Buddhist temples are an important part of the Korean landscape. This article gives a brief overview of Korean Buddhism, then describes some of the more important temples in Korea. Most Korean temples have names ending in -sa (사, 寺), which means "temple" in Sino-Korean.
A distinctive form of Buddhism evolved in Korea. This was facilitated by the geographical location and cultural conditions. Buddhism first arrived in Korea in 372 in Goguryeo. In 374 the influential Han Chinese monk Ado arrived in the kingdom and inspired King Sosurim of Goguryeo the following year. The first two temples Seongmunsa and Ilbullansa were built in 375 on the order of the king. Buddhism soon became the national religion of Goguryeo.
With the advent of Taoism in 624 the rulers began to suppress Buddhism and its importance quickly declined. The Baekje Kingdom, on the other hand, flourished under the influence of Buddhism. In 552 Buddhist scriptures were sent to Japan. This eventually led to the establishment of Buddhism in Japan.
In Silla, Buddhism was important, too. It flourished during the reign of Jinheung of Silla (540 to 576). Heungnyunsa was built, where any commoner could become a monk. The study of scriptures was greatly highlighted. For about 250 years Buddhism thrived in Later Silla.
Buddhism was admired by Wang Geon, who was enthroned as Taejo of Goryeo. Throughout the country pagodas and other Buddhist structures were built.
In late Goryeo, Buddhism became linked with corruption of the regime. A great number of monks were involved in politics. Bit by bit anti-Buddhist sentiments grew, leading to chaos which was ended by the establishment of Joseon. Taejo of Joseon himself was a devout Buddhist, but the influence of monks was reduced. At times monks were treated as outcasts, but generally there was no hindrance to their practising. Buddhist heritage can be found all over the country in the form of temples, pagodas, sculptures, paintings, handicrafts and buildings.
A typical Korean temple consists of the following elements:
It is reported that many temples have been taken over by the state. Once the government controls these buildings, they are used mainly as museums of ancient Korean traditions. A few temples are still in use and they are considered National Treasures. Though few temples in large cities survived the US carpet bombings of the Korean War, many still survive in rural areas, and some of the more famous, large temples destroyed have since been rebuilt (such as the Ryongtongsa and Singyesa). All in all, there are 300 temples, but only in a few are religious services permitted. In the list  that follows, temples marked with a "×" were destroyed during the Korean War or no longer exist for other reasons; temples marked with an "*" have been rebuilt.
(a short text should be given here, describing the evolution of the temples from 1945 till now).
The following list is given by provinces (SK=South Korea, NK=North Korea), but it also can be sorted by Romanized or Korean names. Some Korean names, and founding dates are to be completed (the founding date applies to the location, even if none of the original structures survive). Recommended policy: no new entries, except from temples having their own English page in Wikipedia.
|SK Seoul||Gyeongguksa||753 Jeongneung-dong, Jongno-gu||경국사||慶國寺||1325|
|SK Seoul||Doseonsa||Bukhansan : 264 Ui-dong, Gangbuk-gu||도선사||道詵寺||862|
|SK Seoul||Bongeunsa||Samseong-dong, Gangnam-gu||봉은사||奉恩寺||794|
|SK Seoul||Bongwonsa||Bongwon-dong, Seodaemun-gu||봉원사||奉元寺||889|
|SK Seoul||Jogyesa||Gyeonji-dong, Jongno-gu||조계사||曹溪寺||1395 & 1910|
|SK Gyeonggi||Yongjusa||Hwasan, Taean-eup, Hwaseong, Gyeonggi-si||용주사||龍珠寺||854|
|SK Gangwon||Baekdamsa||near Seoraksan, Inje-gun||백담사||百潭寺||650 circa|
|SK Gangwon||SK Guryongsa|
|SK Gangwon||Sinheungsa||Seoraksan, Sokcho-si||신흥사(향성사)||神興寺(香城寺)||650 circa|
|SK Gangwon||Woljeongsa||Odaesan, Pyeongchang-gun||월정사||月精寺||643|
|SK North Chungcheong||Beopjusa||Songnisan, Naesongni-myeon, Boeun-gun||법주사||法住寺||553|
|SK North Chungcheong||Guinsa||Sobaeksan, Danyang County-gun||구인사||救仁寺||1945|
|SK South Chungcheong||Magoksa||Gongju-si||마곡사||麻谷寺||640|
|SK South Chungcheong||Sudeoksa||Deoksungsan, Deoksan-myeon, Yesan-gun||수덕사||修德寺||1308|
|SK North Gyeongsang||Donghwasa||Palgongsan, Dohak-dong, Dong-gu, Daegu||동화사||桐華寺||493 and 832|
|SK North Gyeongsang||Pagyesa||파계사||把溪寺|
|SK North Gyeongsang||Bogyeongsa|
|SK North Gyeongsang||Bongjeongsa||Cheondeungsan, Andong-si||봉정사||鳳停寺||672|
|SK North Gyeongsang||Buseoksa||Bonghwangsan, Yeongju-si||부석사||浮石寺||676|
|SK North Gyeongsang||Bulguksa (including Seokguram)||Tohamsan, Jinheon-dong, Gyeongju City||불국사||佛國寺||528 and 751|
|SK North Gyeongsang||Golgulsa||Yangbuk-Myeon, Gyeongju||골굴사||骨窟寺||*|
|SK North Gyeongsang||Girimsa||Hamwolsan, Gyeongju||기림사||祇林寺||643|
|SK North Gyeongsang||Baekryulsa in Gyeongju||Geumgangsan, Dongcheon-dong, Gyeongju City||백률사||栢栗寺||692|
|SK North Gyeongsang||Hwangnyongsa||Tohamsan, Gyeongju National Park||황룡사||皇龍寺||553|
|SK North Gyeongsang||Jikjisa||Hwangaksan, Daehang-myeon, Gimcheon-si,||직지사||直指寺||418|
|SK South Gyeongsang||Ssanggyesa||Jirisan, Hwagae-myeon, Hadong-gun||쌍계사||雙磎寺||772|
|SK South Gyeongsang||Tongdosa||Chiseosan, Yangsan-si||통도사||通度寺||646|
|SK South Gyeongsang||Haeinsa||Gayasan||해인사||海印寺||802|
|SK South Gyeongsang||Haedong Yonggungsa||Busan||해동용궁사||海東龍宮寺|
|SK South Gyeongsang||Beomeosa||Geumjeongsan, Busan||범어사||梵魚寺||678|
|SK North Jeolla||Eunsusa||Maisan (Horse Ear Mountain), Jinan-gun||은수사||銀水寺|
|SK North Jeolla||Geumdangsa||Maisan (Horse Ear Mountain), Jinan-gun||금당사||金塘寺||814|
|SK North Jeolla||Geumsansa||Moaksan, Gimje-si||금산사||金山寺||600 and 770|
|SK North Jeolla||Mireuksa||Iksan-si||미륵사||彌勒寺||602|
|SK North Jeolla||Naesosa||Jinseo-myeon, Buan-gun||내소사||633|
|SK North Jeolla||Seonunsa||Dosolsan, Asan-myeon, Gochang-gun||선운사||禪雲寺||577 |
|SK North Jeolla||Silsangsa||실상사||實相寺|
|SK North Jeolla||Tapsa||Jinan-gun||탑사||塔寺||1885|
|SK South Jeolla||Baegyangsa||Bukha-myeon, Jangseong-gun||백양사||白羊寺||632|
|SK South Jeolla||Baengnyeonsa||Doam-myeon, Gangjin-gun||백련사||白蓮寺||650 circa|
|SK South Jeolla||Daeheungsa||Duryunsan, Samsan city, Haenam-gun||대흥사||大興寺||514 ?|
|SK South Jeolla||Geumtapsa||Cheondeungsan, Podu-myeon, Goheung-gun||금탑사||金塔寺||650 circa|
|SK South Jeolla||Hwaeomsa||Jirisan, Masan-myeon, Gurye-gun||화엄사||華嚴寺||544|
|SK South Jeolla||Jeungsimsa||Mudeungsan, Gwangju||증심사||証心寺|
|SK South Jeolla||Mihwangsa||Dalmasan, Haenam-gun||미황사||美黃寺||749|
|SK South Jeolla||Songgwangsa||Songgwangsan,||송광사||松廣寺||867 and 1190|
|SK South Jeolla||Unjusa (National Treasure #312)||Hwasun-gun||운주사||雲住寺|
|SK Jeju Island||Gwaneumsa|
|SK Jeju Island||Yakcheonsa||약천사||藥泉寺|
|SK Jeju Island||Beophwasa|
|SK Jeju Island||Seondeoksa|
|NK Pyongyang||Chongrungsa*||Ryongsan-ri, Ryokpo-guyok||정릉사||定陵寺|
|NK Pyongyang||Kwangbopsa*||Taesong-dong, Taesong-guyok||광법사||廣法寺|
|NK Pyongyang||Ryonghwasa||Kaeson-dong, Moranbong-guyok||룡화사||龍華寺|
|NK Pyongyang||Tong-kumgangamsa||Osan-ri, Sunan-guyok||동금강암사||東金剛庵寺)|
|NK Pyongyang||Yongmyongsa×||NK Moranbong Park, Moranbong-guyok||영명사||永明寺||*|
|NK Pyongyang||Pobun Hermitage||Ryongbong-ri, Mangyongdae-guyok||법운암||法雲庵|
|NK South Pyongan||Anguksa||Ponghak-dong, Pyongsong||안국사||安國寺||503|
|NK South Pyongan||Chongjinsa||Hyangpung-ri, Songchon-gun||정진사||淨進寺|
|NK South Pyongan||Pophungsa||Sinsong-ri, Pyongwon-gun||법흥사||法興寺|
|NK North Pyongan||Chonjusa||Yongbyon||천주사||天柱寺||1684|
|NK North Pyongan||Kaewonsa||Tangsang-ri, Kwaksan-gun||개원사||開元寺|
|NK North Pyongan||Kumgwangsa||Kumgwang-ri, Uiju-gun||금광사||金光寺|
|NK North Pyongan||Mannyonsa||Songan-dong, Kusong||만년사||萬年寺|
|NK North Pyongan||Pohyonsa||Hyangam-ri, Hyangsan-gun||보현사||普賢寺||1025 circa|
|NK North Pyongan||Powolsa||Uhyon-ri, Kujang-gun||보월사||寶月寺|
|NK North Pyongan||Pakchon Simwonsa||Sangyang-ri, Pakchon-gun||심원사||深源寺|
|NK North Pyongan||Ryongmunsa||Ryongdung Worker's District, Kujang-gun||룡문사||龍門寺|
|NK North Pyongan||Sounsa||Yongbyon||서운사||棲雲寺|
|NK North Pyongan||Yanghwasa||Sangdan-ri, Taechon-gun||양화사||陽和寺|
|NK North Pyongan||Habiro Hermitage||Hyangam-ri, Hyangsan-gun||하비로암||下毘盧庵|
|NK North Pyongan||Hwajang Hermitage||Hyangam-ri, Hyangsan-gun||화장암||華藏庵|
|NK North Pyongan||Kyejo Hermitage||Hyangam-ri, Hyangsan-gun||계조암||繼祖庵|
|NK North Pyongan||Mansu Hermitage||Hyangam-ri, Hyangsan-gun||만수암||萬壽庵|
|NK North Pyongan||Nungin Hermitage||Hyangam-ri, Hyangsan-gun||능인암||能仁唵|
|NK North Pyongan||Puryong Hermitage||Hyangam-ri, Hyangsan-gun||불영대||佛影臺|
|NK North Pyongan||Sangwon Hermitage||Hyangam-ri, Hyangsan-gun||상원암||上元庵|
|NK South Hwanghae||Chahyesa||Sowon-ri, Sinchon-gun||자혜사||慈惠寺|
|NK South Hwanghae||Hakrimsa×||Hakrim-ri, Changyon-gun||학림사||鶴林寺|
|NK South Hwanghae||Kangsosa||Kangho-ri, Paechon-gun||강서사||江西寺|
|NK South Hwanghae||Paeyopsa×||Paeyop-ri, Anak-gun||패엽사||貝葉寺|
|NK South Hwanghae||Singwangsa×||Singwang-ri, Haeju||신광사||神光寺|
|NK South Hwanghae||Woljongsa||Woljong-ri, Anak-gun||월정사||月精寺|
|NK South Hwanghae||Hanging Hermitage (Changsusan)||Sorim-ri, Chaeryong-gun||현암||縣庵|
|NK South Hwanghae||Songwol Hermitage||Hakrim-ri, Changyon-gun||송월암||松月庵|
|NK North Hwanghae||Anhwasa||Koryo-dong, Kaesong||안화사||安和寺||930|
|NK North Hwanghae||Hungwangsa×||Sambong-ri, Kaepung-gun||흥왕사||興王寺|
|NK North Hwanghae||Kwanumsa||Pakyon-ri, Kaesong||관음사||觀音寺||970 and 1393|
|NK North Hwanghae||Kwijinsa||Songwol-ri, Sohung-gun||귀진사||歸眞寺|
|NK North Hwanghae||Pulilsa×||Sonjok-ri, Changpung-gun||관음사||佛日寺|
|NK North Hwanghae||Ryongtongsa*||Ryonghung-dong, Kaesong||령통사||靈通寺||1027|
|NK North Hwanghae||Yontan Simwonsa||Yontan||심원사||心源寺||*|
|NK North Hwanghae||Songbulsa||Jongbang-ri, Sariwon||성불사||成佛寺||898|
|NK North Hwanghae||Taehungsa||Pakyon-ri, Kaesong||대흥사||大興寺|
|NK Kangwon||Changansa×||Naegang-ri, Kumgang-gun||장안사||長安寺|
|NK Kangwon||Chongyangsa||Naegang-ri, Kumgang-gun||정양사||正陽寺|
|NK Kangwon||Anbyon Pohyonsa||Ryongsin-ri, Anbyon-gun||보현사||普賢寺|
|NK Kangwon||Myongjoksa||Yongsam-ri, Wonsan||명적사||明寂寺|
|NK Kangwon||Pyohunsa||Naegang-ri, Kumgang-gun||표훈사||表訓寺||670|
|NK Kangwon||Ryongchusa||Mihyon-ri, Anbyon-gun||령추사||靈鷲寺|
|NK Kangwon||Singyesa*||Onjong-ri, Kosong-gun||신계사||神溪寺||519|
|NK Kangwon||Sogwangsa×||Solbong-ri, Kosan-gun||석왕사||釋王寺||1386|
|NK Kangwon||Yujomsa×||Naegang-ri, Kumgang-gun||유점사||楡岾寺||550 circa and 1168|
|NK Kangwon||Mahayon Hermitage×||Naegang-ri, Kumgang-gun||마하연||摩訶衍|
|NK Kangwon||Podok Hermitage||Naegang-ri, Kumgang-gun||보덕암||普德庵|
|NK Kangwon||Pomun Hermitage||Solbong-ri, Kosan-gun||보덕암||普德庵|
|NK Kangwon||Pulji Hermitage||Naegang-ri, Kumgang-gun||불지암||佛地庵|
|NK South Hamgyong||Anbulsa||Tonghung-ri, Kumya-gun||안불사||安佛寺|
|NK South Hamgyong||Chonggwangsa×||Wonsa-ri, Riwon-gun||정광사||定光寺|
|NK South Hamgyong||Kwangjesa||Chuksang-ri, Pukchong-gun||광제사||光濟寺|
|NK South Hamgyong||Kwijusa×||Kumsil-dong, Hamhung||귀주사||歸州寺|
|NK South Hamgyong||Ryangchonsa||Nakchon-ri, Kowon-gun||량천사||梁泉寺|
|NK South Hamgyong||Ryonghungsa||Ponghung-ri, Yonggwang-gun||룡흥사||龍興寺||1048|
|NK South Hamgyong||Tongdoksa||Tuyon-ri, Tanchon-gun||동덕사||東德寺|
|NK South Hamgyong||Hungbok Hermitage||Sudong-ri, Hamhung||흥복암||興復庵|
|NK South Hamgyong||Pulji Hermitage||Ponghung-ri, Yonggwang-gun||불지암||佛地庵|
|NK North Hamgyong||Kaesimsa||Pochon-ri, Myongchon-gun||개심사||開心寺||826 and 1377|
|NK North Hamgyong||Hwasong Ssanggyesa||Puam-ri, Hwasong-gun||쌍계사||雙磎寺|
|NK Chagang||Wŏnmyŏngsa||Ryujung-ri, Huich'ŏn||원명사||圓明寺|
|NK Chagang||Mansu Hermitage||Changp'yong-ri, Huich'ŏn||만수암||萬壽庵|
|NK Ryanggang||Chunghŭngsa||Kwanp'yŏng-ri, Samsu-gun||중흥사||重興寺|
The Abhidharmadīpa or Lamp of Abhidharma is an Abhidharma text thought to have been authored by Vasumitra as a response to Vasubandhu's Abhidharmakośakārikā.
The text consists of verse and prose commentary. It currently survives as an incomplete collection of Sanskrit fragments. However, the text is valuable insofar as it confirms the identity of Vasubandhu as author of the Abhidharmakośakārikā.Buddhism in Venezuela
Buddhism in Venezuela is practiced by over 52,000 people (roughly 0.2% of the population). The Buddhist community is made up mainly of Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans.
Most identify with the Mahayana tradition, reflecting the religious heritage of their emigrant countries.
However, in the mid-1990s Keun-Tshen Goba (né Ezequiel Hernandez Urdaneta), together with Jigme Rinzen, founded a meditation center using the Shambhala Training method.
There are Buddhist centers in Caracas, Maracay, Mérida, Puerto Ordáz, San Felipe, and Valencia.Buddhism in the Czech Republic
With a rough estimate of fifty thousand Buddhists, Buddhism is practiced by around 0.5% of the Czech population. The World Buddhist Directory lists 70 Buddhist places in the Czech Republic.The Vietnamese-speaking communities form the mainstay of the Buddhist population in the Czech Republic. The Vietnamese practice mainly Mahayana Buddhism with some syncretism of ancestor worship, Confucianism and Taoism. They represent roughly from two thirds to three quarters of the Buddhist community alongside being the largest Asian community in the Czech Republic, numbering over 60,000. The remainder consists of a significant number of Czechs who have converted (mainly to Theravada or Vajrayana Buddhism) and the smaller communities of overseas Chinese and Koreans.
Buddhism is found mainly where the Vietnamese-speaking people reside, notably in the cities of Prague and Cheb. Thien An Buddhist Pagoda in the northern province of Varnsdorf was the first Vietnamese style temple to be consecrated in the Czech Republic, in January 2008. The pagoda was completed in September 2007 and now serves as a center of Vietnamese culture and teaching Vietnamese language. There are also ten Korean Buddhist temples in the Czech Republic, with three each in Prague and Brno.The Vajrayana practitioners are mainly centered on the Nyingma and Kagyu schools. The Karma Kagyu tradition has established about 50 centers and meditation groups. The Diamond Way tradition of Vajrayana Buddhism, founded and directed by Ole Nydahl is active in both the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Gwaneumsa
Gwaneumsa or Kwanumsa can refer to various Korean Buddhist temples:
Gwaneumsa (Seoul), in Gwanak-gu, Seoul
Kwanumsa (Kaesong) in KaesŏngHinduism in Korea
Hinduism is a minority religion in Korea. There are 10,414 Indians in South Korea, most of whom are Hindus. Through Buddhism, it has also had an indirect impact on certain aspects of traditional Korean thought. The Four Heavenly Kings that can be seen in Korean Buddhist temples originated from the Lokapālas.Iljumun
Iljumun is the first gate at the entrance to many Korean Buddhist temples. Called the "One-Pillar Gate", because when viewed from the side the gate appears to be supported by a single pillar.
This symbolizes the one true path of enlightenment which supports the world. It is the boundary between the Buddhist temple and a human's worldly life. The gate symbolizes purification and one must leave all of their worldly desires before entering the temple.The oneness is also a metaphor for non-duality (unity) in spirit and heart.An image of an iljumun appears on the obverse of the Korean Service Medal.Koliya
The Koliyas were Kshatriya of the Adicca (Iksvaku) clan of the Solar Dynasty from the Indian subcontinent, during the time of Gautama Buddha.The family members of the two royal families, that is the Koliyas and Sakyas married only among themselves. Both clans were very proud of the purity of their royal blood and had practised this tradition of inter-marriage since ancient times. For example, Suddhodana's paternal aunt was married to the Koliyan ruler Añjana. Their daughters, Mahamaya and Mahapajapati Gotami, were married to Śuddhodana, the chief of the Sakyans. Similarly, Yashodhara, daughter of Suppabuddha, who was Añjana’s son, was married to the Sakyan prince, Gautama Buddha. Thus, the two royal families were related by marriage bonds between maternal and paternal cousins since ancient times. In spite of such close blood-ties, there would be occasional rifts between the two royal families, which sometimes turned into open hostility.Korean wind chime
The Korean Wind Chime (Korean: 풍경, romanized: punggyeong, lit. 'wind bell') is a variety of bell traditionally hung from the exterior corners of Korean Buddhist temples, and functioning as a wind chime. The bell's clapper is often in the shape of a fish, an auspicious sign in Buddhism.An elaborate gilt bronze style of Korean wind chime and dragon's head finial became a type of object in later Silla / early Goryeo art.Kuri (kitchen)
A kuri (庫裏, lit. warehouse behind) or kuin (庫院, lit. warehouse hall) is the kitchen of a Zen monastery, typically located behind the butsuden (or, Buddha Hall). Historically the kuri was a kitchen which prepared meals only for the abbot and his guests, though in modern Japan it now functions as the kitchen and administrative office for the entire monastery.List of Buddhas
This is a list of historical, contemporary, and legendary figures which at least one school of Buddhism considers to be a Buddha and which have an article on Wikipedia:
Amitābha, principal Buddha of Pure Land Buddhism
Nichiren Daishonin, Buddha of the Latter Day of the Law (Nikko Lineage)
Vairocana, embodiment of the Dharmakaya
Yeshe TsogyalList of suttas
Suttas from the Sutta Pitaka of the Pali Canon.
List of Digha Nikaya suttas
List of Majjhima Nikaya suttas
List of Samyutta Nikaya suttas
List of Anguttara Nikaya suttas
List of Khuddaka Nikaya suttasRinpoche
Rinpoche, also spelled Rimboche and Rinboku (Tibetan: རིན་པོ་ཆེ་, Wylie: rin po che, THL: Rinpoché, ZYPY: Rinboqê), is an honorific term used in the Tibetan language. It literally means "precious one", and may be used to refer to a person, place, or thing--like the words "gem" or "jewel" (Sanskrit Ratna).
The word consists of rin(value) and po(nominative suffix) and chen(big).
The word is used in the context of Tibetan Buddhism as a way of showing respect when addressing those recognized as reincarnated, older, respected, notable, learned and/or an accomplished Lamas or teachers of the Dharma. It is also used as an honorific for abbots of monasteries.Seonamsa
Seonam Temple, or Seonamsa, is a Korean Buddhist temple on the eastern slope at the west end of Jogyesan Provincial Park, within the northern Seungjumyeon District of the city of Suncheon, South Jeolla Province, South Korea. It belongs to the Taego Order although the Jogye Order claims possession over it.The name Seonam ("Xian's Precipice", 仙 巖) is derived from the legend that a xian, an immortal, once played the game of Go here.About 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) from the entrance towards the main temple grounds, two rainbow-shaped bridges appear; the second-larger one being Seungseon Bridge. Just beyond Seungseon Bridge is Gangseon Pavilion. Past the pavilion, the small oval-shape pond called Samindang comes into site. Inside the pond is a small islet with an evergreen, creating an attractive setting.
Going further on the Ilju Gate appears, beyond which the various temple buildings emerge. The large timbers of the main temple buildings are impressive, blending elegantly with the surrounding Jogye mountains and harmonizing with the nature surrounding them.
A hiking trail to the left of Seonam Temple leads to Maaeburi, a 17 metres (56 ft)-high sculpture engraved on a rock. Seonamsa is beautiful throughout the year, especially in the spring when all the flowers are in bloom, as well as in the fall with all the autumn colors.With 19 National Cultural Properties in its halls and museum, there are few Korean Buddhist temples with more treasures than Seonamsa.Surisan
Surisan (수리산) is a mountain that forms a boundary between the cities of Anyang and Gunpo in Gyeonggi-do province, Korea. Surisan is 488 metres (1,601 ft) above sea level (a.s.l.). Another name for Surisan is GyeonBulSan.
Several Korean Buddhist temples are located on Surisan mountain and the surrounding area. In spring, the mountain is covered in azaleas in bloom. Surisan was designated a Park of Gyeonggi by Gyeonggi-do province in 2009.Temple Stay
Temple Stay is cultural program in several South Korean Buddhist temples. Temple Stay allows participants to experience the life of Buddhist practitioners and learn the various aspects of Korean Buddhist culture and history through stories told by monks. The temple stay program has been operating since the 2002 World Cup game.Three Jewels Temples
The Three Jewels Temples (삼보사찰| Sambosachal) are the three principal Buddhist temples in Korea, each representing one of the Three Jewels of Buddhism, and all located in South Korea.
Tongdosa in South Gyeongsang Province represents the Buddha; Haeinsa, also in South Gyeongsang Province, represents the dharma or Buddhist teachings; and Songgwangsa in South Jeolla Province represents the sangha or Buddhist community.
In most Korean Buddhist temples, the highest, most important, and often largest building is the Mahavira Hall--the central hall containing statues of the historical Buddha and other important figures. In the Three Jewel Temples, however, the most important buildings are ones that emphasize each temple's particular jewel. Thus, the main hall in Tongdosa opens out onto a stupa which the faithful claim contains relics of the Buddha; Haeinsa has two large buildings holding the Tripitaka Koreana; and Songgwangsa has several prominent buildings dedicated to its monastic community (including the numerous Seon (Zen) Masters the temple has produced).Threefold Training
The Buddha identified the threefold training (sikkhā) as training in:
higher virtue (adhisīla-sikkhā)
higher mind (adhicitta-sikkhā)
higher wisdom (adhipaññā-sikkhā)Upāli
Upāli (Sanskrit उपालि upāli) was a monk, one of the ten chief disciples of the Buddha.
Upāli was originally a barber from a Vaidya caste family in service to the Sakyan princes. When the princes left home to become monks, Upāli also sought ordination.Several variations on the story of Upāli's ordination exist, but all of them emphasize that his status in the Sangha was independent of his caste origin. In the Pali version, the princes voluntarily allow Upāli to ordain before them in order to give him seniority and abandon their own attachment to caste and social status. In some Tibetan versions, Sariputra encourages Upāli to ordain when he hesitates because of his caste origin.In the literature of every Buddhist school, Upāli is depicted as an expert in monastic discipline and the monastic code. At the First Buddhist Council, he was asked to recite the Vinaya and monastic code. He attained the state of arhatship before his death, and is regarded as the 'patron saint' of monks who specialize in the Vinaya.
Topics in Buddhism