Kos or Cos (/kɒs/; Greek: Κως [kos]) is a Greek island, part of the Dodecanese island chain in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast of Turkey. Kos is the third largest island of the Dodecanese by area, after Rhodes and Karpathos; it has a population of 33,388 (2011 census), making it the second most populous of the Dodecanese, after Rhodes. The island measures 40 by 8 kilometres (25 by 5 miles), and is 4 km (2 miles) from the coast of the ancient region of Caria in Turkey. Administratively, Kos constitutes a municipality within the Kos regional unit, which is part of the South Aegean region. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Kos Town.
The harbour of Kos town
Location within the region
|Administrative region||South Aegean|
|• Municipality||290.3 km2 (112.1 sq mi)|
|• Municipal unit||67.2 km2 (25.9 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||843 m (2,766 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|• Municipality density||120/km2 (300/sq mi)|
|• Municipal unit||19,432|
|• Municipal unit density||290/km2 (750/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|Vehicle registration||ΚΧ, ΡΟ, PK|
In many Romance languages, Kos was formerly known as Stancho, Stanchio, or Stinco, and in Ottoman and modern Turkish it is known as İstanköy, all from the reinterpretation of the Greek expression εις την Κω 'to Kos'; cf. the similar Istanbul and Stimpoli, Crete. Under the rule of the Knights Hospitaller of Rhodes, it was known as Lango or Langò, presumably because of its length. In The Travels of Sir John Mandeville, the author misunderstands this and treats Lango and Kos as distinct islands.
In Italian, the island is known as Coo.
A person from Kos is called a "Koan" in English. The word is also an adjective, as in "Koan goods".
Kos is in the Aegean Sea. Its coastline is 112 kilometres (70 miles) long and it extends from west to east.
The island has several promontories, some with names known in antiquity: Cape Skandari, anciently Scandarium or Skandarion (Ancient Greek: Σκανδάριον) in the northeast; Cape Lacter or Lakter in the south; and Cape Drecanum or Drekanon in the west.
In addition to the main town and port, also called Kos, the main villages of Kos island are Kardamena, Kefalos, Tingaki, Antimachia, Mastihari, Marmari and Pyli. Smaller ones are Zia, Zipari, Platani, Lagoudi and Asfendiou.
The present municipality of Kos was created in 2011 with the merger of three municipalities, which became municipal units:
The municipality has an area of 290.313 km2, the municipal unit 67.200 km2.
Tourism is the main industry in Kos, the island's beaches being the primary attraction. The main port and population centre on the island, Kos town, is also the tourist and cultural centre, with whitewashed buildings including many hotels, restaurants and a number of nightclubs forming the Kos town "barstreet". The seaside village of Kardamena is a popular resort for young holidaymakers (primarily from the United Kingdom and Scandinavia) and has a large number of bars and nightclubs.
In classical mythology the founder-king of Kos was Merops, hence "Meropian Kos" is included in the archaic Delian amphictyony listed in the 7th-century Homeric hymn to Delian Apollo; the island was visited by Heracles.
The island was originally colonised by the Carians. The Dorians invaded it in the 11th century BC, establishing a Dorian colony with a large contingent of settlers from Epidaurus, whose Asclepius cult made their new home famous for its sanatoria. The other chief sources of the island's wealth lay in its wines and, in later days, in its silk manufacture.
Its early history–as part of the religious-political amphictyony that included Lindos, Kamiros, Ialysos, Cnidus and Halicarnassus, the Dorian Hexapolis (hexapolis means six cities in Greek),–is obscure. At the end of the 6th century, Kos fell under Achaemenid domination but rebelled after the Greek victory at the Battle of Mycale in 479.
During the Greco-Persian Wars, before it twice expelled the Persians, it was ruled by Persian-appointed tyrants, but as a rule it seems to have been under oligarchic government. In the 5th century, it joined the Delian League, and, after the revolt of Rhodes, it served as the chief Athenian station in the south-eastern Aegean (411–407). In 366 BC, a democracy was instituted. In 366 BC, the capital was transferred from Astypalaea (at the west end of the island near the modern village of Kefalos) to the newly built town of Cos, laid out in a Hippodamian grid. After helping to weaken Athenian power, in the Social War (357-355 BC), it fell for a few years to the king Mausolus of Caria.
Proximity to the east gave the island first access to imported silk thread. Aristotle mentions silk weaving conducted by the women of the island. Silk production of garments was conducted in large factories by women slaves.
In the Hellenistic period, Kos attained the zenith of its prosperity. Its alliance was valued by the Ptolemaic kings of Egypt, who used it as a naval outpost to oversee the Aegean. As a seat of learning, it arose as a provincial branch of the museum of Alexandria, and became a favorite resort for the education of the princes of the Ptolemaic dynasty. During the Hellenistic age, there was a medical school; however, the theory that this school was founded by Hippocrates (see below) during the Classical age is an unwarranted extrapolation. It was the home of the major Hellenistic poet-scholar Philitas.
Diodorus Siculus (xv. 76) and Strabo (xiv. 657) describe it as a well-fortified port. Its position gave it a high importance in Aegean trade; while the island itself was rich in wines of considerable fame. Under Alexander the Great and the Egyptian Ptolemies the town developed into one of the great centers in the Aegean; Josephus quotes Strabo to the effect that Mithridates was sent to Kos to fetch the gold deposited there by queen Cleopatra of Egypt. Herod is said to have provided an annual stipend for the benefit of prize-winners in the athletic games, and a statue was erected there to his son Herod the Tetrarch ("C. I. G." 2502 ). Paul briefly visited here according to Acts 21:1.
Except for occasional incursions by corsairs and some severe earthquakes, the island's peace has rarely been disturbed. Following the lead of its larger neighbour, Rhodes, Kos generally displayed a friendly attitude toward the Romans; in 53 AD it was made a free city. It was known in antiquity for the manufacture of transparent light dresses, the coae vestes. The island of Kos also featured a provincial library during the Roman period. The island first became a center for learning during the Ptolemaic dynasty, and Hippocrates, Apelles, Philitas and possibly Theocritus came from the area. An inscription lists people who made contributions to build the library in the 1st century AD. One of the people responsible for the library's construction was the Kos doctor Gaiou Stertinou Xenofontos, who lived in Rome and was the personal physician of the Emperors Tiberius, Claudius, and Nero.
The bishopric of Kos was a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Rhodes. Its bishop Meliphron attended the First Council of Nicaea in 325. Eddesius was one of the minority Eastern bishops who withdrew from the Council of Sardica in about 344 and set up a rival council at Philippopolis. Iulianus went to the synod held in Constantinople in 448 in preparation for the Council of Chalcedon of 451, in which he participated as a legate of Pope Leo I, and he was a signatory of the joint letter that the bishops of the Roman province of Insulae sent in 458 to Byzantine Emperor Leo I the Thracian with regard to the killing of Proterius of Alexandria. Dorotheus took part in a synod in 518. Georgius was a participant of the Third Council of Constantinople in 680–681. Constantinus went to the Photian Council of Constantinople (879). Under Byzantine rule, apart from the participation of its bishops in councils, the island's history remains obscure. It was governed by a droungarios in the 8th–9th centuries, and seems to have acquired some importance in the 11th and 12th centuries: Nikephoros Melissenos began his uprising here, and in the middle of the 12th century, it was governed by a scion of the ruling Komnenos dynasty, Nikephoros Komnenos.
Following the Fourth Crusade, Kos passed under Genoese control, although it was retaken in ca. 1224 and kept for a while by the Empire of Nicaea. In the 1320s, Kos nominally formed part of the realm of Martino Zaccaria, but was most likely in the hands of Turkish corsairs until ca. 1337, when the Knights Hospitaller took over the island. The last Hospitaller governor of the island was Piero de Ponte.
Kos was transferred to the Kingdom of Italy in 1912 after the Italo-Turkish War. The Italians developed the infrastructures of the island, after the ruinous earthquake of 23 April 1933, which destroyed a great part of the old city and damaged many new buildings. Architect Rodolfo Petracco drew up the new city plan, transforming the old quarters into an archaeological park, and dividing the new city into a residential, an administrative, and a commercial area., In World War II, the island, as Italian possession, was part of the Axis. It was controlled by Italian troops until the Italian surrender in 1943. On that occasion, 100 Italian officers who had refused to join the Germans were executed. British and German forces then clashed for control of the island in the Battle of Kos as part of the Dodecanese Campaign, in which the Germans were victorious. German troops occupied the island until 1945, when it became a protectorate of the United Kingdom, which ceded it to Greece in 1947 following the Paris peace treaty.
The island is part of a chain of mountains from which it became separated after earthquakes and subsidence that occurred in ancient times. These mountains include Kalymnos and Kappari which are separated by an underwater chasm c. 70 metres (230 ft) (40 fathoms deep), as well as the volcano of Nisyros and the surrounding islands.
There is a wide variety of rocks in Kos which is related to its geographical formation. Prominent among these are the Quaternary layers in which the fossil remains of mammals such as horses, hippopotami and elephants have been found. The fossilised molar of an elephant of gigantic proportions was presented to the Paleontology Museum of the University of Athens.
In the late 1920s about 3,700 Turks lived in Kos city, slightly less than 50% of the population, who settled mainly in the west part of the city. Today, the population of the Turkish community in Kos has been estimated at about 2,000 people. A village with significant Turkish population is Platani (Kermentes) near the town of Kos.
The people of Kos are predominantly Orthodox Christians - one of the four Orthodox cathedrals in the Dodecanese is located in Kos. In addition, there is a Roman Catholic church on the island and a mosque for the Turkish-speaking Muslim community. The synagogue is no longer used for religious ceremonies as the Jewish community of Kos was targeted and destroyed by occupying Nazi forces in World War II. It has, however, been restored and is maintained with all religious symbols intact and is now used by the Municipality of Kos for various events, mainly cultural.
The ancient market place of Kos was considered one of the biggest in the ancient world. It was the commercial and commanding centre at the heart of the ancient city. It was organized around a spacious rectangular yard 50 metres (160 ft) wide and 300 metres (980 ft) long. It began in the Northern area and ended up south on the central road (Decumanus) which went through the city. The northern side connected to the city wall towards the entrance to the harbour. Here there was a monumental entrance. On the eastern side there were shops. In the first half of the 2nd century BC, the building was extended toward the interior yard. The building was destroyed in an earthquake in 469 AD.
In the southern end of the market, there was a round building with a Roman dome and a workshop which produced pigments including "Egyptian Blue". Coins, treasures, and copper statues from Roman times were later uncovered by archeologists. In the western side excavations led to the findings of rooms with mosaic floors which showed beastfights, a theme quite popular in Kos.
The ancient physician Hippocrates is thought to have been born on Kos, and in the center of the town is the Plane Tree of Hippocrates, a dream temple where the physician is traditionally supposed to have taught. The limbs of the now elderly tree are supported by scaffolding. The small city is also home to the International Hippocratic Institute and the Hippocratic Museum dedicated to him. Near the Institute are the ruins of Asklepieion, where Herodicus taught Hippocrates medicine.
The 2010 Zucchetti Kos Tennis Cup was a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor red clay courts. It was the seventh edition of the tournament which was part of the Tretorn SERIE+ of the 2010 ATP Challenger Tour. It took place in Cordenons, Italy between 26 July and 1 August 2010.2011 Zucchetti Kos Tennis Cup
The 2011 Zucchetti Kos Tennis Cup was a professional tennis tournament played on clay courts. It was the eighth edition of the tournament which is part of the Tretorn SERIE+ of the 2011 ATP Challenger Tour. It took place in Cordenons, Italy between 15 and 21 August 2011.2012 Zucchetti Kos Tennis Cup
The 2012 Zucchetti Kos Tennis Cup was a professional tennis tournament played on clay courts. It was the ninth edition of the tournament which was part of the Tretorn SERIE+ of the 2012 ATP Challenger Tour. It took place in Cordenons, Italy between 13 and 19 August 2012.Daily Kos
Daily Kos ( KOHSS) is a group blog and internet forum focused on the Democratic Party and liberal American politics. The site features a participatory political encyclopedia ("DKosopedia"), glossaries, and other content. It is sometimes considered an example of "netroots" activism.
It was founded in 2002 by Markos Moulitsas and takes the name Kos from the last syllable of his first name, his nickname whilst in the military.Hippocrates
Hippocrates of Kos (; Greek: Ἱπποκράτης ὁ Κῷος, translit. Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos; c. 460 – c. 370 BC), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), who is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is often referred to as the "Father of Medicine" in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine. This intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields with which it had traditionally been associated (theurgy and philosophy), thus establishing medicine as a profession.However, the achievements of the writers of the Corpus, the practitioners of Hippocratic medicine and the actions of Hippocrates himself were often commingled; thus very little is known about what Hippocrates actually thought, wrote, and did. Hippocrates is commonly portrayed as the paragon of the ancient physician, and credited with coining the Hippocratic Oath, which is still relevant and in use today. He is also credited with greatly advancing the systematic study of clinical medicine, summing up the medical knowledge of previous schools, and prescribing practices for physicians through the Hippocratic Corpus and other works.Internazionali di Tennis del Friuli Venezia Giulia
The Internazionali di Tennis del Friuli Venezia Giulia (previously known as the Zucchetti Kos Tennis Cup and Credit Agricole Friuladria Tennis Cup) is a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor red clay courts. It is currently part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Challenger Tour. It is held annually at the A.S.D. Eurotennis Club in Cordenons, Italy, since 2004.Jyotisar
Jyotisar is a town on the Kurukshetra-Pehowa road, in the Kurukshetra district of Haryana, India.KOS-MOS
KOS-MOS (Japanese: コスモス) (recursive acronym for Kosmos Obey Strategical Multiple Operation System) is a fictional character from the Xenosaga role-playing video game series by Monolith Soft and Bandai Namco Entertainment. KOS-MOS also appears as a major character in the anime Xenosaga: The Animation and in several crossover video games.KOS (Yugoslavia)
The Counterintelligence Service or KOS (Bosnian: Kontraobavještanja služba; Croatian: Protuobavještajna služba; Serbian: Контраобавештајна служба/Kontraobaveštajna služba; Slovene: Kontraobveščevalna služba; Macedonian: Контраразузнавачка служба) was the counterintelligence service of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) that existed between 1946 and the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991. In 1992, the Security Administration continued its work in Serbia and Montenegro.Knockout
A knockout (abbreviated to KO or K.O.) is a fight-ending, winning criterion in several full-contact combat sports, such as boxing, kickboxing, muay thai, mixed martial arts, karate, some forms of taekwondo and other sports involving striking, as well as fighting-based video games. A full knockout is considered any legal strike or combination thereof that renders an opponent unable to continue fighting.
The term is often associated with a sudden traumatic loss of consciousness caused by a physical blow. Single powerful blows to the head (particularly the jawline and temple) can produce a cerebral concussion or a carotid sinus reflex with syncope and cause a sudden, dramatic KO. Body blows, particularly the liver punch, can cause progressive, debilitating pain that can also result in a KO.
In boxing and kickboxing, a knockout is usually awarded when one participant falls to the canvas and is unable to rise to their feet within a specified period of time, typically because of exhaustion, pain, disorientation, or unconsciousness. For example, if a boxer is knocked down and is unable to continue the fight within a ten-second count, they are counted as having been knocked out and their opponent is awarded the KO victory.
In mixed martial arts (MMA) competitions, no time count is given after a knockdown, as the sport allows submission grappling as well as ground and pound. If a fighter loses consciousness ("goes limp") as a result of legal strikes it is declared a KO. Even if the fighter loses consciousness for a brief moment and wakes up again to continue to fight, the fight is stopped and declared a KO. As many MMA fights can take place on the mat rather than standing, it is possible to score a KO via ground and pound, a common victory for grapplers.
In fighting-based video games, such as Street Fighter and Tekken, a player scores a knockout by fully depleting the opponent's health bar, which awards the round to the winning player. The player who wins the most rounds (by scoring the most knockouts or by having more vitality remaining when time expires during each round) wins the match. This is different from real-life combat sports, where a knockout would end the match immediately.Koas Krala District
Koas Krala District (Khmer: គាស់ក្រឡ) is a district (srok) of Battambang Province, in north-western Cambodia.Kos (regional unit)
Kos (Greek: Περιφερειακή ενότητα Κω) is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of South Aegean. The regional unit covers the islands of Kos, Nisyros and several smaller islands in the Aegean Sea.Kos International Airport
Kos International Airport "Hippocrates" (Greek: Διεθνής Αερολιμένας Κω "Ιπποκράτης") (IATA: KGS, ICAO: LGKO) is an airport serving the island of Kos, Greece. The airport is located near to Andimachia village. It is also the second-closest airport to Bodrum after Milas-Bodrum Airport.Kostroma Oblast
Kostroma Oblast (Russian: Костромска́я о́бласть, Kostromskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Kostroma and its population as of the 2010 Census is 667,562. It was formed in 1944 on the territory detached from neighboring Yaroslavl Oblast.
Textile industries have been developed there since the early 18th century. Its major historic towns include Kostroma, Sharya, Nerekhta, Galich, Soligalich, and Makaryev.
Viktor Shershunov was Governor from 1997 until his death in a car crash on September 20, 2007, at which point Igor Slyunyayev became the new Governor until, as of 2012, Sergey Sitnikov become the current incumbent.Károly Kós
Károly Kós (born as Károly Kosch, Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈkaːroj ˈkoːʃ]; December 16, 1883 – August 25, 1977) was a Hungarian architect, writer, illustrator, ethnologist and politician of Austria-Hungary and Romania.List of Monuments of National Importance in Haryana
This is a list of Monuments of National Importance (ASI) as officially recognized by and available through the website of the Archaeological Survey of India in the Indian state Haryana. The monument identifier is a combination of the abbreviation of the subdivision of the list (state, ASI circle) and the numbering as published on the website of the ASI. 90 Monuments of National Importance have been recognized by the ASI in Haryana.Nisyros
Nisyros (Greek: Νίσυρος) is a volcanic Greek island and municipality located in the Aegean Sea. It is part of the Dodecanese group of islands, situated between the islands of Kos and Tilos.
Its shape is approximately round, with a diameter of about 8 km (5 mi), and an area of 41.6 km2 (16.062 sq mi). Several other islets are found in the direct vicinity of Nisyros, the largest of which is Gyali. The Municipality of Nisyros includes Gyalí (pop. 21) as well as uninhabited Pacheiá, Pergoússa, Kandelioussa , Ágios Antónios and Stroggýli. It has a total land area of 50.055 km2 (19.326 sq mi) and a total population of 1,008 inhabitants. The island was also called Nisiro in Italian and İncirli in Turkish.Turks of the Dodecanese
The Turks of the Dodecanese are a community of 5,500 Turkish-speaking people and ethnic Turks living on the Dodecanese islands of Rhodes (Turkish: Rodos) and Kos (Turkish: İstanköy) who were not affected by the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey, since the islands were under the rule of the Kingdom of Italy at the time (from 1912). All inhabitants of the islands became Greek citizens after 1947 when the islands became part of Greece.
As a result of this incorporation into Greece and due to the situation following the Cyprus conflict and the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974 many Muslim Turks left the islands and settled in Turkey. Many of them were deprived of their Greek citizenship and property. Some of those who stayed abandoned the Turkish language and their religion.The Turks in Kos are partly organized around the Muslim Association of Kos Kos Müslüman which gives the figure 2,000 for the population they bring together and represent for the Greek island.Those in Rhodes are organized around the Moslem Association of Rhodes Rodos Müslümanı, which gives the figure 3,500 for the population they bring together and represent for the island.The more general term Adalı is sometimes used (meaning "islanders").
The president of their association Mazlum Paizanoglou estimates the number in Rhodes as 2500 and in Kos as 2000. http://arsiv.ntv.com.tr/news/23898.aspVladimír Kos
Vladimír Kos (31 March 1936 – 17 September 2017) was a former Czech football player.
During his club career he played for ČKD Praha. He was part of the second-placed team at the 1962 FIFA World Cup, but did not win any caps for Czechoslovakia.
|The 12 major islands|
|Regional unit of Andros|
|Regional unit of Kalymnos|
|Regional unit of Karpathos|
|Regional unit of Kea-Kythnos|
|Regional unit of Kos|
|Regional unit of Milos|
|Regional unit of Mykonos|
|Regional unit of Naxos|
|Regional unit of Paros|
|Regional unit of Rhodes|
|Regional unit of Syros|
|Regional unit of Thira|
|Regional unit of Tinos|
Subdivisions of the municipality of Kos
|Municipal unit of Dikaios|
|Municipal unit of Irakleides|
|Municipal unit of Kos|
Journeys of Paul the Apostle