Kowloon Walled City

Kowloon Walled City was a largely ungoverned, densely populated settlement in Kowloon City in Hong Kong. Originally a Chinese military fort, the Walled City became an enclave after the New Territories were leased to Britain by China in 1898. Its population increased dramatically following the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong during World War II. By 1990, the Walled City contained 50,000 residents[1][2] within its 2.6-hectare (6.4-acre) borders. From the 1950s to the 1970s, it was controlled by local triads and had high rates of prostitution, gambling and drug abuse.

In January 1987, the Hong Kong government announced plans to demolish the Walled City. After an arduous eviction process, demolition began in March 1993 and was completed in April 1994. Kowloon Walled City Park opened in December 1995 and occupies the area of the former Walled City. Some historical artefacts from the Walled City, including its yamen building and remnants of its South Gate, have been preserved there.

Kowloon Walled City
A large solid block of ramshackle buildings varying in height, with many taller buildings and some mountains in the background.
An aerial view of the Kowloon Walled City in 1989
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinJiǔlóng Chéng Zhài
Hakka
RomanizationGiu3lung2 Sang2 Cai4
Yue: Cantonese
Jyutpinggau2 lung4 seng4 zaai6
Original name
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinJiǔlóng Zhài Chéng
Hakka
RomanizationGiu3lung2 Cai4 Sang2
Yue: Cantonese
Jyutpinggau2 lung4 zaai6 seng4

History

Military outpost

Kowloon-Walled-City-1898
Lung Tsun Stone Bridge and Lung Tsun Pavilion (Pavilion for Greeting Officials) of Kowloon Walled City in 1898

The history of the Walled City can be traced back to the Song Dynasty (960–1279), when an outpost was set up to manage the trade of salt. Little took place for hundreds of years afterward, although 30 guards were stationed there in 1668.[3] A small coastal fort was established around 1810.[4] In 1842, during Qing Emperor Daoguang's reign, Hong Kong Island was ceded to Britain by the Treaty of Nanjing. As a result, the Qing authorities felt it necessary to improve the fort in order to rule the area and check further British influence. The improvements, including the formidable defensive wall, were completed in 1847. The Walled City was captured by rebels during the Taiping Rebellion in 1854 before being retaken a few weeks later.[3][5] The present Walled City's "Dapeng Association House" forms the remnants of what was previously Lai Enjue's garrison.

Victoria City and Kowloon 1915
1915 map of the Hong Kong region with the Kowloon Walled City listed as "Chinese Town" at the upper right-hand corner

The Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory of 1898 handed additional parts of Hong Kong (the New Territories) to Britain for 99 years, but excluded the Walled City, which at the time had a population of roughly 700. China was allowed to continue to keep officials there as long as they did not interfere with the defence of British Hong Kong. The following year, the Governor, Sir Henry Blake, suspected that the Viceroy of Canton was using troops to aid resistance to the new arrangements. On 16 May 1899, British forces attacked the Walled City, only to find the Viceroy's soldiers gone, leaving behind only the mandarin and 150 residents.[3] The Qing dynasty ended its rule in 1912, leaving the Walled City to the British.

Though the British claimed ownership of the Walled City, they did little with it over the following few decades. The Protestant church established an old people's home in the old "yamen" (Chinese meaning administrative office) as well as a school and an almshouse in other former offices. Aside from such institutions, however, the Walled City became a mere curiosity for British colonials and tourists to visit; it was labelled as "Chinese Town" in a 1915 map. In 1933, the Hong Kong authorities announced plans to demolish most of the decaying Walled City's buildings, compensating the 436 squatters that lived there with new homes. By 1940 only the yamen, the school and one house remained. During its World War II occupation of Hong Kong, Japan demolished the City's wall and used the stone to expand the nearby Kai Tak Airport.[3]

Urban settlement

KWC - 1972 Sing Tao
An aerial view of the Kowloon Walled City and the neighboring Sai Tau Tsuen village in 1972

After Japan's surrender in 1945, China announced its intent to reclaim its rights to the Walled City. Refugees from mainland China because of the Chinese Civil War post 1945 poured in to take advantage of British protection (the Walled City was a Chinese territory but surrounded by British land), and 2,000 squatters occupied the Walled City by 1947. After a failed attempt to drive them out in 1948, the British adopted a 'hands-off' policy in most matters concerning the Walled City.[3]

KWC - 1975
The south side of the Kowloon Walled City in 1975. The elevation of the buildings begins to reach its maximum height.

In January 1950, a fire broke out that destroyed over 2,500 huts, home to nearly 3,500 families and 17,000 total people.[7] The disaster highlighted the need for proper fire prevention in the largely wooden-built squatter areas, complicated by the lack of political ties with the colonial and Chinese governments.[8] The ruins gave new arrivals to the Walled City the opportunity to build anew, causing speculation that the fire may have been intentionally set.[8][9]

With no government enforcement from the Chinese or the British aside from a few raids by the Hong Kong Police, the Walled City became a haven for crime and drugs. It was only during a 1959 trial for a murder that occurred within the Walled City that the Hong Kong government was ruled to have jurisdiction there. By this time, however, the Walled City was virtually ruled by the organised crime syndicates known as triads.[3]

Beginning in the 1950s, triad groups such as the 14K and Sun Yee On gained a stranglehold on the Walled City's countless brothels, gambling parlors, and opium dens. The Walled City had become such a haven for criminals that police would venture into it only in large groups.[10] It was not until 1973–74, when a series of more than 3,500 police raids resulted in over 2,500 arrests and over 1,800 kilograms (4,000 lb) of seized drugs, that the triads' power began to wane. With public support, particularly from younger residents, the continued raids gradually eroded drug use and violent crime. In 1983, the police commander of Kowloon City District declared the Walled City's crime rate to be under control.[3]

Kowloon Walled City - 1991
One of the outer edges in 1991

The City also underwent massive construction during the 1960s, with developers building new modular structures above older ones. The city became extremely densely populated, with over 30,000 people in 300 buildings occupying little more than 7 acres (2.8 ha). As a result, the city reached its maximum size by the late 1970s and early 1980s; a height restriction of 13 to 14 storeys had been imposed on the city due to the flight path of planes heading towards Kai Tak Airport.[11] As well as limiting building height, the proximity of the airport subjected residents to serious noise pollution for the last 20 years of the city's existence. Eight municipal pipes provided water to the entire structure, although more could have come from wells.[12] A few of the streets were illuminated by fluorescent lights, as sunlight rarely reached the lower levels due to the outstanding disregard to air rights within the city.[3] Although the rampant crime of earlier decades diminished in later years, the Walled City was still known for its high number of unlicensed doctors and dentists, who could operate there without threat of prosecution.[13]

Although the Walled City was for many years a hotbed of criminal activity, most residents were not involved in any crime and lived peacefully within its walls. Numerous small factories and businesses thrived inside the Walled City, and some residents formed groups to organise and improve daily life there.[14] An attempt by the government in 1963 to demolish some shacks in a corner of the City gave rise to an "anti-demolition committee" that served as the basis for a Kaifong association. Charities, religious societies, and other welfare groups were gradually introduced to the City. While medical clinics and schools went unregulated, the Hong Kong government did provide some services, such as water supply and mail delivery.[3]

Eviction and demolition

KWC - Alley
An alley in the city

Over time, both the British and the Chinese governments found the City to be increasingly intolerable despite a reduction in the reported crime rate.[1] The quality of life in the City—sanitary conditions in particular—remained far behind the rest of Hong Kong. The Sino-British Joint Declaration in 1984 laid the groundwork for the City's demolition.[3] The mutual decision by the two governments to tear down the Walled City was announced on 14 January 1987.[15] On 10 March 1987, following the announcement that the Walled City would be converted to a park, the Secretary for District Administration formally requested the Urban Council agree to take over the site following demolition. Owing to the presence of numerous other green spaces in the area, the Urban Services Department doubted the need for "yet another park" from a planning and operations point of view, but the council agreed nonetheless to accept the government's proposal on the condition that the government bear the cost of park construction.[16][17]

The government distributed some HK$2.7 billion (US$350 million) in compensation to the estimated 33,000 residents and businesses in a plan devised by a special committee of the Hong Kong Housing Authority.[18] Some residents were not satisfied with the compensation and were forcibly evicted between November 1991 and July 1992.[19][20] After four months of planning,[21] demolition of the Walled City began on 23 March 1993[13] and concluded in April 1994. Construction work on Kowloon Walled City Park started the following month.[22]

Current status as park

Kowloon Walled City Park 九龍寨城 02
The Lung Nam Pavilion located in the southwest corner of the park

The area where the Walled City once stood is now Kowloon Walled City Park, adjacent to Carpenter Road Park.[23] The 31,000 m2 (330,000 sq ft) park was completed in August 1995 and handed over to the Urban Council. It was opened officially by Governor Chris Patten a few months later on 22 December.[24] Construction of the park cost a total of HK$76 million.[22]

The park's design is modelled on Jiangnan gardens of the early Qing Dynasty. It is divided into eight landscape features,[22] with the fully restored yamen as its centrepiece. The park's paths and pavilions are named after streets and buildings in the Walled City.[25] Artefacts from the Walled City, such as five inscribed stones and three old wells, are also on display in the park.[23] The park was designed by the Architectural Services Department, which won a "prestigious award" from the Central Society of Horticulture of Germany for the redevelopment.[26]

Image-Kowloon Walled City southgate
The remnants of the City's South Gate and its entrance plaques

Components of the park include:

  • The Eight Floral Walks, each named after a different plant or flower[27]
  • The Chess Garden, featuring four 3-by-5-metre (9.8 by 16.4 ft) Chinese chessboards[28]
  • The Garden of Chinese zodiac, containing stone statues of the 12 Chinese zodiac animals[29]
  • The Garden of Four Seasons (named Guangyin Square after the small open area in the Walled City), a 300 m2 (3,200 sq ft) garden with plants that symbolise the four seasons[30]
  • The Six Arts Terrace, a 600 m2 (6,500 sq ft) wedding area containing a garden and the Bamboo Pavilion[23]
  • The Kuixing Pavilion, including a moon gate framed by two stone tablets and the towering Guibi Rock, which represents Hong Kong's return to China[31]
  • The Mountain View Pavilion, a two-storey structure resembling a docked boat that provides a good view of the entire park[23][32]
  • The Lung Tsun, Yuk Tong, and Lung Nam Pavilions[33]
  • The yamen and the remains of the South Gate (see below).

Declared monuments

KWC Yamen1
The front of the restored yamen building with one of the original cannons
Kowloon Walled City2
Children of early 20th century Kowloon Walled City residents playing on the yamen cannons

The Antiquities and Monuments Office conducted archaeological examinations as the Walled City was being demolished, and several cultural remains were discovered.[34] Among them were the Walled City's yamen and remnants of its South Gate, which were officially designated declared monuments of Hong Kong on 4 October 1996.[35]

The South Gate had originally served as the Walled City's main entrance. Along with its foundation, other remains included two stone plaques inscribed with "South Gate" and "Kowloon Walled City" from the South Gate and a flagstone path that had led up to it. The foundations of the City's wall and East Gate were also discovered.[22] The Hong Kong government preserved the South Gate remnants next to a square in front of the yamen.[36]

The yamen building is made up of three halls. Originally the middle hall served the Assistant Magistrate of Kowloon's administrative office, and the rear block was his residence. After the government officials left the area in 1899, it was used for several other purposes, including an old people's home, a refuge for widows and orphans, a school, and a clinic. It was restored in 1996 and is now found near the centre of the park.[37] It contains a photo gallery of the Walled City, and two cannon dating back to 1802 sit at the sides of its entrance.[25]

Layout and architecture

Kowloon Walled City Statue
Model of Kowloon Walled City located at the entrance of Kowloon Walled City Park

The Walled City was located in what became known as the Kowloon City area of Kowloon. In spite of its transformation from a fort into an urban enclave, the Walled City retained the same basic layout. The original fort was built on a slope[38] and consisted of a 2.6-hectare (0.010 sq mi) plot measuring about 210 by 120 metres (690 by 390 ft). The stone wall surrounding it had four entrances and measured 4 metres (13 ft) tall and 4.6 metres (15 ft) thick before it was dismantled in 1943.[4][39]

Kowloon Walled City
The Kowloon Walled City in 1989.
Kowloon Walled City is located in Hong Kong
Kowloon Walled City
Kowloon Walled City
The City's former location within Hong Kong

Construction surged dramatically during the 1960s and 1970s, until the formerly low-rise City consisted almost entirely of buildings with 10 storeys or more (with the notable exception of the yamen in its centre).[11][15] However, due to the Kai Tak Airport's position 800 metres (0.50 mi) south of the City, buildings did not exceed 14 storeys.[40] The two-storey Sai Tau Tsuen settlement bordered the Walled City to the south and west until it was cleared in 1985 and replaced with Carpenter Road Park.[41][42]

The City's dozens of alleyways were often only 1–2 m (3.3–6.6 ft) wide, and had poor lighting and drainage.[43] An informal network of staircases and passageways also formed on upper levels, which was so extensive that one could travel north to south through the entire City without ever touching solid ground.[11] Construction in the City went unregulated, and most of the roughly 350 buildings were built with poor foundations and few or no utilities.[44] Because apartments were so small—a typical unit was 23 m2 (250 sq ft)—space was maximised with wider upper floors, caged balconies and rooftop additions.[14][15][45] Roofs in the City were full of television antennae, clothes lines, water tanks and rubbish, and could be crossed using a series of ladders.[46][47]

Population

KWC - Night
A street at the edge of the city at night.

Kowloon Walled City's early population fluctuated between zero and a few hundred, and began growing steadily shortly after World War II. However, there is no accurate population information available for much of the Walled City's later existence. Official census numbers estimated the Walled City's population at 10,004 in 1971 and 14,617 in 1981, but these figures were commonly considered to be much too low. Informal estimates, on the other hand, often mistakenly included the neighbouring squatter village of Sai Tau Tsuen.[43][48] Population figures of about 50,000 were also reported.[1][2]

A thorough government survey in 1987 gave a clearer picture: an estimated 33,000 people resided within the Walled City. Based on this survey, the Walled City had a population density of approximately 1,255,000 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,250,000/sq mi) in 1987,[15] making it the most densely populated spot in the world.[49]

Culture

Kowloon Walled City 1991
Numerous dental clinics at an edge of the Walled City in 1991
KWC - Playground
A playground at the edge of the city.

Contrary to what many outsiders believed, most residents of the Walled City behaved similarly to other Hong Kong natives.[50] In response to difficult living conditions, the residents formed a tightly knit community, helping one another endure various hardships.[51] Within families, wives often did housekeeping, while grandmothers cared for their grandchildren and other children from surrounding households.[52] The City's rooftops were an important gathering place, especially for residents who lived on upper floors. Parents used them to relax, and children would play or do homework there after school.[53]

The yamen in the heart of the City was also a major social centre, a place for residents to talk, have tea or watch television, and to take classes such as calligraphy. The Old People's Centre also held religious meetings for Christians and others.[54] Other religious institutions included the Fuk Tak and Tin Hau temples, which were used for a combination of Buddhist, Taoist, and animist practices.[55]

Depictions and legacy

Memoirs and autobiographies

A few of the people who spent time in Kowloon Walled City have written accounts of their experiences. Evangelist Jackie Pullinger wrote a 1989 memoir, Crack in the Wall, about her involvement in treating drug addicts within the Walled City.[56] In his 2004 autobiography Gweilo, Martin Booth describes his exploration of the Walled City as a child in the 1950s.[57]

Works specifically documenting the Walled City

Books and research papers

  • City of Darkness: Life in Kowloon Walled City, by Ian Lambot (writer, photographer) and Greg Girard (photographer), published by Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, 1993, ISBN 9783433023556 and Watermark, 1999, ISBN 9781873200131
  • City of Darkness: Revisited, by Ian Lambot (writer, photographer) and Greg Girard (photographer), published by Watermark, 2014, ISBN 9781873200889 (revised edition of City of Darkness)
  • Kyūryūjō Tanbō Makutsu de Kurasu Hitobito: City of Darkness (九龍城探訪 魔窟で暮らす人々 -City of Darkness-, "Kowloon Walled City Exploration: People Who Live in the Devil's Den (City of Darkness)"), by Ian Lambot (writer, photographer) and Greg Girard (photographer), published by EastPress, 2004, ISBN 9784872574234 (Japanese edition of City of Darkness)
  • Daizukai Kyūryūjō (大図解九龍城, "Grand Kowloon Walled City Schematics"), by the Kyūryūjō Tankentai (the "Kowloon Walled City Exploration Team"), including Hitomi Terasawa (illustrator), Takayuki Suzuki (architect) and Hiroaki Kani (supervisor), published by Iwanami Shoten, 1997, ISBN 9784000080705
  • Kyūryūjōsai (九龍城砦, "Kowloon Walled City"), by Ryūji Miyamoto (photographer), Hiroshi Aramata (text contributor) and Ken'ichi Ōhashi (text contributor), published by Heibonsha, 1997, ISBN 9784582277364; Heibonsha, 1998, ISBN 9784582277364; Heibonsha, 1999, ISBN 9784582277364
  • Saigo no Kyūryūjōsai (最期の九龍城砦, "The End of Kowloon Walled City"), by Shintarō Nakamura, published by Shinpusha, 1996, ISBN 9784883066469
  • An Architectural Study on the Kowloon Walled City: Preliminary Findings, by Suenn Ho, published by Columbia University, 1992
  • Jiulong Cheng Zhai shihua (九龍城寨史話; "Kowloon Walled City's History"), by Lu Jinzhe, published by Joint Publishing, 1997, ISBN 9789620406829
  • Jiulong Cheng Zhai: Yige teshu shequ di dili toushi (九龍城寨:一個特殊社區的地理透視; "Kowloon Walled City: A Geographical Perspective of a Special Community"), by Huang Junyao et al., published by the Chinese University of Hong Kong – Department of Geography, 1992
  • FARMAX: Excursions on Density, by Winy Maas, Jacob van Rijs and Richard Koek (main contributors), published by 010 Publishers, 1998, ISBN 9789064502668; 010 Publishers, 2006, ISBN 9789064505874

Documentary films

  • The Walled City (城寨; Chéng Zhài; "Walled City"), as part of Hong Kong Connection's (鏗鏘集; Kēngqiāng jí; "Resonant Collection") 70th segment, produced by Radio Television Hong Kong (RTHK), 1979
  • Hongkongs geheime Stadt – Ein Labyrinth für 50.000 Menschen ("Hong Kong's Secret City: A Labyrinth for 50,000 People"), produced by Österreichischer Rundfunk (ORF), 1989
  • Kowloon Walled City, as part of Whicker's World, produced by ITV Yorkshire, 1980
  • City of Imagination: Kowloon Walled City 20 Years Later (archive footage by ORF and Suenn Ho), produced by The Wall Street Journal, 2014

Appearance in creative works

Many authors, filmmakers, game designers, and visual artists have used the Walled City to convey a sense of oppressive urbanisation or unfettered criminality. In literature, Robert Ludlum's novel The Bourne Supremacy uses the Walled City as one of its settings.[58] The City appears as a virtual reality environment (described by Steven Poole as an "oasis of political and creative freedom") in William Gibson's Bridge trilogy, and as a contrast with Singapore in his Wired article "Disneyland with the Death Penalty".[59][60] In the manga Crying Freeman, the titular character's wife travels to the Walled City to master her swordsmanship and control a cursed sword.[61] The manga Blood+: Kowloon Nights uses the Walled City as the setting for a series of murders.[62] The Walled City finds an extensive mention in Doctor Robin Cook's 1991 novel Vital Signs. The filth, squalor and the crime-oriented nature of the area is described vividly when the characters Marissa and Tristan Williams pass by the back-lanes. The later part of episode 3 and episode 4 of the anime Street Fighter II V are set in the Kowloon Walled City, depicted as a dark and lawless area where Ryu, Ken and Chun-Li have to fight for their lives at every turn, being rescued by the police once they reach the Walled City's limits.

The 1982 Shaw Brothers film Brothers from the Walled City is set in Kowloon Walled City.[63] The 1984 gangster film Long Arm of the Law features the Walled City as a refuge for gang members before they are gunned down by police.[57] In the 1988 film Bloodsport, starring Jean-Claude Van Damme, the Walled City is the setting for a martial arts tournament.[64] The 1992 non-narrative film Baraka features several highly detailed shots of the Walled City shortly before its demolition. The 1993 film Crime Story starring Jackie Chan was partly filmed in the deserted Walled City, and includes real scenes of building explosions.[65] A walled neighbourhood called the Narrows in the 2005 film Batman Begins was inspired by the Walled City.[66] The 2006 Hong Kong horror film Re-cycle features a decrepit, nightmarish version of the Walled City, complete with tortured souls from which the protagonist must flee.[67] The 2016 TVB martial arts drama A Fist Within Four Walls takes place in the Triad-ridden Walled City in the early 1960s.[68]

Cyber Kowloon Walled City - 01. 2nd floor - Warehouse Kawasaki, 2014-06-02 (by Ken OHYAMA)
Kawasaki Warehouse, a Japanese game arcade with a Kowloon Walled City theme

Kowloon Walled City is depicted in several games, including Kowloon's Gate,[57] Shenmue II[69] and Call of Duty: Black Ops. The game Stranglehold, a sequel to the film Hard Boiled, features a version of the Walled City filled with hundreds of Triad members.[69] In the games Fear Effect and Fear Effect 2, photographs of the Walled City were used as inspiration "for moods, camera angles and lighting."[70] Concept art for the MMORPG Guild Wars: Factions depicts massive, densely packed structures inspired by the Walled City.[71] The pen-and-paper RPG Shadowrun and CRPG Shadowrun: Hong Kong include a crime-ridden, rebuilt version of the Walled City set in 2056.[72]

A partial recreation of the Kowloon Walled City exists in the Anata No Warehouse, an amusement arcade that opened in 2009 in the Japanese suburb of Kawasaki, Kanagawa. The designer's desire to accurately replicate the atmosphere of the Walled City is reflected in the arcade's narrow corridors, electrical wires, pipes, postboxes, sign boards, neon lights, frayed posters, and various other small touches that provide an air of authenticity.[73]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Owen, Pamela (5 May 2012). "Inside the Kowloon Walled City where 50,000 residents eked out a grimy living in the most densely populated place on earth". The Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
  2. ^ a b Nosowitz, Dan (18 April 2013). "Life Inside The Most Densely Populated Place On Earth [Infographic]". Popular Science. Popular Science. Retrieved 13 April 2018. 1990 50,000 inhabitants
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wilkinson, Julia. "A Chinese Magistrate's Fort". City of Darkness: Life in Kowloon Walled City. pp. 60–71. ISBN 978-1-8732-0013-1.
  4. ^ a b Sinn, Elizabeth. "Kowloon Walled City: Its Origin and Early History" (PDF). Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 27: 30–31. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
  5. ^ Li Long Lam, Excavation Report of Kowloon Walled City, Hong Kong(香港九龙寨城发掘简报)", in Kaogu, vol. 6, 2007.
  6. ^ Kwan, Leung Ping. "The Walled City: Our Place". City of Darkness: Life in Kowloon Walled City. pp. 120–23.
  7. ^ Smart 2006, p. 59
  8. ^ a b Smart 2006, pp. 65–67
  9. ^ Booth, Martin (14 November 2006). Golden Boy: Memories of a Hong Kong Childhood. St. Martin's Press. p. 131. ISBN 978-1-4668-1858-3.
  10. ^ Carney, John (16 March 2013). "Kowloon Walled City: Life in the City of Darkness". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
  11. ^ a b c Lambot 2007, p. 48
  12. ^ Goddard, Charles (September 2007). "The Water Supply". City of Darkness: Life in Kowloon Walled City. pp. 36–38.
  13. ^ a b Vines, Stephen (24 March 1993). "Demolition begins on HK's Walled City". The Business Times. SG. p. 4. Retrieved 25 November 2009. (subscription required)
  14. ^ a b Basler, Barbara (16 June 1992). "The Walled City, Home to Huddled Masses, Falls". The New York Times. p. A4. Retrieved 27 November 2009.
  15. ^ a b c d Goddard, Charles. "The Clearance". City of Darkness: Life in Kowloon Walled City. pp. 208–11.
  16. ^ "Memorandum for Members of the Recreation Select Committee, Capital Works Select Committee, Finance Select Committee, and the Standing Committee of the Whole Council: Proposed Park at the site of Kowloon Walled City". Urban Council. 10 April 1987. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  17. ^ "Memorandum for Members of the Recreation Select Committee: Proposed Park Development at The Kowloon Walled City Site". Urban Council. 7 September 1990. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  18. ^ Lau, Esme (10 December 1987). "$2.7 billion package for residents of Walled City" (PDF). The Hong Kong Standard. (subscription required)
  19. ^ "Families evicted from slum city". The Toronto Star. 28 November 1991. p. A3. Retrieved 25 November 2009. (subscription required)
  20. ^ Jonathan, Braude (3 July 1992). "Last squatters evicted in Kowloon". The Times. Retrieved 25 November 2009. (subscription required)
  21. ^ Kang-Chung, Ng (19 March 1993). "Work to start on slum area". The South China Morning Post. CN. p. 4. Retrieved 25 November 2009. (subscription required)
  22. ^ a b c d "Kowloon Walled City Park – History/Background". Leisure and Cultural Services Department. 21 October 2004. Archived from the original on 7 February 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2009.
  23. ^ a b c d "Location Database". Film Services Office. 1 June 2009. Retrieved 18 November 2009.
  24. ^ Flint, John (23 December 1995). "Walled City's transformation sparks hopes for other sites". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  25. ^ a b "The Yamen". Leisure and Cultural Services Department. 21 October 2004. Archived from the original on 23 November 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
  26. ^ Ng, Kang-Chung (12 January 1994). "Walled City park project wins top award". South China Morning Post.
  27. ^ "Eight Floral Walks". Leisure and Cultural Services Department. 21 October 2004. Archived from the original on 13 November 2009. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
  28. ^ "The Chess Garden". Leisure and Cultural Services Department. 21 October 2004. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
  29. ^ "The Garden of Chinese Zodiac". Leisure and Cultural Services Department. 21 October 2004. Archived from the original on 13 November 2009. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
  30. ^ "The Garden of Four Seasons". Leisure and Cultural Services Department. 21 October 2004. Archived from the original on 13 November 2009. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
  31. ^ "Kuixing Pavilion and Guibi Rock". Leisure and Cultural Services Department. 21 October 2004. Archived from the original on 13 November 2009. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
  32. ^ "The Mountain View Pavilion". Leisure and Cultural Services Department. 21 October 2004. Archived from the original on 25 November 2009. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
  33. ^ "Layout Plan". Leisure and Cultural Services Department. 21 October 2004. Archived from the original on 23 November 2009. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
  34. ^ "The Geographical Information System on Hong Kong Heritage". Leisure and Cultural Services Department. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
  35. ^ "Annex I Listing of Declared Monuments". Environmental Protection Department. 28 April 2006. Archived from the original on 28 December 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2009.
  36. ^ "The Old South Gate". Leisure and Cultural Services Department. 21 October 2004. Archived from the original on 24 November 2009. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
  37. ^ "Former Yamen Building of Kowloon Walled City, Kowloon Walled City Park". Leisure and Cultural Services Department. 5 February 2009. Archived from the original on 3 November 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
  38. ^ Lambot 2007, p. 18
  39. ^ Benedetti, Paul (18 September 1982). "A nervy tour of Kowloon's Walled City". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 27 November 2009. (subscription required)
  40. ^ Lambot 2007, p. 206
  41. ^ Girard, Greg. "Foreword". City of Darkness: Life in Kowloon Walled City. p. 7.
  42. ^ Lambot 2007, p. 71
  43. ^ a b Wesley-Smith, Peter (1998). Unequal treaty, 1898–1997: China, Great Britain, and Hong Kong's new territories (rev. ed.). Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. pp. 189–90. ISBN 0-19-590354-4.
  44. ^ Lambot 2007, pp. 48, 74, 79
  45. ^ Lambot 2007, pp. 34, 199
  46. ^ Popham, Peter. "Introduction". City of Darkness: Life in Kowloon Walled City. pp. 9–13.
  47. ^ Lambot 2007, pp. 199, 203
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Sources

External links

External media
Images
Cross-section drawing of the City
What's Left of the Kowloon Walled City (UrbanPhoto)
Old and rare external shots of the City (blog post)
"City of Anarchy", Infographic of Kowloon Walled City (SCMP News)
Video
Video clip of the City (in Japanese)
Unofficial analyses:

Coordinates: 22°19′56.21″N 114°11′25″E / 22.3322806°N 114.19028°E

A Fist Within Four Walls

A Fist Within Four Walls (Chinese: 城寨英雄; Cantonese Yale: Sìngjaaih Yīnghùng) is a 2016 Hong Kong martial arts action television drama produced by Jazz Boon and TVB. It premiered on TVB Jade in Hong Kong, Astro On Demand in Malaysia and TVB First in Singapore on 1 August 2016. The final episode aired on 28 August 2016, totalling 28 episodes.

A Fist Within Four Walls takes place in the triad-ridden Kowloon Walled City in the early 1960s. The plot revolves around Chor Au-kuen, a gifted martial arts novice who takes on the duty of protecting the walled city against evildoers. A Fist Within Four Walls is the highest-rated drama of 2016, and its final episode was the second most-watched series finale of the year in Hong Kong. It received generally positive reviews during its broadcast.

The drama received multiple awards and nominations at the StarHub TVB Awards and the TVB Star Awards in Malaysia, winning Favourite Drama, Favourite Actor (Ruco Chan), and Favourite Actress (Nancy Wu) at both ceremonies. It won six awards at the TVB Anniversary Awards, including Best Drama, Best Actor (Chan), Best Actress (Wu), Most Popular Male Character (Benjamin Yuen), Most Popular Female Character (Grace Wong), and Most Popular Drama Theme Song ("Never Know You Are the Best").

Anata No Warehouse

Anata No Warehouse is a five-storey arcade facility in Kawasaki, Japan. It is specifically designed to look like the former Kowloon Walled City in Hong Kong, though it also has a Cyberpunk aesthetic. The facility was designed and decorated by Taishiro Hoshino in 2009. Overall, the decor, even though new, is designed to look old and vaguely creepy.Anata no warehouse means "your warehouse" in Japanese.

The facility is purposely designed to look worn down. It is a 5-minute walk from Kawasaki station.

Chungking Mansions

Chungking Mansions is a building located at 36–44 Nathan Road in Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong. The building is well known as nearly the cheapest accommodation in Hong Kong. Though the building was supposed to be residential, it is made up of many independent low-budget hotels, shops and other services. The unusual atmosphere of the building is sometimes compared to that of the former Kowloon Walled City.Chungking Mansions features guesthouses, curry restaurants, African bistros, clothing shops, sari stores, and foreign exchange offices. It often acts as a large gathering place for some of the ethnic minorities in Hong Kong, particularly South Asians (Indians, Nepalese, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis and Sri Lankans), Middle Eastern people, Nigerians, Europeans, Americans, and many other peoples of the world. Peter Shadbolt of CNN stated that the complex was the "unofficial African quarter of Hong Kong".The building was completed in 1961, at which time Chinese residents predominated. Now, after more than five decades of use, there are an estimated 4,000 people living in the complex.

Greg Girard

Greg Girard (born 1955) is a Canadian photographer whose work has examined the social and physical transformation in Asia's largest cities for more than three decades.His most recent book, Hotel Okinawa, published in 2017, looks at Okinawa's unique social and physical landscape, created by decades of living alongside the US military. Okinawa hosts more than half the 50,000 US troops stationed in Japan as well as their dependents and civilian contractors. Writer Marc Feustel in his introduction describes "Hotel Okinawa" as a "document of the end of the American Century".Also published in 2017, Under Vancouver 1972-1982 looks at the city where Girard was born, especially the waterfront and the other unglamorous parts of the port city, before making Asia his home for the next thirty years.City of Darkness Revisited, released in 2014, revives an early collaboration with co-author Ian Lambot, and updates their original book City of Darkness: Life in Kowloon Walled City (1993).Based in Shanghai between 1998 and 2011, his photographic monograph Phantom Shanghai (2007), looks at the rapid and at times violent transition of Shanghai as the city raced to make itself "modern again" at the beginning of the 21st Century.Other recent titles include Hanoi Calling (2010), and In the Near Distance (2010), a book of early photographs made in Asia and North America between 1973 and 1986. He is currently working on a book that examines the social and physical landscape of US military bases in Asia and their host communities.Girard's work is in the collection of the National Gallery of Canada, The Art Gallery of Ontario, the Vancouver Art Gallery. His photographs have appeared in Time, Newsweek, Fortune, Forbes, Elle, Paris Match, Stern, The New York Times Magazine. His work has been exhibited in galleries in South Korea, London, Germany, Helsinki, and New York City.

In addition to book projects and gallery work he is a contributing photographer to National Geographic.

Handover of Hong Kong

The transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, commonly known as the handover of Hong Kong (or simply "the Handover", also "the Return" in mainland China and Hong Kong) was the transformation of control over the United Kingdom's then colony of Hong Kong, pursuant to which it ceased to be a British Dependent Territory and became instead a special administrative region of the People's Republic of China on 1 July 1997. The returned territory comprised Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula, which were respectively ceded to Britain in 1842 and 1860, as well as the New Territories, which were leased for 99 years from 1898. The transfer was arranged to coincide with the expiration of this lease on the previous day, 30 June 1997.

This Handover marked the end of British rule in Hong Kong. Hong Kong was Britain's last substantial overseas territory, with a population of approximately 6.5 million in 1997, which represented approximately 97% of the population of the British Dependant Territories as a whole at that time (the next largest, Bermuda, having a 1997 population of approximately 62,000). Consequently, the Handover is regarded by some as the final act of the British Empire, with 1 July 1997 as being the end date of the British Empire.

Hong Kong Island

Hong Kong Island (Chinese: 香港島; Cantonese Yale: Hēunggóng dóu) is an island in the southern part of Hong Kong. It has a population of 1,289,500 and its population density is 16,390/km², as of 2008. The island had a population of about 3,000 inhabitants scattered in a dozen fishing villages when it was occupied by the United Kingdom in the First Opium War. In 1842, the island was formally ceded in perpetuity to the UK under the Treaty of Nanking and the City of Victoria was then established on the island by the British Force in honour of Queen Victoria.

The Central area on the island is the historical, political and economic centre of Hong Kong. The northern coast of the island forms the southern shore of the Victoria Harbour, which is largely responsible for the development of Hong Kong due to its deep waters favoured by large trade ships.

The island is home to many of the most famous sights in Hong Kong, such as "The Peak", Ocean Park, many historical sites and various large shopping centres. The mountain ranges across the island are also famous for hiking.

The northern part of Hong Kong Island, together with Kowloon and Tsuen Wan New Town, forms the core urban area of Hong Kong. Their combined area is approximately 88.3 square kilometres (34.1 square miles) and their combined population (that of the northern part of the island and of Kowloon) is approximately 3,156,500, reflecting a population density of 35,700/km² (91,500/sq. mi.).

The island is often referred to locally as "Hong Kong side" or "Island side". This style was formerly applied to many locations (e.g. China-side or even Kowloon Walled City-side) but is now only heard in this form and Kowloon side, suggesting the two sides of the harbour. The form was once more common in Britain than now, such as Surrey-side and is still seen in British placenames like Cheapside, Tyneside, and Teesside, not all of which have an obvious watercourse or boundary with actual sides.

KWC

KWC may refer to:

Karaoke World Championships, a song contest and talent show

Kentucky Wesleyan College, a private Methodist college in Owensboro, Kentucky

Tri-Cities (Ontario), a tri-city area in Ontario, Canada that encompasses Kitchener, Waterloo and Cambridge

King William's College, a school in Castletown, Isle of Man

Kowloon Walled City, a former enclave of Hong Kong

Kyocera Wireless Corporation, a manufacturer of mobile phones

Kowloon

Kowloon (; Chinese: 九龍; Cantonese Yale: Gáulùhng) is an urban area in Hong Kong comprising the Kowloon Peninsula and New Kowloon. It is bordered by the Lei Yue Mun strait to the east, Mei Foo Sun Chuen and Stonecutter's Island to the west, a mountain range, including Tate's Cairn and Lion Rock to the north, and Victoria Harbour to the south. With a population of 2,019,533 (2 million) and a population density of 43,033/km2 in 2006, it is the most populous urban area in Hong Kong. The peninsula's area is approximately 47 km2 (18 sq mi).

Kowloon's Gate

Kowloon's Gate (クーロンズゲート) is a 1997 Japanese an adventure video game developed by Zeque. Set in the Kowloon Walled City in Hong Kong, it is considered a cult hit.

Kowloon City

Kowloon City (Chinese: 九龍城; Jyutping: gau2 lung4 sing4) is an area in Kowloon, Hong Kong. It is administratively part of Kowloon City District.

Compared with the administrative Kowloon City District, the Kowloon City area is vaguely bounded south by Prince Edward Road West and Prince Edward Road East, north with Lo Fu Ngam, east with Kai Tak Nullah and west with Kowloon Tsai.

Kowloon City District

Kowloon City District (Chinese: 九龍城區; Cantonese Yale: Gáulùhng sìhng kēui) is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. It is located in the city of Kowloon. It had a population of 381,352 in 2001, and increased to 418,732 in 2016. The district has the third most educated residents while its residents enjoy the highest income in Kowloon.

Kowloon City district covers approximately area of 1,000 hectares, and is mainly a residential area with the majority of its population living in private sector housing, including old tenement buildings, private residential developments and low-rise villas, while the rest of them mainly live in public rental housing and the Home Ownership Scheme estates. It is the only district that incorporated into the land of Hong Kong in different stages (Convention of Peking, Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory and the demolition of the Kowloon Walled City)

Kowloon City District is a relatively low density residential area.

Areas include: Ho Man Tin, Hung Hom, Kai Tak Airport, Kowloon Tong, Ma Tau Wai, To Kwa Wan, and Whampoa Garden, and the proper Kowloon City.

Kowloon Walled City Park

The Kowloon Walled City Park (traditional Chinese: 九龍寨城公園; simplified Chinese: 九龙寨城公园; pinyin: Jiǔlóng zhài chéng gōngyuán; Jyutping: gau2 lung4 zaai6 seng4 gung1 jyun4) is a historical park in Kowloon City, Kowloon, Hong Kong. The Kowloon Walled City had been a military stronghold since 15th century due to its coastal location and was a centre of vice and crime until 1987. Under the agreement between the Hong Kong Government and the PRC, the Kowloon Walled City was demolished in the 1990s while the indigenous buildings and features were preserved for incorporation in the new park.

The Kowloon Walled City Park is designed as a Jiangnan (江南) garden of the early Qing dynasty. The park, 31,000 square metres in total, is divided into eight theme zones with their own characteristic scenery, matching with the style of the whole park. The design was awarded a Diploma at the IGO Stuttgart EXPO 93 (International Garden Exposition).

Lee Sing-man

Lee Sing-man (born 1944), commonly known as "Uncle Man", is a paper-tearing artist in Hong Kong.

He was once a volunteer in Kowloon Walled City Park, creating his works there, before he was invited to demonstrate in Tsim Sha Tsui and became known.

List of A Fist Within Four Walls characters

A Fist Within Four Walls is a Hong Kong television drama created by Jazz Boon for TVB. It is a martial arts action serial drama, and revolves around kung fu masters living in the triad-ridden Kowloon Walled City during the early 1960s. The drama stars Ruco Chan as the series' protagonist, a gifted martial arts novice who, along with a group of young kung fu masters, take down the walled city's largest criminal organisation, the Fellow Association. The drama also stars Nancy Wu, Benjamin Yuen, Philip Ng, Yuen Qiu, Grace Wong, and Moon Lau in lead roles.

List of buildings and structures in Hong Kong

This is a list of buildings and structures in Hong Kong, in alphabetical order.

Lok Fu station

Lok Fu (Chinese: 樂富; Cantonese Yale: Lohkfu) is a station on the Hong Kong MTR Kwun Tong Line. It was opened on 1 October 1979 as part of the Modified Initial System (MIS; now Kwun Tong Line), the first part of the MTR. The Kowloon Walled City is located near the station.

Lung Tsun Stone Bridge

The Lung Tsun Stone Bridge (Chinese: 龍津橋) is a former bridge in Hong Kong which was buried during the construction of Kai Tak Airport and which connected the Kowloon Walled City to a pier leading into Kowloon Bay.

Mico de Noche

Mico de Noche is a stoner sludge metal band from Seattle, Washington, USA. Mico de Noche began as a duo in 2001 with Donovan Stewart (formerly of Helltrout, Migas) on drums and vocals, and Michael Crum (also of Helltrout, and formerly AMQA) on guitar and vocals.

In 2003, Mico de Noche was named one of the top 10 metal bands by the Seattle Weekly. Mico de Noche performed at SXSW in 2004 and 2005 and Wantage Records' TotalFest four times from 2003-2006.

The band recorded Cherries throughout 2006 as a collaborative project featuring several guest musicians. The songs on Cherries utilize a non-standard BADGBE tuning. In March 2007, Mico de Noche added Chad Baker (formerly of Swelter, nomovingparts) on bass in order to recreate the album's ensemble sound in live performances. Cherries was released on November 6, 2007 on the Australian Cattle God label out of Austin, TX.

Don Stewart moved from drums to guitar in Spring of 2008 and was replaced on drums by Reno Dave. Stewart also works as a recording engineer and has recorded projects by Big Business, Black Elk and Lozen. Stewart was also the touring bass player during ...And You Will Know Us By The Trail of Dead's Summer 2007 festival tour.

In July 2009, Stonerrock.com announced plans by Mico de Noche to release a split 10" vinyl record featuring songs by Mico de Noche and Brothers of the Sonic Cloth (aka BOTSC) featuring grunge rock pioneer Tad Doyle. On August 8, 2009, Mico de Noche was featured on the KEXP radio show Audioasis and performed several songs live in the studio. The Mico de Noche/BOTSC split 10" vinyl record was released in October 2009 as an edition of 500 copies and featured two songs by Mico de Noche, "Ganges" and "Misanthrope" and one song by Brothers of the Sonic Cloth. The record received several positive reviews and appeared on multiple "Best of 2009" lists.After playing Tad's wedding reception in 2010, Mico de Noche took a nearly year-long hiatus. During this time, Reno Dave became more heavily involved in his side project, Cody Foster Army (CFA). In mid-2011, Mico de Noche resumed rehearsal and began booking live shows again. Dave Foster (formerly of Nirvana, Helltrout, and contributor on Mico de Noche's "Cherries") became the permanent drummer, and several live shows were played throughout 2011 and 2012.

Early 2013 saw the release of a new 7" vinyl EP featuring 3 new songs recorded by Stewart and mixed by Scott Evans of the Bay Area band Kowloon Walled City. The digital download version of the EP contained an additional track recorded during the same sessions. The record received favorable reviews and was praised for its modern take on an earlier era of Seattle-area heavy music.

Timeline of Hong Kong history

The following is a timeline of the history of Hong Kong.

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