Kosciuszko Bridge

Coordinates: 40°43′40″N 73°55′45″W / 40.7277°N 73.9291°W

Kosciuszko Bridge 2017-02a jeh
New and old Kosciuszko bridges in February 2017. New cable-stayed bridge is in foreground left. The 1939 truss bridge is behind it and right.
Kosciuszko Bridge is located in New York City
Kosciuszko Bridge
Location of the Kosciuszko Bridge

The Kosciuszko Bridge /ˌkɒziˈʊskoʊ, ˌkɒʒiˈʊʃkoʊ/[1] is a cable-stayed bridge over Newtown Creek in New York City, connecting Greenpoint in Brooklyn to Maspeth in Queens. The bridge consists of a pair of cable-stayed bridge spans: the eastbound span opened in April 2017, while the westbound span opened in August 2019. An older bridge, a truss bridge of the same name that was located on the site of the westbound cable-stayed span, was originally opened in 1939 and was closed and demolished in 2017. The crossing is part of the Brooklyn–Queens Expressway (BQE), which carries Interstate 278.

The older truss bridge replaced a swing bridge called the Meeker Avenue Bridge, which connected Meeker Avenue in Brooklyn to Laurel Hill Boulevard in Queens. The old Kosciuszko Bridge, originally also called the Meeker Avenue Bridge, carried six lanes of traffic, three in each direction. In 1940, a year after opening, the bridge was renamed after Polish military leader Tadeusz Kościuszko, who fought alongside the Americans in the American Revolutionary War.

In 2014, a contract was awarded and work begun to build one of two replacement bridges with more capacity, with the first bridge initially carrying bidirectional traffic. The replacement bridges have the same name as the original bridge, and are both cable-stayed bridges that will each carry one direction of traffic. The first bridge, located south of the old truss bridge, opened on April 27, 2017, with three lanes in each direction. Once the old bridge was demolished via controlled explosion in October 2017, a new westbound cable-stayed bridge with four lanes and a bike/pedestrian path started construction on the site of the old bridge. The first cable-stayed bridge became eastbound-only with five lanes when the westbound bridge opened on August 29, 2019.

Original bridges

Kosciuszko Bridge
Kosciusko bridge from up Newtown Creek jeh
1939 bridge as seen from upstream Queens side, 2008
Coordinates40°43′40″N 73°55′45″W / 40.7277°N 73.9291°W
CrossesNewtown Creek
LocaleBrooklyn and Queens, New York City
Maintained byNew York State Department of Transportation
Preceded byGreenpoint Avenue Bridge
Followed byGrand Street Bridge
Characteristics
DesignTruss bridge
Total length6,021 feet (1,835 m)
Longest span300 feet (91 m)
Clearance below125 feet (38 m)
History
OpenedAugust 23, 1939
ClosedApril 27, 2017
Statistics
Daily traffic162,581 (2016)[2]

The first bridge on the site was built in 1803 through an Act of Legislature authorizing the "building of a Toll Bridge over Newtown Creek: this bridge charged one cent per foot passenger, which was why the bridge was called the "Penny Bridge." The original bridge was replaced several times. Also called Meeker Avenue Bridge, the structure in use since 1894 was still informally known by some as the Penny Bridge. The bridge structures connected Meeker Avenue in Brooklyn to Review Avenue and Laurel Hill Boulevard in Queens.

Until 1888, the bridge was operated by private companies and thereafter became the property of the people. In 1896, the bridge became the property of the city of Brooklyn and in 1898, upon consolidation, it was taken over by the Department of Bridges of the Greater City of New York.[3]

The Kosciuszko Bridge, originally referred to as the Meeker Avenue Bridge, opened on August 23, 1939.[4][3] It was built at a cost of $6 million[5] to $13 million[4] (equal to between $108,000,000 and $234,000,000 in 2018 dollars).[6] The Meeker Avenue Bridge's design and form were vastly different than the first Meeker Avenue Bridge. The earlier was a swing drawbridge and carried a two-lane, 20-foot-wide (6.1 m) roadway and two sidewalks. The new bridge carried two three-lane concrete roadways each 32 feet (9.8 m) wide and separated by a 4-foot (1.2 m) median, as well as walkways alongside it. Additionally, this new bridge structure contained 16,315 short tons (14,801 t) of steel, along with 88,120 cubic yards (67,370 m3) of concrete masonry.[3]

One person who helped build the new $1.5 million Meeker Avenue Bridge was John Kelly, a former Navy deep-sea diver from Greenpoint, Brooklyn, who became famous for helping to work on the new bridge. In 1938, he completed his task of building a cofferdam, a box-like structure made of 250 steel sheets. This enabled workmen to operate and build an underwater pier in dry surroundings on the Brooklyn side of the new bridge; after that, Kelly began cutting away cofferdam bracings on the Queens side, at Laurel Hill Boulevard and Review Avenue. One of the tools he worked with was an underwater-operated cutting torch, which burned oxygen, hydrogen, and compressed air.[7]

The city government officially renamed the bridge after Tadeusz Kościuszko, a Polish volunteer who was a General in the American Revolutionary War, on July 10, 1940.[5] On September 22, 1940, months after the conquest of Poland, Mayor Fiorello La Guardia led a ceremony in which he formally renamed the new Meeker Avenue Bridge over Newtown Creek after Kościuszko.[8][9][4] The naming occurred in the presence of 15,000 people, mainly Polish-American residents and city and state government representatives, some stating that the spirit of Polish liberty would never die.[8][5] There were parades at both ends of the bridge, and La Guardia also unveiled plaques that commemorated the new name.[5] In making an ovation, the mayor described President Franklin D. Roosevelt, like Kościuszko, as a "champion of liberty during a difficult period", referring to World War II in which Poland was occupied by Germany. He also stated, "I am confident that Poland will live again. Any land that breeds such lovers of freedom can never be kept enslaved. The Polish people may be captive, but the flaming spirit of Polish liberty will never be destroyed."[8] Two of the bridge towers were surmounted with eagles, one with the Polish eagle and the other the American eagle.[10]

A repaving project in 1958 temporarily made the bridge a one-way operation for five months. Only Queens-bound traffic was allowed during afternoons and evenings, while only Brooklyn-bound traffic was permitted at all other times.[11] In 1965, the Kosciuszko Bridge was widened,[12] and the approach ramps on the Brooklyn–Queens Expressway and Long Island Expressway were rebuilt into an incomplete partial cloverleaf interchange for $32.7 million.[13] The BQE was rebuilt from Cherry Street, at the Brooklyn end of the bridge, to Queens Boulevard in Queens. A small section of the LIE was reconstructed near its interchange with the BQE, between Van Dam Street and Maurice Avenue. This necessitated temporary detour routes around the bridge.[12] At this time the original bridge's walkways were removed to add more car lanes.[14]

Replacement

Kosciuszko Bridge
New Kosciuszko Bridge rendering
Rendering of replacement when both bridges are completed.
Coordinates40°43′40″N 73°55′45″W / 40.7277°N 73.9291°W
Carries I-278 (Brooklyn-Queens Expressway)
CrossesNewtown Creek
LocaleBrooklyn and Queens, New York City
Maintained byNew York State Department of Transportation
Preceded byGreenpoint Avenue Bridge
Followed byGrand Street Bridge
Characteristics
DesignCable-stayed bridge
Longest span1,001 feet (305 m)
Clearance below90 feet (27 m)
History
OpenedApril 27, 2017 (eastbound)
August 29, 2019 (westbound)

The 1939 bridge, which was only meant to serve 10,000 vehicles per day, carried 18 times that amount of traffic when it became part of the Interstate Highway System. It was not up to Interstate standards since it did not have any drainage pipes or shoulders.[15] By the 1990s, the bridge was deteriorating and heavily congested. After an 18-month study in 1994–5, State Transportation Department officials concluded that in order to relieve congestion on the busy span, a new $100 million bridge, which included an additional three lanes, should be built next to the original six-lane Kosciuszko Bridge. This new bridge would be part of a renovation project planned for the entire crossing. DOT Supervisor Peter King stated that this new bridge may be required to avoid severe traffic backups on neighborhood streets surrounding the bridge during renovation of the Kosciuszko. King felt that in order to resolve the increasing number of severely congested streets and intersections, "a second parallel span" may be the answer.[16]

Kosciuszko Br new towers from Bk jeh
Two pylons built, June 2016
BklynQns Expy Kosciuszko 09
Traveling across the new eastbound bridge, April 2017
Kosciusko Bridge illuminated at night
Seen at night, October 2018

Construction of eastbound bridge

In 2009, it was decided to replace the 1939 structure with a new bridge, which was to consist of a five-lane eastbound span, a four-lane westbound span, a bike path, and a walkway.[17] Four designs were considered for the new structure: a cable-stayed bridge, a through arch bridge, a box girder bridge, and a deck arch bridge.[18] The cable-stayed bridge design, selected after a public review process, makes the replacement bridge the first vehicular cable-stayed bridge in New York City since the Brooklyn Bridge (which has a hybrid suspension/cable-stayed design),[19] as well as the first major new bridge in New York City since the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge's completion in 1964.[19][20]

Construction was originally expected to begin in 2013,[21] but was then delayed to winter 2014. About 140 trees were removed on both sides of the bridge in April 2014 in preparation for the rebuilding, though officials say twice the number of trees will be replanted once the bridge's reconstruction was completed.[22]

On May 23, 2014, a $554.77 million design-build contract was awarded to a team consisting of Skanska, which will be managing partner; Ecco III of Yonkers; Kiewit Corporation of Nebraska; and HNTB of Kansas as the lead design firm.[23][24] It is the largest single contract ever awarded by the New York State Department of Transportation. The work involved building a new eastbound viaduct, which was completed in 2017; the existing eastbound structure would then be demolished. The westbound viaduct would then be completed by 2020.[25] The new bridges are being built since the Kosciuszko Bridge is known as a notorious traffic bottleneck; according to The New York Times, it is "perhaps the city's most notorious [bridge], hated and feared by drivers and synonymous in traffic reports with bottlenecks, stop-and-go and general delay."[18] The bridges would reduce delays by up to 65% during rush hours, as well as provide a new pedestrian/bicycle connection between the boroughs.[26][27]

On December 4, 2014, work began on the eastbound bridge, which entailed temporarily narrowing the Meeker Avenue entrance on the Brooklyn side on the bridge in order to widen it in the long run. Work was to take place in the daytime, temporarily causing more traffic congestion.[28] By August 2015, the two pylons for the eastbound bridge, as well as part of the bridge structure, were under construction.[29] The 287-foot-high (87 m) pylons were sunk 150 to 185 feet (46 to 56 m), with each pylon resting on four foundations at that depth. After the pylons were completed, a supporting steel-and-concrete deck section called a pier table was built between the two pylons. The other deck sections were then built outward from the pier table, with two cables supporting each section, creating a 1,001-foot-long (305 m) deck supported by 56 cables in total. A 4,000-short-ton (3,600-long-ton) counterweight was built under the western section of the eastbound bridge since the eastern section was longer and heavier.[19] The new bridge was built to withstand a century's worth of traffic.[30]

The new eastbound bridge, which initially hosted both directions of traffic,[31] opened ahead of schedule[32] on April 27, 2017,[20] with a ceremony attended by Governor Andrew Cuomo.[26] The bridge is the first of several bridges citywide to feature an advanced lighting system – part of Governor Cuomo's "New York Harbor of Lights" initiative – which would allow the bridge to display light shows as a tourist attraction.[20] At that time, five of six lanes of traffic were shifted to the new bridge, with a single lane of westbound traffic temporarily using the old bridge until the end of the month.[33][26] The new bridge kept the same name as the original.[30]

Demolition and construction of westbound bridge

K-bridge north approach broken jeh
Collapsed approach at Queens (east) end

Part of the original structure was set to be demolished by controlled explosion in summer 2017[34] so that work on the new westbound bridge could begin soon after.[35][36] This type of demolition, beginning with Governor Cuomo personally pushing the button to detonate the bridge, saved seven to nine months compared to if the entire bridge had been carefully dismantled. The new westbound span and pedestrian/bike lanes would be ready in 2020, providing the bridge with extra traffic capacity.[26][34] Initial reports speculated that the explosion date would be July 11. Instead, the main span of the bridge was lowered onto a barge, and the approaches would then be exploded. This updated plan was meant to be environmentally friendly since less of the bridge would be scattered into the creek below.[37] At the time there was no date set for the actual demolition.[38]

The old bridge's main span was lowered onto two barges tied together, and on July 26, 2017, the main span was shipped to New Jersey to be recycled.[39][40] This marked the completion of the first phase of the old bridge's demolition.[41] The approaches to the former main span were demolished on October 1, 2017, with the detonation of 944 small explosive charges.[42][43] This was the largest explosive demolition in New York City and the first of a bridge there.[44] The state would recycle the twenty trusses from the approaches, which weigh a combined 22,000,000 pounds (10,000,000 kg).[45]

Walkway Koscuiuszko Bkly jeh
Walk- and bikeway opened September 2019

Afterward, construction started on the westbound bridge. Work progressed quickly, and in May 2019, Cuomo announced that the westbound bridge would open by that September.[46][47] The opening date of the westbound bridge was later revised to August 29, 2019.[48][49] The westbound bridge opened as scheduled on that date,[50] though pedestrians and bicyclists were allowed to cross the day before.[51][52] As part of the construction of the westbound span, it was announced that a 7-acre (2.8 ha) park would be built in the unused space beneath the Brooklyn approach, and would open in 2020. The park, to be named "Under the K", would contain four segments: a pathway called the Arm, a multi-use zone called K-flex 1, a performance space called K-flex 2, and a waterfront seating area called Creekside.[53]

Controversy

BklynQns Expy Kosciuszko 10
The nameplate of the Kosciuszko Bridge

In 2008, it was discovered that two Native American tribes indigenous to Queens, the Matinecocks and the Canarsies, were not informed of the bridge replacement project under federal law. The Delaware Nation, in Oklahoma, and the Stockbridge-Munsee, in Wisconsin, both originally native to New York City, were given a month to comment on the bridge project, in addition to the Matinecocks and the Canarsies.[54]

Following the opening of the westbound bridge, bicyclists' advocacy groups pointed out that there was not enough bike infrastructure connecting to either end of the bridge, especially since both ends were in primarily industrial neighborhoods.[52] The city planned to install short, on-street bike lanes leading to both ends of the bridge. In response, comptroller Scott Stringer said that there needed to be "protected bike lanes", completely segregated from traffic, on both sides of the bridge.[55]

See also

References

  1. ^ This describes two possible pronunciations, but there are many other pronunciations in practice. See:
    • Kosciuszko Bridge Project Open House, Introduction on YouTube
    • Dunlap, David W. (April 28, 2017). "How Do You Pronounce Kosciuszko? It Depends on Where You're From". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
  2. ^ "New York City Bridge Traffic Volumes" (PDF). New York City Department of Transportation. 2016. p. 9. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  3. ^ a b c Anonymous. "Meeker Avenue Bridge Opened." Queens Borough. August 1939.
  4. ^ a b c "Mayor Opens Span With Peace Plea". The New York Times. August 24, 1939. p. 25. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d "Kosciuszko Bridge Named by Mayor for Hero of 1776". Brooklyn Eagle. September 23, 1940. Retrieved December 27, 2016 – via newspapers.com.
  6. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  7. ^ Anonymous. "His Mistake In Joining Navy Instead Of The Army Makes Former Flushing Man Famous As Diver." Long Island Daily Press. October 11, 1938.
  8. ^ a b c "Kosciuszko Bridge is Named by Mayor". The New York Times. September 23, 1940. p. 19. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  9. ^ Mooney, Jake (February 13, 2009). "Plans and Wary Neighbors for an Icon of Gridlock". The New York Times. Retrieved August 15, 2009.
  10. ^ Rafferty, Brian (April 5, 2007). "Bridge Plan Up For Public Approval". Queens Tribune via reprint in the wirednewyork.com Thread: Kosciuszko Bridge. Retrieved April 24, 2015. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |newspaper= (help)
  11. ^ "Bridge Paving Job to Force Queens-Brooklyn Detours". Long Island Star-Journal. March 22, 1958. p. 1 – via Fultonhistory.com.
  12. ^ a b "Motorists, Clip and Save: Alternate Routes Listed". Greenpoint Weekly Star. March 31, 1967. p. 5 – via Fultonhistory.com.
  13. ^ "$32-Million Queens Cloverleaf Approved by Board of Estimate; It Will Link Brooklyn-Queens and Long Island Expressways 50 Maspeth Homeowners Protest Vainly". The New York Times. May 21, 1966. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
  14. ^ Xu, Susan (April 28, 2017). "10 Fun Facts About the New Kosciuszko Bridge Between Brooklyn and Queens". Untapped Cities. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  15. ^ Barone, Vincent (April 26, 2017). "Kosciuszko Bridge opening signals new beginning". AM New York. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
  16. ^ Strong, Otto (May 25, 1995). "$100M Bridge Relief?". Newsday.
  17. ^ Angelos, James (April 10, 2009). "Uneasily Contemplating the Arrival of a Spiffy Newcomer". The New York Times. Retrieved June 29, 2009.
  18. ^ a b Newman, Andy (February 18, 2010). "A Tired Old Bridge Gets a New Look. No, Four of Them". The New York Times. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
  19. ^ a b c Dunlap, David W. (April 27, 2017). "3 New Bridges Rise in New York, With Looks That Could Stop Traffic". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  20. ^ a b c Blain, Glenn (April 23, 2017). "Kosciuszko Bridge to make flashy Thursday debut, featuring Cuomo". Daily News. New York. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  21. ^ Chinese, Vera (April 25, 2012). "Construction on new Kosciuszko Bridge to begin in 2013, a year ahead of schedule". Daily News. New York. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
  22. ^ Furfaro, Danielle (April 3, 2014). "DOT chopped 53 trees to save Northern long-eared bat Kosciuszko Bridge pain". The Brooklyn Paper. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  23. ^ "Check Out These Renderings for the New Kosciuszko Bridge". Curbed NY.
  24. ^ "This is What the Kosciuszko Bridge Could Look Like". DNAinfo New York. Archived from the original on December 20, 2014.
  25. ^ "Kosciuszko Bridge Project root page". New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT).
  26. ^ a b c d Fitzsimmons, Emma G.; Schweber, Nate (April 28, 2017). "New Kosciuszko Bridge. Same Old Traffic". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
  27. ^ "Benefits for Drivers, Cyclists & Pedestrians". New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT).
  28. ^ Rosenberg, Eli (December 4, 2014). "Reconstruction work on the 75-year-old Kosciuszko Bridge will create added gridlock on a major road leading to the span". Daily News. New York. Retrieved December 25, 2014.
  29. ^ "Key August 2015 Construction Activities" (PDF). New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT). August 2015. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  30. ^ a b Burrell, Janelle; Adams, Sean (April 28, 2017). "First Span Of New Kosciuszko Bridge Open To Traffic". WCBS-TV. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
  31. ^ "Coming in Early 2017 New Kosciuszko Bridge" (PDF). New York State Department of Transportation (NYDOT). Spring 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 31, 2017. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  32. ^ Barca, Christopher (January 12, 2017). "Kosciuszko Bridge coming along quick". Queens Chronicle. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  33. ^ "New Kosciuszko Bridge Takes on First Morning Rush". WNBC. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
  34. ^ a b "CBS2 Exclusive: A Sneak Peek At New Kosciuszko Bridge Span". WCBS-TV. February 21, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  35. ^ Colon, David (February 22, 2017). "New York Is Blowing The Kosciuszko Bridge Straight To Hell". Gothamist. Archived from the original on February 24, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  36. ^ "Controlled Implode: Old Kosciuszko Bridge Coming Down This Summer". TWC News. February 22, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  37. ^ Frangipane, Paul. "No Big Bang: Kosciuszko Bridge not being demolished Tuesday". Brooklyn Eagle. Retrieved July 16, 2017.
  38. ^ Fertoli, Annmarie (July 7, 2017). "Hey Buddy, Wanna Buy a Bridge Explosion?". WNYC. Retrieved July 16, 2017.
  39. ^ Frangipane, Paul (July 26, 2017). "VIDEO: Bridge on a Barge: Old Kosciuszko Bridge span dismantled, shipped down creek". Brooklyn Eagle. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
  40. ^ Slattery, Denis (July 26, 2017). "Old Kosciuszko Bridge dismantled, span sent to N.J. for recycling". Daily News. New York. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
  41. ^ Hill, Chris (August 11, 2017). "PHOTOS: Skanska completes first phase of former Kosciuszko Bridge demo with lowering of main span". Equipment World. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
  42. ^ Newman, Andy; McGeehan, Patrick (October 1, 2017). "A Gray Puff, and the Old Kosciuszko Bridge Is No More". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 3, 2017.
  43. ^ Narizhnaya, Khristina (October 1, 2017). "Kosciuszko Bridge gets blown up". New York Post. Retrieved October 3, 2017.
  44. ^ "Down and Out 'Energetic felling' process removes a 78-year-old New York City bridge". Engineering News-Record. October 9, 2017. p. 7.
  45. ^ Baulkman, Jaleesa (September 30, 2017). "Kosciuszko Bridge to be demolished". WPIX. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  46. ^ Ricciulli, Valeria (May 7, 2019). "Kosciuszko Bridge's second span expected to open in September". Curbed NY. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  47. ^ "Kosciuszko Bridge's new span to open in September". AM New York. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  48. ^ "Second Span Of Kosciuszko Bridge To Open Thursday". WCBS-TV. August 25, 2019. Retrieved August 26, 2019.
  49. ^ Guse, Clayton (August 25, 2019). "New Kosciuszko Bridge between Brooklyn and Queens to fully open Thursday, public can walk across it Wednesday". Daily News. New York. Retrieved August 26, 2019.
  50. ^ "Second Span Of New Kosciuszko Bridge Officially Opens To Traffic". WCBS-TV. August 29, 2019. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  51. ^ "Second span of Kosciuszko Bridge opens to bikes, pedestrians". ABC7 New York. August 28, 2019. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
  52. ^ a b "Cyclists decry access to new Kosciuszko Bridge span". am New York. September 28, 2019. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
  53. ^ Ricciulli, Valeria (July 22, 2019). "Empty lot below the Kosciuszko Bridge will be transformed into a public park". Curbed NY. Retrieved July 24, 2019.
  54. ^ Lavinger, John (November 18, 2008). "Bridge to a Troubled Past: Kosciuszko plans reopen old wounds for 2 Native American Tribes". Daily News. New York. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  55. ^ "Cyclists need 'safe passage' to Kosciuszko path: Stringer". am New York. September 29, 2019. Retrieved August 30, 2019.

External links

Brooklyn

Brooklyn () is a borough of New York City, coterminous with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York, the most populous county in the state, and the second-most densely populated county in the United States. It is New York City's most populous borough, with an estimated 2,504,700 residents in 2010. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, and the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects it with Staten Island.

With a land area of 70.82 square miles (183.4 km2) and water area of 26 square miles (67 km2), Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U.S., after Los Angeles and Chicago.

Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city (and previously an authorized village and town within the provisions of the New York State Constitution) until January 1, 1898, when, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities, boroughs, and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs. The borough continues, however, to maintain a distinct culture. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength".

In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, and a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, and of postmodern art and design.

Cable-stayed bridge

A cable-stayed bridge has one or more towers (or pylons), from which cables support the bridge deck. A distinctive feature are the cables or stays, which run directly from the tower to the deck, normally forming a fan-like pattern or a series of parallel lines. This is in contrast to the modern suspension bridge, where the cables supporting the deck are suspended vertically from the main cable, anchored at both ends of the bridge and running between the towers. The cable-stayed bridge is optimal for spans longer than cantilever bridges and shorter than suspension bridges. This is the range within which cantilever bridges would rapidly grow heavier, and suspension bridge cabling would be more costly.

Cable-stayed bridges have been known since the 16th century and used widely since the 19th. Early examples often combined features from both the cable-stayed and suspension designs, including the Brooklyn Bridge. The design fell from favor through the 20th century as larger gaps were bridged using pure suspension designs, and shorter ones using various systems built of reinforced concrete. It once again rose to prominence in the later 20th century when the combination of new materials, larger construction machinery, and the need to replace older bridges all lowered the relative price of these designs.

Commemoration of Tadeusz Kościuszko

Tadeusz Kościuszko is one of the most honored persons in Polish history, in terms of places and events named in his honor.

As a national hero of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, and the United States, Kościuszko has given his name to many places and monuments around the world.

Daniel Smith (writer)

Daniel Smith (born October 7, 1977) is an American journalist and author of the 2012 memoir Monkey Mind: A Memoir of Anxiety. He has written articles and essays for The New York Times Magazine, The Atlantic, Slate, n+1, Harper's Magazine, New York, and others.

East Williamsburg, Brooklyn

East Williamsburg is a name for the area in the northwestern portion of the borough of Brooklyn in New York City, United States, which lies between Williamsburg, Greenpoint, and Bushwick. Much of this area is still referred to as either Bushwick, Williamsburg, or Greenpoint with the term East Williamsburg falling out of use since the 1990s. East Williamsburg consists roughly of what was the 3rd District of the Village of Williamsburg and what is now called the East Williamsburg In-Place Industrial Park (EWIPIP), bounded by the neighborhoods of Northside and Southside Williamsburg to the west, Greenpoint to the north, Bushwick to the south and southeast, and both Maspeth and Ridgewood in Queens to the east.

Grand Street and Grand Avenue

Grand Street and Grand Avenue are the respective names of a street which runs through the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, New York City, United States. Originating in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, Grand Street runs roughly northeast until crossing Newtown Creek into Queens, whereupon Grand Street becomes Grand Avenue, continuing through Maspeth where it is a main shopping street, until reaching its northern end at Queens Boulevard in Elmhurst.

The thoroughfare continues north and west beyond Queens Boulevard as Broadway until terminating on the bank of the East River in western Queens (in Astoria/Long Island City).

Greenpoint Avenue Bridge

The Greenpoint Avenue Bridge is a drawbridge that carries Greenpoint Avenue across Newtown Creek between the neighborhoods of Greenpoint, Brooklyn and Blissville, Queens in New York City. Also known as the J. J. Byrne Memorial Bridge, the bridge is named after James J. Byrne, who served as Brooklyn Borough President from September 1926 until he died in office on March 14, 1930. Previously, Byrne was the Brooklyn Commissioner of Public Works.

Interstate 278

Interstate 278 (I-278) is an auxiliary Interstate Highway in New Jersey and New York in the United States. The road runs 35.62 miles (57.32 km) from U.S. Route 1/9 (US 1/9) in Linden, New Jersey, to the Bruckner Interchange in the New York City borough of the Bronx. The majority of I-278 is in New York City, where it serves as a partial beltway and passes through all five of the city's boroughs. I-278 follows several freeways, including the Union Freeway in Union County, New Jersey; the Staten Island Expressway (SIE) across Staten Island; the Gowanus Expressway in southern Brooklyn; the Brooklyn–Queens Expressway (BQE) across northern Brooklyn and Queens; a small part of the Grand Central Parkway in Queens; and a part of the Bruckner Expressway in the Bronx. I-278 also crosses multiple bridges, including the Goethals, Verrazzano-Narrows, Kosciuszko, and Triborough Bridges.

I-278 was opened in pieces from the 1930s through the 1960s. Some of its completed segments predated the Interstate Highway System and are thus not up to standards, and portions of I-278 have been upgraded over the years. In New York, the various parts of I-278 were planned by Robert Moses, an urban planner in New York City. The segments proposed tore through many New York City neighborhoods, causing controversy. Despite its number, I-278 does not connect to I-78. There were once plans to extend I-278 west to I-78 east of the Route 24 interchange in Springfield, New Jersey. This was canceled because of opposition from the communities along the route. The segment that does exist in New Jersey was opened in 1969. There were also plans to extend I-78 east across Manhattan and into Brooklyn via the Williamsburg Bridge; this would have been a second location where the two highways would have interchanged, but these plans were also thwarted.

Two segments of I-278 have had different route number designations formerly planned or designated for it. I-87 was once planned to follow the segment of I-278 between the Williamsburg Bridge and the Major Deegan Expressway, but this ultimately became a part of I-278. Additionally, the Bruckner Expressway portion of I-278 had been designated with different route numbers. At first, it was to be I-895 between I-87 and the Sheridan Expressway and I-678 past there. Later, I-278 was planned to follow the Bruckner Expressway and the Sheridan Expressway to I-95 (with no route number for the Bruckner Expressway past there) before the current numbering took place by 1970, with I-895 designated onto the Sheridan Expressway (which was subsequently downgraded to a state highway in 2017).

John Franzese

John "Sonny" Franzese Sr. (Italian: [ˈfrantseːze; -eːse]; born February 6, 1917) is a powerful Italian-American mobster who is a longtime member of the Colombo crime family. Franzese's career in organized crime spans over eight decades and he served as underboss of the Colombo crime family. At the time of his release on June 23, 2017, he was the oldest federal prisoner in the United States and the only centenarian in federal custody. Franzese is currently the oldest living gangster in the world.

Kościuszko (disambiguation)

Tadeusz Kościuszko was a soldier respected as a champion of liberty in both Poland and the United States.

For things named after this person, see List of things named after Tadeusz Kościuszko.

List of bridges and tunnels in New York City

New York City is home to over 2,000 bridges and tunnels. Several agencies manage this network of crossings, including the New York City Department of Transportation, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, New York State Department of Transportation and Amtrak.

Many of the city's major bridges and tunnels have broken or set records. Opened in 1927, the Holland Tunnel was the world's first mechanically ventilated underwater vehicular tunnel. The Brooklyn Bridge, Williamsburg Bridge, George Washington Bridge, and Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge were the world's longest suspension bridges when opened in 1883, 1903, 1931, and 1964 respectively.

Maspeth, Queens

Maspeth is a residential and commercial community in the borough of Queens in New York City. It was founded in the early 17th century by Dutch and English settlers. Neighborhoods sharing borders with Maspeth are Woodside to the north; Sunnyside to the northwest; Greenpoint, Brooklyn to the west; East Williamsburg, Brooklyn to the southwest; Fresh Pond and Ridgewood to the south; and Middle Village and Elmhurst to the east.

Maspeth is located in Queens Community District 5 and its ZIP Code is 11378. It is patrolled by the New York City Police Department's 104th Precinct. Politically, Maspeth is represented by the New York City Council's 29th and 30th Districts.

New York and Atlantic Railway

The New York and Atlantic Railway (NY&A) (reporting mark NYA) is a short line railroad formed in 1997 to provide freight service over the tracks of the Long Island Rail Road, a public commuter rail agency which had decided to privatize its freight operations. An affiliate of the Anacostia and Pacific Company, NY&A operates exclusively on Long Island, New York and is connected to the mainland via CSX's line over the Hell Gate Bridge. It also interchanges with New York New Jersey Rail's car float at the 65th Street Yard and US Rail of New York in Yaphank, New York. Its primary freight yard is Fresh Pond Junction in Queens. The NY&A officially took over Long Island Rail Road's freight operations on May 11, 1997. The initial franchise was for 20 years.

Newtown Creek

Newtown Creek, a 3.5-mile (6-kilometer) long tributary of the East River, is an estuary that forms part of the border between the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, in New York City. Channelization made it one of the most heavily used bodies of water in the Port of New York and New Jersey and thus one of the most polluted industrial sites in the US, containing years of discarded toxins, an estimated 30,000,000 US gallons (110,000,000 l; 25,000,000 imp gal) of spilled oil, including the Greenpoint oil spill, raw sewage from New York City’s sewer system, and other accumulation from a total of 1,491 sites.Newtown Creek was proposed as a potential Superfund site in September 2009, and received that designation on September 27, 2010.

Penny Bridge station

Penny Bridge was a station along the Long Island Rail Road's Lower Montauk Branch that runs from Long Island City to Jamaica, Queens, in the state of New York. During its existence, the station served local industry as well as the Calvary Cemetery. Before the Kosciuszko Bridge was built, it also served businesses on the Brooklyn side of Newtown Creek (the name referring to the Penny Bridge that formerly connected Laurel Hill Boulevard to Meeker Avenue before it was closed in 1939) prior to the closure and removal of the bridge.

Pulaski Bridge

The Pulaski Bridge in New York City connects Long Island City in Queens to Greenpoint in Brooklyn over Newtown Creek. It was named after Polish military commander and American Revolutionary War fighter Kazimierz Pułaski (Casimir Pulaski) because of the large Polish-American population in Greenpoint. It connects 11th Street in Queens to McGuinness Boulevard (formerly Oakland Street) in Brooklyn.

Tadeusz Kościuszko

Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko (English: Andrew Thaddeus Bonaventure Kosciuszko; 4 or 12 February 1746 – 15 October 1817) was a Polish-Lithuanian military engineer, statesman, and military leader who became a national hero in Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, and the United States. He fought in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth's struggles against Russia and Prussia, and on the U.S. side in the American Revolutionary War. As Supreme Commander of the Polish National Armed Forces, he led the 1794 Kościuszko Uprising.

Kościuszko was born in February 1746, in a manor house on the Mereczowszczyzna estate in Brest Litovsk Voivodeship, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. At age 20, he graduated from the Corps of Cadets in Warsaw, Poland. After the start of civil war in the Bar Confederation in 1768, Kościuszko moved to France in 1769 to study. He returned to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1774, two years after its First Partition, and took a position as tutor in Józef Sylwester Sosnowski's household. After Kościuszko attempted to elope with his employer's daughter and was severely beaten by the father's retainers, he returned to France. In 1776, Kościuszko moved to North America, where he took part in the American Revolutionary War as a colonel in the Continental Army. An accomplished military architect, he designed and oversaw the construction of state-of-the-art fortifications, including those at West Point, New York. In 1783, in recognition of his services, the Continental Congress promoted him to brigadier general.

Upon returning to Poland in 1784, Kościuszko was commissioned as a major general in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Army in 1789. After the Polish–Russian War of 1792 resulted in the Second Partition of Poland, he organized an uprising against Russia in March 1794, serving as its Naczelnik (commander-in-chief). Russian forces captured him at the Battle of Maciejowice in October 1794. The defeat of the Kościuszko Uprising that November led to Poland's Third Partition in 1795, which ended the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth's independent existence for 123 years. In 1796, following the death of Tsaritsa Catherine the Great, Kościuszko was pardoned by her successor, Tsar Paul I, and he emigrated to the United States. A close friend of Thomas Jefferson's, with whom he shared ideals of human rights, Kościuszko wrote a will in 1798 dedicating his U.S. assets to the education and freedom of U.S. slaves. He eventually returned to Europe and lived in Switzerland until his death in 1817. The execution of his will later proved difficult, and the funds were never used for the purpose he had intended.

Thaddeus Kosciusko Bridge

The Thaddeus Kosciusko Bridge, commonly referred to as the Twin Bridges, or just "The Twins", located in the United States, is a pair of identical through arch bridges, made of steel, which span the Mohawk River between the towns of Colonie, Albany County and Halfmoon, Saratoga County, in New York's Capital District. Each span carries three northbound and southbound lanes of Interstate 87 between exits 7 and 8. The toll-free bridge opened in 1959 as part of the Adirondack Northway, a 176-mile highway linking Albany and the Canada–United States border at Champlain. The Interstate 87 section of the highway was formally inaugurated by Governor Nelson Rockefeller on May 26, 1961.The bridge is named (using an anglicized form) in honor of Tadeusz Kościuszko (1746–1817), the Lithuanian preeminent national figure in Poland's fight for independence. Kościuszko arrived in Colonial America a month after the July 4, 1776 Declaration of Independence and remained a notable military leader throughout the Revolutionary War, attaining the rank of general as well as honorary American citizenship. He returned to Poland in July 1784.

The decks on both sides of the bridge were replaced in the spring of 2013.

Photos of the Bridge

Timeline of Brooklyn

This is a timeline and chronology of the history of Brooklyn, New York. Brooklyn is the most populous of New York City's boroughs, and was settled in 1646.

Vehicular
Railroad
and Subway
Operators

Languages

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