Korean Central News Agency

The Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) is the state news agency of North Korea. The agency portrays the views of the North Korean government for both domestic and foreign consumption. It was established on December 5, 1946.[1]

Korean Central News Agency (KCNA)
Native name
Chosŏn'gŭl조선중앙통신
or 조선통신사
Hancha朝鮮中央通信
or 朝鮮通信社
McCune–ReischauerChosŏn Chungangt'ongsin
or Chosŏn T'ongsinsa
Revised RomanizationJoseon Jungangtongsin
or Joseon Tongsinsa
State-owned
IndustryNews agency
Founded5 December 1946
Headquarters1 Potonggang-dong, Potonggang District, ,
Number of locations
Many municipal offices, correspondents and bureaus in six other countries
Area served
International
Key people
Kim Ki-ryong (Formerly as Director General)
ServicesMedia
Number of employees
2,000 (2004)
Websitewww.kcna.kp

Organization

KCNA is the only news agency in North Korea.[2] It daily reports news for all the news organizations in the country including newspapers, radio and television broadcasts via Korean Central Television and the Korean Central Broadcasting System within the country.[3] KCNA works under the Korean Central Broadcasting Committee, through which it is ultimately controlled by the Workers' Party of Korea's Propaganda and Agitation Department.[4]In December 1996, KCNA began publishing its news articles on the Internet with its web server located in Japan. Since October 2010, stories have been published on a new site, controlled from Pyongyang, and output has been significantly increased to include world stories with no specific link to North Korea[5] as well as news from countries that have strong DPRK ties.

In addition to Korean, KCNA releases news translated into English, Russian, and Spanish. Access to its website, along with other North Korean news sites, has been blocked by South Korea since 2004 and can be accessed only through the government's authorization.[6][7] As well as serving as a news agency, it also produces summaries of world news to North Korean officials.[2] It is also alleged to conduct clandestine intelligence collection.[8]

Based in the capital Pyongyang, at 1 Potonggang-dong, Potonggang District,[9] KCNA has bureaus in several municipalities.[2] KCNA also has press exchange agreements with around 46 foreign news agencies,[3] including South Korea's Yonhap.[10] Its closest partners, however, are Itar-Tass and Xinhua News Agency.[2] KCNA has correspondents and bureaus in six countries, including Russia and China.[11] KCNA also collaborates with Reuters and the Associated Press, the latter of which has a permanent bureau in Pyongyang. KCNA journalists have trained abroad with the BBC and Reuters.[2] KCNA is a member of Organization of Asia-Pacific News Agencies.[2] In 2004, the agency had employed 2,000 people.[12]

According to its website, KCNA "speaks for the Workers' Party of Korea and the DPRK government". The agency has been described as the "official organ."[13] In June 1964 on one of his first official activities, Kim Jong-il visited KCNA headquarters and said the agency should be "propagating the revolutionary ideology of the Leader (Kim Il-sung) widely throughout the world."[14] However, the agency is also said to offer a unique insight into the North Korean "mentality."[15][16]

A talk given to officials at KCNA on June 12, 1964, outlines the function of the news agency:

In order to become a powerful ideological weapon of our Party, the Korean Central News Agency must provide a news service in accordance with the idea and intention of the great leader Comrade Kim Il Sung, establish Juche firmly in its work and fully embody the Party spirit, the working class spirit and the spirit of serving the people. It must pay serious attention to each word, to each dot of the writings it releases because they express the standpoint of our Party and the Government of our Republic.[17]

Under the principle and guideline on the work of ideological propaganda and agitation put by the country's ruling party, the Workers' Party of Korea, the agency generally reports only good news about the country that is intended to encourage its people and project a positive image abroad.[18] Nonetheless, it has on occasion acknowledged food shortages in the country.[19][20] The Ryongchon disaster was also reported in April 2004, after a delay of two days.[21][22] KCNA has a sports team in the annual Paektusan Prize Games of Civil Servants.[23]

The last known Director General of KCNA was Kim Ki-ryong. Kim Ki-ryong died on 30 March 2017 in Pyongyang, North Korea.[9]

Recurring themes

KCNA articles generally revolve on several specific themes (examples in reference section):

  • The prowess of Korean leaders. For example, it reported that Kim Jong Il learned to walk when he was three weeks old, that Kim Jong Il could control the weather, and Kim Jong Un controls nature.[24]
  • Detailing performances of cultural events, usually attended by various dignitaries.
  • Decrying the actions and attitudes of the United States,[25] Japan,[26] South Korea[27] and other nations, particularly concerning military cooperation, historical events or trade among those nations. Personal attacks on American, Japanese and South Korean leaders are not unknown.
  • Airing the official DPRK position on ongoing disputes with Japan over such matters as Chongryon[28] and comfort women.[29]
  • Noting the celebration of DPRK events and ideas in other countries.[30]
  • Calling for the reunification of Korea under the Juche idea.[31][32]
  • Promoting the personality cults of Kim Jong-un, Kim Jong-il and Kim Il-sung.[11][33][34] Such instances would detail the daily routines of the leaders,[35] or praise from friendly organisations in other countries.[32][36][37]
  • Communications, visits and gifts (it does not name the particular gift) to and from various like-minded or friendly nations.[38][39][40] Regarding the number of gifts, KCNA claimed that former leader Kim Il-sung receives "2,910 a year, 243 a month and 8 a day."[41]
  • New technological developments, such as a preservation agent for the Kimjongilia flower,[42] a new kind of pesticide[43] and blood purifying rings and bracelets,[44] amongst others.
  • Emphasizing the names of Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-il, and Kim Jong-un by enlarging their names on the text.[45]
  • References to institutes, groups or centres "for the study of the Juche idea". For example, a KCNA report from June 12, 2011 claimed that "The Brazilian Center for the Study of the Juche Idea was inaugurated with due ceremony at Sao Paulo University on June 4".[46] The article also refers to an unnamed "chairman" (who presumably presided over the ceremony), but this supposed event was not reported by a source other than KCNA as of the date of the article (eight days after the ceremony was alleged to have occurred).

Editorial practices

KCNA employs negative language, such as "traitors", "warmongers" or "human scum", for governments (especially South Korea and the United States), organisations or individuals, who are critical of the North Korean government.[47] In contrast, Kim Jong-un, Kim Jong-il and Kim Il-sung are attributed with positive characteristics such as "outstanding wisdom", "unique abilities" or "noble virtue".[48]

New Year editorials

As a tradition since 1996, KCNA, along with the three main state run newspapers in North Korea, publishes a joint New Year editorial that outlines the country's policies for the year. The editorials usually offer praise for the Songun policy, the government and leadership, and encourage the growth of the nation. They are also critical of the policies of South Korea, Japan, the United States and Western governments towards the country.[49][50] On January 1, 2006 the agency sent out a joint-editorial from North Korea's state newspapers calling for the withdrawal of American troops from South Korea.[51] While annual January 1 editorials are a tradition among the papers, that year's brought attention from Western media outlets, by calling for a "nationwide campaign for driving out the U.S. troops".[52] The editorial made several references to Korean reunification. The 2009 editorial received similar attention, as criticism of United States policy was absent, and the admission of severe economic problems in the country. The editorial also made reference to denuclearisation on the Korean peninsula, in what analysts claimed was a "hopeful" sign.[53][54] This was echoed again in its 2010 editorial, which called for an end to hostilities with the United States and a nuclear free Korean Peninsula.[55]

The 2011 joint editorial edition, aside from its calls for a denuclearized Korea and for a slowdown of tensions between the two Koreas, has for the first time, mentioned the rising light industries of the DPRK, given as a reason for an upcoming upsurge in the national economy in the new year and for the achievement of the Kangsong Taeguk national mission.

The 2012 joint editorial edition, the first under Kim Jong-un's leadership, started with a great tribute to Kim Jong-il and aside from recurring calls for improving inter-Korean relations and for the fulfillment of the October 4 Declaration of 2007, also called on the whole nation to give priority to do Kim Jong-il's 2012 mission of Strong and Prosperous Nation, continue his and his father Kim Il-sung's legacies to the entire country and the socialist cause, and to build up and encourage the various sectors that compose the nation to become contributors to national progress in all areas at all costs.

This practice ended in 2013 when Kim Jong-un delivered the first New Year speech on television in 19 years.

Censorship

Following the purge and execution of Jang Song-thaek, KCNA conducted its largest censorship operation on its webpage. Some 35,000 articles of Korean-language original reporting were deleted. Counting translations, a total of 100,000 articles were removed. Additionally, some articles were edited to omit Jang's name.[56] Not all of the deleted articles mentioned Jang directly.[57]

See also

References

  1. ^ Shrivastava, K. M. (2007). News Agencies from Pigeon to Internet. Elgin: New Dawn Press Group. p. 211. ISBN 978-1-932705-67-6.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Hoare, James E. (2012). "Korean Central News Agency (KCNA)". Historical Dictionary of Democratic People's Republic of Korea. London: Scarecrow Press. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-8108-7987-4.
  3. ^ a b Pares 2005.
  4. ^ "KWP Propaganda and Agitation Department" (PDF). North Korea Leadership Watch. November 2009. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  5. ^ "KCNA significantly increasing output". North Korea Tech. March 4, 2011.
  6. ^ Christian Oliver (April 1, 2010). "Sinking underlines South Korean view of state as monster". London: Financial Times. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
  7. ^ North Korea Newsletter No. 56 (May 28, 2009) Archived September 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Yonhap. May 28, 2009.
  8. ^ Henderson, Robert (2003). Brassey's International Intelligence Yearbook: 2003 Edition. Brassey's. p. 292. ISBN 978-1-57488-550-7.
  9. ^ a b Pares 2005, p. 188.
  10. ^ About Us Archived March 31, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Yonhap.
  11. ^ a b "Koreascope Mass Media". Archived from the original on April 12, 2009.
  12. ^ Attacks on the Press - 2003 Archived April 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Committee to Protect Journalists. March 11, 2004.
  13. ^ Quick, A. C. (2003). World Press Encyclopedia: A Survey of Press Systems Worldwide. (2nd eds.) Gale. ISBN 978-0-7876-5584-6.
  14. ^ Lee, H. (2001). North Korea: A Strange Socialist Fortress. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 67. ISBN 978-0-275-96917-2)
  15. ^ Bennett, G. & Dresner, D. (1999). Directory of Web Sites. Taylor & Francis. pp.580. ISBN 978-1-57958-179-4.
  16. ^ North Korea Hunger Archived April 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Reuters. July 10, 2008.
  17. ^ A Talk to the Officials of the Korean Central News Agency June 12, 1964 Archived March 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. KFA.
  18. ^ Daily News about North Korea Archived April 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. The Chosun Ilbo. July 15, 2005.
  19. ^ Shortages of food in the DPRK. KCNA. September 25, 2000.
  20. ^ Is North Korea facing famine? Archived March 21, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, June 25, 2008.
  21. ^ Reeling, hungry, N Korea heads to nuke talks. Asia Times Online. May 7, 2004.
  22. ^ KCNA Report on Explosion at Ryongchon Railway Station Archived April 30, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, April 24, 2004.
  23. ^ "Civil servants play basketball tournament". The Pyongyang Times. KCNA. 2017-01-26. Retrieved 2017-05-16.
  24. ^ Cleve R. Wootson Jr. (December 11, 2017). "Can Kim Jong Un control the weather? North Korea's state-run media says so". Washington Post.
  25. ^ U.S. Scenario for Preemptive Nuclear Attack on DPRK Blasted Archived February 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, December 11, 2005.
  26. ^ KCNA Blasts Fukuda Regime's Suppression of Chongryon Archived April 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, March 18, 2008.
  27. ^ KCNA Blasts Lee Myung Bak Group's Anachronistic Confrontational Policy Archived April 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, January 8, 2009.
  28. ^ Chongryon on preserving national character Archived April 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, May 21, 2002.
  29. ^ Japanese Reactionaries' Moves to Cover up "Comfort Women" Issue under Fire Archived April 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, November 6, 2006.
  30. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 11, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-04.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  31. ^ All Koreans Urged to Remain True to Idea of "By Our Nation Itself" Archived April 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, January 9, 2009.
  32. ^ a b DPRK's Important Days Marked in Foreign Countries Archived April 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, March 18, 2008.
  33. ^ Reporters without Borders 2005 report Archived April 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ Meagre media for North Koreans Archived January 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. October 10, 2006.
  35. ^ Kim Jong Il Inspects KPA Unit Archived May 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, August 2, 2007.
  36. ^ Kim Jong Il's Leadership Praised in Peru and India Archived April 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, June 30, 2005.
  37. ^ Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il Lauded Archived April 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, January 8, 2009.
  38. ^ Floral Basket and Congratulatory Letter to Kim Jong Il from Cambodia Archived April 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, January 9, 2009.
  39. ^ Reception for FM of Myanmar and His Party Archived April 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, October 29, 2008.
  40. ^ Chinese Art Troupe Gives Performances Archived April 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, October 29, 2008.
  41. ^ Many gifts to Kim Il Sung Archived April 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, April 8, 2003.
  42. ^ "Agent for Preserving Kimjongilia Developed" Archived April 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, October 21, 2008.
  43. ^ New Kind of Pesticide Developed Archived April 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, July 3, 2006.
  44. ^ Blood-Purifying Finger Ring Archived April 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, May 18, 2005.
  45. ^ http://www.kcna.co.jp/item/2015/201505/news20/20150520-19ee.html
  46. ^ Brazilian Center for Study of Juche Idea Formed Archived May 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, June 12, 2011.
  47. ^ "KCNA Commentary Blasts S. Korean Mandarin's Hysteric Remarks". KCNA, January 30, 2013. Archived from the original on May 24, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
  48. ^ "Kim Jong Un Elected First Chairman of NDC of DPRK". KCNA,April 13, 2012. Archived from the original on May 10, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
  49. ^ North Korea issues New Year denuclearization pledge Archived April 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Reuters. December 31, 2008.
  50. ^ N. Korea Vows to Rebuild Economy in New Year Message Archived June 9, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, the Korea Times, January 1, 2009.
  51. ^ "Joint New Year Editorial Issued" Archived May 24, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, January 1, 2006.
  52. ^ "North Korea Demands U.S. Troop Withdrawal" Archived March 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. .Fox News. December 31, 2005.
  53. ^ 2009 Joint New Year Editorial Issued Archived March 25, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, KCNA, January 1, 2009.
  54. ^ North Korea message is mild on US Archived February 17, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. January 1, 2009.
  55. ^ Kim, Sam (January 1, 2010). N. Korea calls for end to enmity with U.S., hints at return to nuclear talks Archived February 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Yonhap.
  56. ^ Florcruz, Michelle (December 16, 2013). "Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) Deletes Online Archive Of News After Execution Of Jang Song Thaek". International Business Times. Archived from the original on September 7, 2017. Retrieved July 23, 2017.
  57. ^ Weiser, Martin (October 31, 2016). "On Reading North Korean Media: The Curse of the Web". Sino-NK. Archived from the original on September 7, 2017. Retrieved July 23, 2017.

Works cited

  • Pares, S (2005). A Political and Economic Dictionary of East Asia: An essential Guide To The Politics and Economics of East Asia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85743-258-9.

External links

2019 North Korean parliamentary election

The election of deputies to the 14th Supreme People's Assemblyf was held in North Korea on 10 March 2019. According to outside observers, the proceedings are a show election. It is also argued that the legislature wields no influence on the state-policies and serves as a rubber-stamp to decisions taken by the party machinery.Voting is mandatory and choice of candidates is not offered. The voters are given a ballot paper with a single name and they are expected to drop it in the ballot box. Although voters are able to signify dissent by crossing the name off, or by not voting at all, analysts argue that such actions would be considered as an act of treason and incur the wrath of the secret police.

Alberto Anaya

Alberto Anaya Gutiérrez (born Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, 15 November 1946) is a Mexican politician and senator. He is the founder of the Labor Party.

He has been a federal deputy, senator and coordinator of its parliamentary group.

He studied economics at the UNAM.

In 1990, he founded the PT with several work unions, some left student organizations and some neighborhood organizations, the PRI even accused the party to have influence of Raúl Salinas, brother of former PRI President Carlos Salinas de Gortari. The PT enjoys support in the northern home state of Anaya, Nuevo León, Veracruz, Mexico city and other parts of Mexico. Anaya has both a democratic and socialist background; he led a social movement called "Tierra y Libertad" in the 1980s. Governor Alfonso Martinez Dominguez, considered a hardline PRI "dinosaur" (powerful extreme right wing) jailed Anaya during his 6-year mandate in Nuevo León in the 1980s.

In the 2006 Mexican election, he supported the Alliance for the Good of All, and in the 2006 Mexican election, he is a leader of the Together We Will Make History coalition.

Upon his release, he began his drive to form his political party, after having been closely linked to other democratic and socialist parties, some civilian organizations. In 2008 and 2009 he worked closely with former PRD presidential candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador, fighting the oil privatization in México. The PT is member of FAP (Frente Amplio Progresista - Wide Progressive Coalition).

The PT publishes several magazines, among them: Unidad Nacional and a magazine for analysis and social research: Poder Popular.On 29 March 2009, the North Korean government's Korean Central News Agency reported Alberto Anaya's declaration of support for the North Korean regime. On 12 September 2017, nine days after North Korea tested its first Hydrogen bomb the North Korean government's Korean Central News Agency reported Alberto Anaya had sent greetings to Kim Jong Un claiming "The Korean people's heroic struggle for the country's sovereignty and the dignity of the nation and peace of the Korean Peninsula and the rest of the world serves as a model of all the revolutionaries and the progressive peoples struggling for global independence."

Battle of Daecheong

The Battle of Daecheong was a skirmish between the South Korean and North Korean navies near the Northern Limit Line (NLL) on 10 November 2009 off Daecheong Island. A patrol boat from the northern Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) was seriously damaged while the navy of the southern Republic of Korea (ROK) sustained no casualties.

Censorship in North Korea

Censorship in North Korea ranks among some of the most extreme in the world, with the government able to take strict control over communications. North Korea is ranked at the bottom of Reporters Without Borders' annual Press Freedom Index, occupying the last place in 2017.

All media outlets are owned and controlled by the North Korean government. As such, all media in North Korea get their news from the Korean Central News Agency. The media dedicate a large portion of their resources toward political propaganda and promoting the personality cult of Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-il and Kim Jong-un. The government of Kim Jong-un still has absolute authority over and control of the press and information.

Central News Agency

Central News Agency may refer to:

Central News Agency (London), a news agency active in Victorian London

Central News Agency (Taiwan), the state news agency of Taiwan

CNA (bookstore), a South African book store chain associated with the Central News Agency Literary Award

Korean Central News Agency, the state news agency of North Korea

Chondoist Chongu Party

The Chondoist Chongu Party is a popular front party in North Korea. The party was founded on 8 February 1946 by a group of followers of the Ch'ŏndogyo. The founding-leader of the party was Kim Tarhyon.

The party is headquartered in the capital Pyongyang.

Iran–North Korea relations

Iran–North Korea relations (Korean: 이란-조선민주주의인민공화국 관계; Persian: روابط ایران و کره‌ی شمالی‎) are described as being positive by official news agencies of the two countries. Diplomatic relations improved following the Iranian Revolution in 1979 and the establishment of an Islamic Republic. Iran and North Korea pledge cooperation in educational, scientific, and cultural spheres. Some media reports claim this cooperation extends to nuclear cooperation, though official U.S. government publications and academic studies have disputed this. The United States has been greatly concerned by North Korea's arms deals with Iran, which started during the 1980s with North Korea acting as a third party in arms deals between the Communist bloc and Iran, as well as selling domestically produced weapons to Iran, and North Korea continues selling missile to Iran. North Korea and Iran are the remaining two members of George W. Bush's "Axis of evil", which has led to many of the concerns regarding Iran–North Korea relations.

The Iranian–North Korean partnership did undergo occasional tension, however. Despite the two countries' shared antagonism to U.S. foreign policies, the specific national interests of the DPRK and the Islamic Republic of Iran were often considerably different from each other. For instance, North Korea, though it provided Iran with military assistance during the Iran–Iraq War (an act that induced Baghdad to break diplomatic relations with Pyongyang), made repeated attempts to normalize its relations with the Iraqi government. In 1982, the North Korean authorities secretly invited an Iraqi delegation to Pyongyang, but the Iraqi government sent only an unofficial representative. The talks failed, but the attempt revealed that North Korea was not ideologically committed to Iran’s crusade against Saddam Hussein. The Iranian leaders decided to maintain diplomatic relations with both North and South Korea. During the recent inter-Korean security crises (like the ROKS Cheonan sinking and the Bombardment of Yeonpyeong), Iranian news agencies usually quoted the statements of the Korean Central News Agency in parallel with the statements made by Western and South Korean politicians, without showing any detectable preference for either side. Nor were the two states in full concord in adopting a position toward the various manifestations of international terrorism. On the one hand, both Iran and the DPRK provided military assistance to Hezbollah in Lebanon, and they actively sided with the regime of Bashar al-Assad against the Syrian wing of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant during the Syrian Civil War. North Korea and Iran held substantially different views about the conflicts in which the Taliban, the Boko Haram, and the Iraqi wing of ISIL were involved. While the DPRK stressed that U.S. efforts to suppress these organizations constituted interference in the internal affairs of Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Iraq, the Iranian leaders, who regarded Sunni Salafi extremism as a direct threat to their own interests, repeatedly accused America of not striving hard enough to eliminate these groups or even seeking to reach an agreement with them.The United States of America designates both nations as State Sponsors of Terrorism, and they reciprocate this shared enmity.

Kiringul

Kiringul (Korean: 기린굴; "Kirin's Grotto") is a cave in North Korea said to have been the home of the kirin, a mythological chimeric beast that was reputedly ridden by King Dongmyeong of Goguryeo in the 1st century BC. In November 2012 the state-owned Korean Central News Agency reported that the site had been discovered in Moran Hill near the North Korean capital, Pyongyang. The North Korean government claims that the discovery proves that Pyongyang is the historic capital of Korea. Analysts outside North Korea have put the announcement in the context of long-running North Korean attempts to link the country's regime with the ancient Korean kings, and so position it as the legitimate heir to the legacy of Goguryeo.

Korea Central Zoo

The Korea Central Zoo, also referred to as the Pyongyang Central Zoo, is the national zoo of North Korea. It is located near Mt. Taesong in downtown Pyongyang. The zoo has over 5,000 wild animals, comprising a total of 650 species, and covers an area of roughly one square kilometre. It was established in April 1959 at the instruction of Kim Il-sung.

Magicians Association of Korea

The Magicians Association of Korea (variously also translated as the DPRK Magicians Association or the Korea Magic Association of DPRK) is the national magicians' association of North Korea.

Media of North Korea

The media of North Korea is amongst the most strictly controlled in the world. The constitution nominally provides for freedom of speech and the press. However, the government prohibits the exercise of these rights in practice, unless it is in praise of the country and its government and leader. The government not only tightly controls all information coming in and out of the country, but seeks to mold information at its source. A typical example of this was the death of Kim Jong-il, news of which was not divulged until two days after it occurred. Kim Jong-un, who replaced his father as leader, has given every indication he will largely follow in his father's footsteps. However, new technologies are being made more freely available in the country. State-run media outlets are setting up websites, while mobile phone ownership in the country has escalated rapidly. “There is no country which monopolizes and controls successfully the internet and information as North Korea does,” said Kang Shin-sam, an expert on North Korean technology and co-head of the International Solidarity for Freedom of Information in North Korea, a nonprofit based in South Korea. North Korea now has about four million mobile-phone subscribers—roughly one-sixth of the population and four times the number in 2012, according to an estimate by Kim Yon-ho, a senior researcher at Johns Hopkins University’s School of Advanced International Studies. North Korea.Reporters Without Borders has consistently ranked North Korea at or near the bottom of its yearly Press Freedom Index since it was first issued in 2002. In its 2013–14 report, RWB classified North Korea's media environment as 178th out of 179 countries in the rankings, only above that of Eritrea.The state news agency, the Korean Central News Agency, provides the only source of information for all media outlets in North Korea.

NK News

NK News is an American subscription-based website that provides news and analysis about North Korea. Established in 2011, it is headquartered in Seoul, South Korea with reporters in Washington, DC and London. Reporting is based on information collected from in-country sources, recently returned western visitors to North Korea, stories filed by the Korean Central News Agency (KCNA), interviews with defectors, and reports published by NGOs and western governments. The site's founder and Managing Director is Chad O'Carroll, who has written on North Korea and North Korea issues for The Telegraph.

Naenara

Naenara (Chosŏn'gŭl: 내나라; lit. my nation) is the official web portal of the North Korean government. The portal's categories include politics, tourism, music, foreign trade, arts, press, information technology, history, and "Korea is One".The website carries publications such as The Pyongyang Times, The Democratic People's Republic of Korea magazine, Korea Today magazine and Foreign Trade magazine along with Korean Central News Agency news.South Korean users' access to the site has been blocked by South Korean authorities since 2011 and as of 17 July 2014 the website remained blocked.

National Reunification Prize

The National Reunification Prize (Korean: 조국통일상) is an award of North Korea, bestowed by the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly upon people who have contributed to the reunification of Korea. The award was instituted in 1990.

Northern Limit Line

The Northern Limit Line or North Limit Line (NLL) – 북방한계선 (in ROK) – is a disputed maritime demarcation line in the Yellow (West) Sea between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) on the north, and the Republic of Korea (ROK) on the south. This line of military control acts as the de facto maritime boundary between North and South Korea.

Okryu-gwan

Okryu-gwan or Okryu Restaurant is a restaurant in Pyongyang, North Korea, founded in 1960. North Korea analyst Andrei Lankov describes it as one of two restaurants, the other being Ch'ongryugwan, which have "defined the culinary life of Pyongyang" since the 1980s, and a "living museum of culinary art".

Rodong Sinmun

Rodong Sinmun (IPA: [ɾo.doŋ ɕin.mun]; Chosŏn'gŭl: 로동신문; lit. Workers' Newspaper) is a North Korean newspaper that is the official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea. It was first published on November 1, 1945, as Chǒngro (Chosŏn'gŭl: 정로; Hancha: 正路; "right path"), serving as a communication channel for the North Korea Bureau of the Communist Party of Korea. It was renamed in September 1946 to its current name upon the steady development of the Workers' Party of Korea. Quoted frequently by the Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) and international media, it is regarded as a source of official North Korean viewpoints on many issues.

The English-language version of Rodong Sinmun was launched in January 2012.The editor-in-chief is Kim Pyong-ho.

Unconverted long-term prisoners

Unconverted long-term prisoners is the North Korean term for northern loyalists imprisoned in South Korea who never renounced Juche. The North Korean government considers them to be "pro-reunification patriotic fighters", while South Korean scholars have described them as "pro-communist spies".

Youth Hero Motorway

The Youth Hero Motorway (Hangul: 청년영웅도로; Hanja: 青年英雄道路), also known as the Pyongyang–Nampo Motorway, is a 46.3-kilometre-long expressway (28.8 mi) in North Korea that connects the cities of Pyongyang, the capital of the country, and Nampo, a city on the coast of Korea Bay in South Pyongan Province. Construction began in November 1998, and the expressway opened in October 2000. It is classified as a level 1 roadway.According to the Korean Central News Agency, the motorway is so named for the youth that built the road. The project involved carrying 14 million cubic metres of earth and included over 80 irrigation structures, 50 bridges, and over 3 million cubic metres of asphalt.In the event of an armed conflict, the highway serves a defense purpose, allowing troops from the 107th and 108th Tank Divisions of the Korean People's Army to block highway access to Pyongyang.

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