank division and was relocated to Neustrelitz, becoming part of the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (GSFG). In 1965, the division was renumbered as the 16th Guards Tank Division. The division served with the GSFG through the Cold War and after the Dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1992 began a withdrawal to Russia which was completed in 1993. The division remained at Markovsky, Perm Krai until its 1997 disbandment, when it became a storage base. The storage base was disbanded in 2009.

27th Guards Rocket Army

27th Guards Vitebsk Red Banner Rocket Army (Russian: 27-я Гвардейская Витебская Краснознамённая ракетная армия) is one of the 3 rocket armies within Russian Strategic Rocket Forces headquartered at Vladimir, Vladimir Oblast in Western Russia.

In August 1959, based on the headquarters of the disbanded 10th Breakthrough Artillery Division 'Gumbinnenskoy Orders of Suvorov and Kutuzov' of the Reserve of the Supreme High Command (Russian acronym RVGK), the formation of an organizational group 46 Training Artillery Range (Military Unit No. 43176) temporarily located in Mozyr, Gomel Oblast, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, was begun. It was subsequently relocated to the city of Krasnoyarsk.

In June 1960, in accordance with a directive of the General Staff dated 5 May 1960, an organizing group of the 46 Training Artillery Range relocated to the city of Vladimir, on the territory of the 7th Red Banner Vitebsk Guards Cannon Artillery Division of the RVGK. RVGK pad was turned on staffing organizational group of 46 Training Artillery Range, the rest of the staff - on staffing three rocket engineering brigades: the 165th (Kostroma), 197th (Vladimir Teykovo), 198th (Kozelsk, became 28th Guards Rocket Division). At the same time began the study of new missile technology.

On 10 March 1961 based on the 46th ALM HQ 3rd Separate Vitebsk Rocket Corps was formed. Appointed corps commander of the Guards, Major General AD Melekhin.

The 27th Army was formed in April 1970 on the base of the 3rd Separate Guards Vitebsk Rocket Corps and the 5th Separate Rocket Corps. The 27th Army is equipped with UR-100, RT-2PM Topol and RT-2UTTH Topol M intercontinental ballistic missiles.

28th Guards Rocket Division

28th Guards Order of the Red Banner Missile Division (Russian: 28-я гвардейская Ордена Красного знамени ракетная дивизия) is a missile division under command of the 27th Guards Missile Army of the Strategic Rocket Forces of Russia headquartered at Kozelsk in Kaluga Oblast.

Administrative divisions of Kaluga Oblast

Cities and towns under the oblast's jurisdiction:

Kaluga (Калуга) (administrative center)

city okrugs:

Leninsky (Ленинский)

with 3 rural okrugs under the city okrug's jurisdiction.

Moskovsky (Московский)

with 3 rural okrugs under the city okrug's jurisdiction.

Oktyabrsky (Октябрьский)

with 2 rural okrugs under the city okrug's jurisdiction.

Kirov (Киров)

Lyudinovo (Людиново)

Obninsk (Обнинск)


Babyninsky (Бабынинский)

with 14 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Baryatinsky (Барятинский)

with 14 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Borovsky (Боровский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Balabanovo (Балабаново)

Borovsk (Боровск)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Yermolino (Ермолино)

with 9 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Duminichsky (Думиничский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Duminichi (Думиничи)

with 13 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Dzerzhinsky (Дзержинский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Kondrovo (Кондрово)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Kurovskoy (Куровской)

Polotnyany Zavod (Полотняный Завод)

Pyatovsky (Пятовский)

Tovarkovo (Товарково)

with 19 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Ferzikovsky (Ферзиковский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Dugna (Дугна)

with 16 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Iznoskovsky (Износковский)

with 10 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Khvastovichsky (Хвастовичский)

with 17 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Kirovsky (Кировский)

with 12 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Kozelsky (Козельский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Kozelsk (Козельск)

Sosensky (Сосенский)

with 14 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Kuybyshevsky (Куйбышевский)

with 12 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Lyudinovsky (Людиновский)

with 10 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Maloyaroslavetsky (Малоярославецкий)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Maloyaroslavets (Малоярославец)

with 17 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Medynsky (Медынский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Medyn (Медынь)

with 11 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Meshchovsky (Мещовский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Meshchovsk (Мещовск)

with 17 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Mosalsky (Мосальский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Mosalsk (Мосальск)

with 18 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Peremyshlsky (Перемышльский)

with 16 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Spas-Demensky (Спас-Деменский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Spas-Demensk (Спас-Деменск)

with 12 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Sukhinichsky (Сухиничский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Sukhinichi (Сухиничи)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Seredeysky (Середейский)

with 17 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Tarussky (Тарусский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Tarusa (Таруса)

with 10 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Ulyanovsky (Ульяновский)

with 5 territorial okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Yukhnovsky (Юхновский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Yukhnov (Юхнов)

with 13 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Zhizdrinsky (Жиздринский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Zhizdra (Жиздра)

with 11 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Zhukovsky (Жуковский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Zhukov (Жуков)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Belousovo (Белоусово)

Kremyonki (Кременки)

with 12 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Battle of Kozelsk

The Battle of Kozelsk was the first victory of False Dmitry II against the government of Tsar Vasili IV Shiuski.

Katyn war cemetery

Katyn war cemetery (Polish: Polski Cmentarz Wojenny w Katyniu) is a Polish military cemetery located in Katyn, a small village 22 kilometres away from Smolensk, Russia, on the road to Vitebsk. It contains the remnants of 4,412 Polish officers of the Kozelsk prisoner of war camp, who were murdered in 1940 in what is called the Katyn massacre. Except for bodies of two Polish generals exhumed by German authorities in 1943 and then buried separately, all Polish officers murdered in Katyn were buried in six large mass graves. There is also a Russian part of the cemetery, where some 6,500 victims of the Soviet Great Purges of the 1930s were buried by the NKVD. The cemetery was officially opened in 2000.

The cemetery is a large, irregular area covering roughly 22 hectares of forest. All mass graves are located on both sides of the main alley. There is also a circular alley with thousands of names of the officers who perished in the massacre. At the end of the main alley there is a war memorial and an altar with a memorial bell located underground.

Kozelsk Offensive

The Kozelsk Offensive (Russian: Козельская наступательная операция) was an offensive conducted by parts of the Red Army's Western Front against the German 2nd Panzer Army in southwestern Kaluga Oblast on the Eastern Front of World War II between 22 August and 9 September 1942.

The attack of the 2nd Panzer Army in early August created a small salient in the Soviet line. The Western Front sent the 3rd Tank Army, with the 16th and 61st Armies as support, to launch an attack to cut off the German troops in the salient. The Soviet offensive bogged down in the face of unfavorable terrain and German defenses and air superiority. Although the three armies managed to reduce the size of the salient by around 9 kilometers (5.6 mi), they suffered heavy losses, especially in tanks. The offensive failed to achieve its objective, but tied down German armored units in a secondary sector.

Kozelsky District

Kozelsky District (Russian: Козе́льский райо́н) is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Kaluga Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the oblast. The area of the district is 1,523 square kilometers (588 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kozelsk. Population: 41,802 (2010 Census); 44,775 (2002 Census); 47,822 (1989 Census). The population of Kozelsk accounts for 43.6% of the district's total population.


"Kozielsk" is also the Polish name for the Russian town of Kozelsk.Kozielsk [ˈkɔʑelsk] is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Kuczbork-Osada, within Żuromin County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland. It lies approximately 2 kilometres (1 mi) east of Kuczbork-Osada, 12 km (7 mi) east of Żuromin, and 115 km (71 mi) north-west of Warsaw.

Mstislav II Svyatoslavich

Mstislav II Svyatoslavich (c. 1168 – 31 May 1223) was a Rus' prince (a member of the Rurik dynasty). His baptismal name was Panteleymon. He was probably prince of Kozelsk (1194–1223), of Novgorod-Seversk (1206–1219), and of Chernigov (1215/1220–1223). He was killed in the Battle of the Kalka River.

Optina Monastery

The Optina Pustyn (Russian: Оптина пустынь, literally Opta's hermitage) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery for men near Kozelsk in Russia. In the 19th century, the Optina was the most important spiritual centre of the Russian Orthodox Church and served as the model for several other monasteries, including the nearby Shamordino Convent. It was particularly renowned as the centre of Russian Orthodox eldership (staretsdom).


House of Puzyna is a Rurikid princely house, now already for several centuries living in Poland. Originally they were from Belarus and the region of Smolensk.

Their most prominent members lived in the early 20th century.

material: Russian WikipediaDuring the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, they were counted as Litvin princes, the highest nobility of Lithuania. Of Ruthenian origin.

Mostly because the archival documentation of the 14th century is weak, thanks to Mongol depredations, their precise lineage from Rurik is under shroud. Their tradition, as well as that of the family of Oginskis, refer to them being descended from rulers of the principality of Kozelsk.

Several versions of their precise Rurikid origins have been presented.

The Rurikid dynasty's branch of Kozelsk flourished in the 14th century. As one of the Oka principalities in the region of Upper Oka, near Smolensk. These princes were said to be descended from Saint Michael of Chernihiv who was martyred in 1246. (It is generally in published family trees that their one forefather was St.Michael's descendant prince Tit - but nothing more is actually known of this Tit than merely his name, without even explicit attestation of his patronymic, and names of one or more of his historically attested sons, and that in those generations his family -branch- held Kozelsk and Karachev. We can be relatively certain of this Tit's existence because at least one son of his in mid-14th century carried the patronymic 'Titovich' in his near-contemporary documentation.)

Better historical sources know the early forefathers of the Puzyna and Oginskis, princes bynamed Hlazyna and Gluszonek who were magnates in the region of Smolensk in the late 15th century.

These princes Hlazyna would thus have been descendants of some branch of Dukes of Kozelsk.

In 1408 the Duke of Kozelsk held Rzhev, had the town built. He was possibly merely a kinsman of the Oginski and Puzyna ancestors, and not their direct forefather, as the Kozelsk family seems to have developed several branches already prior to that date.

there are historically weak beliefs that the Puzyna were branched from the Oginskis by the somewhat unhistorical brothers Grigor 'the fire' (for his hot temper) and Valadimir 'the bubble' (for being obese), allegedly respectively forefathers of the Oginski and the Puzyna, who would have been sons of a prince Tit or a prince Juri or a prince Tit-Juri, of Kozelsk, one allegedly in the 15th generation from Rurik. However, sources contemporary to those centuries do not mention such things (source: Rodoslovtsah). These still have found their way to a lot of genealogies (compare for example the publications of Peter V Dolgorukov). Quite possibly, this another, later Tit is just a genealogically invented ghost of the real Tit whose existence is known from his son's patronymic.In 1486, boyar Dmitrijus Ivanovicius Hlushonokas received the manor and fief of Oginty in Zhizhmorski, Lithuania proper. His descendants became known as Oginskis, the Lithuanian branch of the Hlazyna. Prince Teodoras Bogdanaitis appears as the first of this lineage with the byname Oginski.

In the early 16th century, Dmitrijus' younger brother, the Belarusian prince Ivan Ivanovich Hluszonak was contemporary of king Sigismund I of Poland as well as his official, and his son prince Timofej Ivanovich was known with byname 'puzyna'. It was this branch which developed to the lineage of Puzyna. Vasilij Ivanovich received from king in 1516 the estate of Nosov in Melnitski (Археографический сборник документов, относящихся к истории Северо-Западной Руси, t. 3, №4, p. 4-5). It seems that these persons are present in later generations of Puzyna in the works of Dolgorukov, as well as in the findings of the Polish Jesuit Andrzej Pezharski, in his book 'Annibal ad Portas'.

The name of Puzyna appears to have been found in chronicles in the 16th century.

So, the two bynames (Oginskis and Puzyna) actually formed only in later generations of the two brothers, and not yet to the two brothers themselves. But it has been easy although mistaken to try to make already two brothers to carry the nicknames. Since bynames of the real historically attested brothers Dimitrijus and Ivan were actually not such, this has presumably led to confusions about what were the first names of the two brothers who started the branches, some thus picking up the unhistorical names Grigor and Valadimir, as well as the 'mythical' forefather name Tit (who was real person in the ancrstry but farther back) as their father.

These two brothers (Dimitrijus, Ivan) were sons of prince Ivan Vasilievich, son of one Vasili Hlazyna, a Ruthenian princely magnate in region of Smolensk. All in all, prince Ivan Vasilievich had five sons: Dmitri, Ivan, Leo, Michael and Andrew, according to Ptashitski.

Vasili Hlazyna's other son (according to S L Ptashitski) was prince Olehno Vasilievich, who fled to Moscow and thus left Belarusia-Lithuania.

The princes of Puzyna have as their earliest historically attested patrilineal forefather the said Vasili Hlazyna in the mid-15th century - just as the record-harmed Mongol-domination epoch was over. In light of strict research, there is not an attested lineage back to Rurikids. They just appear from post-Mongol mists of history.

However, the princely title which was accorded to the family, speaks for a Rurikid patriline.

The Rurikid DNA project by Y DNA evidence has proven that the Puzyna belong to the patriline of the Rurikids. The tradition being Rurikid is correct.

Siege of Kozelsk

Defense of Kozelsk was one of the main events of the Western (Kipchak) March of the Mongols (1236–1242) and the Mongol invasion of Rus' (1237–1240) at the end of the Mongol campaign in North-Eastern Russia (1237–1238). The Mongols laid a siege in the spring of 1238 and eventually conquered and destroyed the town of Kozelsk, one of the subsidiary princely centers of the Principality of Chernigov.

Skalmantas (Gediminids)

Skalmantas or Skolomend is the name of a possible ancestor of the Gediminid dynasty. In 1975 historian Jerzy Ochmański noted that Zadonshchina, a poem from the end of the 14th century, contains lines in which two sons of Algirdas name their ancestors: "We are two brothers – sons of Algirdas, and grandsons of Gediminas, and great-grandsons of Skalmantas (Skolomend)." This led to the hypothesis that Skalmantas was the long-sought ancestor of the Gediminids.

According to Synodik of Liubech, a duke Gomantas (who might have been this Skalmantas) had a daughter Helena (probably adult baptismal name, not original Lithuanian) who married the Chernihiv Rurikid princeling Andrew, duke of Kozelsk (died 1339, born perhaps in 1280s), an ancestral uncle of the Oginskis, Puzyna, Gortsakov, Yeletsky, Zvenigorodsky, Bolkhovskoy, Mosalsky and Khotetovsky princely lineages. The property listing of metropolitan Theognostus from mid-14th century reveals that duke Andrew Mstislavich of Kozelsk was married with a lady who was sister (or daughter) of king Gediminas.

Sosensky, Kaluga Oblast

Sosensky (Russian: Сосенский) is a town in Kozelsky District of Kaluga Oblast, Russia, located in the southeast of the oblast, 90 kilometers (56 mi) southwest of Kaluga, the administrative center of the oblast, and 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) from Kozelsk, the administrative center of the district. Population: 12,392 (2010 Census); 12,623 (2002 Census); 13,275 (1989 Census).

Wlastimil Hofman

Wlastimil Hofman (1881–1970) was a Polish painter, one of the more popular painters of the interwar and postwar years.

Hofman was born Vlastimil Hofmann in Prague to Ferdynand Hofmann, a Czech, and Teofila Muzyk Terlecka, a Polish woman. In 1889 Vlastimil's family moved to Kraków in Poland, where he attended St Barbara's School and then the Jan III Sobieski high school. In 1896, he became a student at the Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków, where he studied under, i.a., Jacek Malczewski.

In 1899 he went to study painting at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris. In 1902 he had his first showings in an exhibition by the "Sztuka" society. Further exhibitions followed in Munich, Amsterdam, Rome, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, and Warsaw. In 1904 he painted the first of his village (or peasant) "Madonnas". In 1905 he started the cycle of pictures called "Confession" which brought him international recognition. In 1907 he was the first Polish painter to be made a member of the Gallery of the Vienna Secession. When his professor, Jacek Malczewski, was appointed the Rector of the Kraków Academy of Fine Arts in 1912, Hofman obtained a teaching post there. With the outbreak of World War I, in 1914–1920 he lived in Prague and then in Paris, marrying his beloved Ada in 1919. Back in Kraków in 1921, he and his wife lived in a villa on Spadzista Street, later renamed Hofman Street in his honour. Sometime around 1922, influenced by his friendship with Jacek Malczewski, he changed the spelling of his name from Czech to a Polonised 'Wlastimil'.

Malczewski died in 1929. In September 1939 Hofman fled from the Nazi invasion, mainly as a result of hiding Czech refugees (including later President, Ludwik Swoboda). Escaping the German Nazis he and his wife found themselves on the part of the Polish territory invaded by the Soviet Red Army after 17 September 1939. He managed to avoid Soviet captivity, though in Pomorzany he witnessed Polish soldiers being transported to camps inside Soviet Russia, among them officers sent to Kozelsk. He reportedly "showed the Polish POWs a lot of compassion and tirelessly painted their portraits on small pieces of cardboard. The portraits were then to be sent to their families." On all accounts it is then that he befriended Zdzisław Jastrzębiec Peszkowski, who on the day before the transport to Kozelsk left in Hofman's care the regiment's money. According to Hofman biographical notes, he managed to join the soldiers of the Czech Legion and with them travelled through Ternopil, Istambul, Haifa and Tel-Aviv to Jerusalem Palestine, which is where he spent the remainder of the war. In 1942, he published a book of poetry called Through Darkness to Freedom. He returned to Kraków in June 1946. In May 1947 at the suggestion of his friend Jan Sztaudynger the Hofmans moved to Szklarska Poręba in the Sudety mountains. In July they received a house there, which they called 'Wlastimilówka'. In the period 1953–1963 he produced religious paintings for the local church, including "Four Evangelists" "The Way of the Rosary", "The Way of the Cross", "The Adoration of the Child". He also produced many portraits of local people, sports figures - especially footballers from his favourite Wisła Kraków team - and also self-portraits. In 1961, he was awarded the Cross of the Order of the Polish Renaissance. Wlastimil Hofman died on March 6, 1970 and he and his wife are buried in the parochial cemetery in Szklarska Poręba, next to the Corpus Christi Church, run by the Franciscan Fathers and decorated with pictures and banners painted by Wlastimil Hofman with the painting entitled “Jesus Christ with the Holy Eucharist” in the main altar.

Władysław Wawrzyniak

Władysław Wawrzyniak (15 May 1890 – 1940) was a Polish military commander, holding the rank of major.

Władysław Wawrzyniak was born in 1890 in the Polish village Antonin in the German Province of Posen. He finished the Gymnasium in Ostrów (Ostrowo) and studied law at the Universities of Munich and Breslau (Wrocław). He was an active participant in the events of the Republic of Ostrów and was given command of the newly formed First Polish Infantry Regiment which was formally sworn in on 13 November 1918. A couple of weeks later the unit was disbanded under pressure from German authorities and those in Poznań. The soldiers of the First Regiment made their way to the territory of Second Polish Republic. Some of the weapons and ammunition were evacuated from Ostrów to Kalisz too. A new unit called "Oddzial Poznanski" was formed and Wawrzyniak was given command. Many soldiers of the disbanded First Regiment joined the unit which was renamed to Border Battalion in December. A month later, in January 1919, Wawrzyniak took Ostrów again. During the Greater Poland Uprising he was the commander of the 7th district controlled by the insurgents, which included Ostrów Wielkopolski, Odolanów, Ostrzeszów, and Kępno.During the Second World War, he was imprisoned by the NKVD, held at the Kozelsk camp and then murdered in the Katyn massacre.Among other decorations he was also awarded with the Cross of Independence and the Order of Virtuti Militari.He wrote journal articles, among them "Zarys historii powstania w południowej części Księstwa Poznańskiego" (A sketch of the history of the insurrection in the southern part of the Duchy of Poznań), published in 1922 in the periodical Wolność (Freedom). A street in Ostrów Wielkopolski is named after him.

Zhizdra River

Zhizdra River (Russian: Жиздра) is a river in Kaluga Oblast in Russia, Oka's left tributary. The length of the river is 223 kilometres (139 mi). The area of its basin is 9,170 square kilometres (3,540 sq mi). the Zhizdra River freezes up in late November and stays icebound until early April. Its main tributaries are the Resseta, Vytebet, and Serena. The towns of Kozelsk and Zhizdra are located on the shores of the Zhizdra. The name is of Baltic origin (cf. Lithuanian žizdras 'thick sand, gravel').

The lower course of the Zhizdra is located in Ugra National Park.

Cities and towns
Urban-type settlements

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